Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: Mehrdad Hashemi

60 Response of Yield and Morphological Characteristic of Rice Cultivars to Heat Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: M. T. K. Aghamolki, M. K. Yusop, F. C. Oad, H. Zakikhani, Hawa. Ze Jaafar, S. Kharidah S.M., M. M. Hanafi

Abstract:

The high temperatures during sensitive growth phases are changing rice morphology as well as influencing yield. In the glass house study, the treatments were growing conditions [normal growing (32oC+2) and heat stress (38oC+2) day time and 22oC+2 night time], growth stages (booting, flowering and ripening) and four cultivars (Hovaze, Hashemi, Fajr, as exotic and MR219 as indigenous). The heat chamber was prepared covered with plastic, and automatic heater was adjusted for two weeks in every growth stages. Rice morphological and yield under the influence of heat stress during various growth stages showed taller plants in Hashemi due to its tall character. The total tillers per hill were significantly higher in Fajr. In all growing conditions, Hashemi recorded higher panicle exertion. The flag leaf width in all situations was found higher in Hovaze. The total tillers per hill were more in Fajr, although heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering stages. The indigenous MR219 in all situations of growing conditions, growth stages recorded higher grain yield. However, its grain yield decreased when heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering. However, plants had no effect on heat stress during ripening stage.

Keywords: Rice, growth, heat, stress, morphology, yield.

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59 Cloud Computing for E-Learning with More Emphasis on Security Issues

Authors: Sajjad Hashemi, Seyyed Yasser Hashemi

Abstract:

In today's world, success of most systems depend on the use of new technologies and information technology (IT) which aimed to increase efficiency and satisfaction of users. One of the most important systems that use information technology to deliver services is the education system. But for educational services in the form of E-learning systems, hardware and software equipment should be containing high quality, which requires substantial investment. Because the vast majority of educational establishments can not invest in this area so the best way for them is reducing the costs and providing the E-learning services by using cloud computing. But according to the novelty of the cloud technology, it can create challenges and concerns that the most noted among them are security issues. Security concerns about cloud-based E-learning products are critical and security measures essential to protect valuable data of users from security vulnerabilities in products. Thus, the success of these products happened if customers meet security requirements then can overcome security threats. In this paper tried to explore cloud computing and its positive impact on E- learning and put main focus to identify security issues that related to cloud-based E-learning efforts which have been improve security and provide solutions in management challenges.

Keywords: Cloud computing, E-Learning, Security.

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58 A Novel Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay Using TaqMan MGB Probes for Rapid Detection of Trisomy 21

Authors: Mehrdad Hashemi, Mitra Behrooz Aghdam, Reza Mahdian, Ahmad Reza Kamyab

Abstract:

Cytogenetic analysis still remains the gold standard method for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome, DS). Nevertheless, the conventional cytogenetic analysis needs live cultured cells and is too time-consuming for clinical application. In contrast, molecular methods such as FISH, QF-PCR, MLPA and quantitative Real-time PCR are rapid assays with results available in 24h. In the present study, we have successfully used a novel MGB TaqMan probe-based real time PCR assay for rapid diagnosis of trisomy 21 status in Down syndrome samples. We have also compared the results of this molecular method with corresponding results obtained by the cytogenetic analysis. Blood samples obtained from DS patients (n=25) and normal controls (n=20) were tested by quantitative Real-time PCR in parallel to standard G-banding analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. A high precision TaqMan probe quantitative Real-time PCR assay was developed to determine the gene dosage of DSCAM (target gene on 21q22.2) relative to PMP22 (reference gene on 17p11.2). The DSCAM/PMP22 ratio was calculated according to the formula; ratio=2 -ΔΔCT. The quantitative Real-time PCR was able to distinguish between trisomy 21 samples and normal controls with the gene ratios of 1.49±0.13 and 1.03±0.04 respectively (p value <0.001). These results represent the presence of 3 copies of target gene in DS samples Vs 2 copies in normal controls. The results of quantitative Real-time PCR were in complete agreement with results of cytogenetic analysis. This study confirms previous reports regarding successful implementation of quantitative Real-time PCR for detection of trisomy 21. However, the assay has been improved by using MGB probes and more accurate data analysis. This assay, in particular, when performed in combination with another molecular assay such as QF-PCR or MLPA, can be used as a reliable technique for rapid prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21.

Keywords: Trisomy 21, Real-time PCR, MGB-TaqMan Probes, Gene Dosage.

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57 Introducing a Platform for Encryption Algorithms

Authors: Ahmad Habibizad Navin, Yasaman Hashemi, Omid Mirmotahari

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a novel platform encryption method, which modify its keys and random number generators step by step during encryption algorithms. According to complexity of the proposed algorithm, it was safer than any other method.

Keywords: Decryption, Encryption, Algorithm, security.

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56 Spent Caustic Bioregeneration by using Thiobacillus denitrificans Bacteria

Authors: Sayed Reza Hashemi, Amir Heidarinasab

Abstract:

Spent Sulfidic Caustic was biologically treated and regenerated for reusing by Thiobacillus denitrificans bacteria, sulfide content oxidized and RSNa reduced dramatically.PH in this test was 11.8 and no neutralization has been done on spent caustic, so spent caustic as the most difficult of industrial wastes to dispose could be regenerate and reuse instead of disposing to sea or deep wells

Keywords: Spent Caustic, Thiobacillus denitrificans, Bioregeneration

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55 Cloud Computing: Changing Cogitation about Computing

Authors: Mehrdad Mahdavi Boroujerdi, Soheil Nazem

Abstract:

Cloud Computing is a new technology that helps us to use the Cloud for compliance our computation needs. Cloud refers to a scalable network of computers that work together like Internet. An important element in Cloud Computing is that we shift processing, managing, storing and implementing our data from, locality into the Cloud; So it helps us to improve the efficiency. Because of it is new technology, it has both advantages and disadvantages that are scrutinized in this article. Then some vanguards of this technology are studied. Afterwards we find out that Cloud Computing will have important roles in our tomorrow life!

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Grid Computing, Internet as a Platform, On-demand Computing, Software as a Service.

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54 A Novel FFT-Based Frequency Offset Estimator for OFDM Systems

Authors: Mahdi Masoumi, Mehrdad Ardebilipoor, Seyed Aidin Bassam

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel frequency offset (FO) estimator for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. Simplicity is most significant feature of this algorithm and can be repeated to achieve acceptable accuracy. Also fractional and integer part of FO is estimated jointly with use of the same algorithm. To do so, instead of using conventional algorithms that usually use correlation function, we use DFT of received signal. Therefore, complexity will be reduced and we can do synchronization procedure by the same hardware that is used to demodulate OFDM symbol. Finally, computer simulation shows that the accuracy of this method is better than other conventional methods.

Keywords: DFT, Estimator, Frequency Offset, IEEE802.11a, OFDM.

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53 A Family of Affine Projection Adaptive Filtering Algorithms With Selective Regressors

Authors: Mohammad Shams Esfand Abadi, Nader Hadizadeh Kashani, Vahid Mehrdad

Abstract:

In this paper we present a general formalism for the establishment of the family of selective regressor affine projection algorithms (SR-APA). The SR-APA, the SR regularized APA (SR-RAPA), the SR partial rank algorithm (SR-PRA), the SR binormalized data reusing least mean squares (SR-BNDR-LMS), and the SR normalized LMS with orthogonal correction factors (SR-NLMS-OCF) algorithms are established by this general formalism. We demonstrate the performance of the presented algorithms through simulations in acoustic echo cancellation scenario.

Keywords: Adaptive filter, affine projection, selective regressor.

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52 The Semantic Web: a New Approach for Future World Wide Web

Authors: Sahar Nasrolahi, Mahdi Nikdast, Mehrdad Mahdavi Boroujerdi

Abstract:

The purpose of semantic web research is to transform the Web from a linked document repository into a distributed knowledge base and application platform, thus allowing the vast range of available information and services to be more efficiently exploited. As a first step in this transformation, languages such as OWL have been developed. Although fully realizing the Semantic Web still seems some way off, OWL has already been very successful and has rapidly become a defacto standard for ontology development in fields as diverse as geography, geology, astronomy, agriculture, defence and the life sciences. The aim of this paper is to classify key concepts of Semantic Web as well as introducing a new practical approach which uses these concepts to outperform Word Wide Web.

Keywords: Semantic Web, Ontology, OWL, Microformat, Word Wide Web.

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51 An Innovational Intermittent Algorithm in Networks-On-Chip (NOC)

Authors: Ahmad M. Shafiee, Mehrdad Montazeri, Mahdi Nikdast

Abstract:

Every day human life experiences new equipments more automatic and with more abilities. So the need for faster processors doesn-t seem to finish. Despite new architectures and higher frequencies, a single processor is not adequate for many applications. Parallel processing and networks are previous solutions for this problem. The new solution to put a network of resources on a chip is called NOC (network on a chip). The more usual topology for NOC is mesh topology. There are several routing algorithms suitable for this topology such as XY, fully adaptive, etc. In this paper we have suggested a new algorithm named Intermittent X, Y (IX/Y). We have developed the new algorithm in simulation environment to compare delay and power consumption with elders' algorithms.

Keywords: Computer architecture, parallel computing, NOC, routing algorithm.

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50 A Study on using N-Pattern Chains of Design Patterns based on Software Quality Metrics

Authors: Niloofar Khedri, Masoud Rahgozar, MahmoudReza Hashemi

Abstract:

Design patterns describe good solutions to common and reoccurring problems in program design. Applying design patterns in software design and implementation have significant effects on software quality metrics such as flexibility, usability, reusability, scalability and robustness. There is no standard rule for using design patterns. There are some situations that a pattern is applied for a specific problem and this pattern uses another pattern. In this paper, we study the effect of using chain of patterns on software quality metrics.

Keywords: Design Patterns, Design patterns' Relationship, Software quality Metrics, Software Engineering.

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49 Comparison of SVC and STATCOM in Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement

Authors: Mehrdad Ahmadi Kamarposhti, Mostafa Alinezhad

Abstract:

One of the major causes of voltage instability is the reactive power limit of the system. Improving the system's reactive power handling capacity via Flexible AC transmission System (FACTS) devices is a remedy for prevention of voltage instability and hence voltage collapse. In this paper, the effects of SVC and STATCOM in Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement will be studied. AC and DC representations of SVC and STATCOM are used in the continuation power flow process in static voltage stability study. The IEEE-14 bus system is simulated to test the increasing loadability. It is found that these controllers significantly increase the loadability margin of power systems.

Keywords: SVC, STATCOM, Voltage Collapse, Maximum Loading Point.

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48 Vibration Base Identification of Impact Force Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: R. Hashemi, M.H.Kargarnovin

Abstract:

This paper presents the identification of the impact force acting on a simply supported beam. The force identification is an inverse problem in which the measured response of the structure is used to determine the applied force. The identification problem is formulated as an optimization problem and the genetic algorithm is utilized to solve the optimization problem. The objective function is calculated on the difference between analytical and measured responses and the decision variables are the location and magnitude of the applied force. The results from simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and its robustness vs. the measurement noise and sensor location.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Inverse problem, Optimization, Vibration.

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47 Traffic Violation Detection System based on RFID

Authors: S. Hajeb, M. Javadi, S. M. Hashemi, P. Parvizi

Abstract:

Road Traffic Accidents are a major cause of disability and death throughout the world. The control of intelligent vehicles in order to reduce human error and boost ease congestion is not accomplished solely by the aid of human resources. The present article is an attempt to introduce an intelligent control system based on RFID technology. By the help of RFID technology, vehicles are connected to computerized systems, intelligent light poles and other available hardware along the way. In this project, intelligent control system is capable of tracking all vehicles, crisis management and control, traffic guidance and recording Driving offences along the highway.

Keywords: RFID, Intelligent highway, Traffic violation

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46 Probabilistic Robustness Assessment of Structures under Sudden Column-Loss Scenario

Authors: Ali Y Al-Attraqchi, P. Rajeev, M. Javad Hashemi, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a probabilistic incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of a full reinforced concrete building subjected to column loss scenario for the assessment of progressive collapse. The IDA is chosen to explicitly account for uncertainties in loads and system capacity. Fragility curves are developed to predict the probability of progressive collapse given the loss of one or more columns. At a broader scale, it will also provide critical information needed to support the development of a new generation of design codes that attempt to explicitly quantify structural robustness.

Keywords: Incremental dynamic analysis, progressive collapse, structural engineering, pushdown analysis.

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45 Determinants of Conference Service Quality as Perceived by International Attendees

Authors: Shiva Hashemi, Azizan Marzuki, S. Kiumarsi

Abstract:

In recent years, conference destinations have been highly competitive; therefore, it is necessary to know about the behaviours of conference participants such as the process of their decision-making and the assessment of perceived conference quality. A conceptual research framework based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model is presented in this research to get better understanding factors that influence it. This research study highlights key factors presented in previous studies in which behaviour intentions of participants are affected by the quality of conference. Therefore, this study is believed to provide an idea that conference participants should be encouraged to contribute to the quality and behaviour intention of the conference.

Keywords: Conference attendees, service quality, perceives value, trust, behaviour intention.

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44 Physical and Chemical Investigation of Polycaprolactone, Nanohydroxyapatite and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposite Scaffolds

Authors: A.Doustgani, E.Vasheghani- Farahani, M. Soleimani, S. Hashemi-Najafabadi

Abstract:

Aligned and random nanofibrous scaffolds of PVA/PCL/nHA were fabricated by electrospinning method. The composite nanofibrous scaffolds were subjected to detailed analysis. Morphological investigations revealed that the prepared nanofibers have uniform morphology and the average fiber diameters of aligned and random scaffolds were 135.5 and 290 nm, respectively. The obtained scaffolds have a porous structure with porosity of 88 and 76% for random and aligned nanofibers, respectively. Furthermore, FTIR analysis demonstrated that there were strong intramolecular interactions between the molecules of PVA/PCL/nHA. On the other hand, mechanical characterizations show that aligning the nanofibers, could significantly improve the rigidity of the resultant biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds.

Keywords: Electrospinnig, nanofibrous scaffold, poly (vinyl alcohol), polycaprolactone.

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43 A Novel Approach to EMABS and Comparison with ABS

Authors: Mehrdad N. Khajavi, Abbas Hosseini, N.Bani Mostafa

Abstract:

In this paper two different Antilock braking system (ABS) are simulated and compared. One is the ordinary hydraulic ABS system which we call it ABS and the other is Electromagnetic Antilock braking system which is called (EMABS) the basis of performance of an EMABS is based upon Electromagnetic force. In this system there is no need to use servo hydraulic booster which are used in ABS system. In EMABS to generate the desired force we have use a magnetic relay which works with an input voltage through an air gap (g). The generated force will be amplified by the relay arm, and is applied to the brake shoes and thus the braking torque is generated. The braking torque is proportional to the applied electrical voltage E. to adjust the braking torque it is only necessary to regulate the electrical voltage E which is very faster and has a much smaller time constant T than the ABS system. The simulations of these two different ABS systems are done with MATLAB/SIMULINK software and the superiority of the EMABS has been shown.

Keywords: ABS, EMABS, ECU

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42 Navigation Patterns Mining Approach based on Expectation Maximization Algorithm

Authors: Norwati Mustapha, Manijeh Jalali, Abolghasem Bozorgniya, Mehrdad Jalali

Abstract:

Web usage mining algorithms have been widely utilized for modeling user web navigation behavior. In this study we advance a model for mining of user-s navigation pattern. The model makes user model based on expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm.An EM algorithm is used in statistics for finding maximum likelihood estimates of parameters in probabilistic models, where the model depends on unobserved latent variables. The experimental results represent that by decreasing the number of clusters, the log likelihood converges toward lower values and probability of the largest cluster will be decreased while the number of the clusters increases in each treatment.

Keywords: Web Usage Mining, Expectation maximization, navigation pattern mining.

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41 Static Voltage Stability Assessment Considering the Power System Contingencies using Continuation Power Flow Method

Authors: Mostafa Alinezhad, Mehrdad Ahmadi Kamarposhti

Abstract:

According to the increasing utilization in power system, the transmission lines and power plants often operate in stability boundary and system probably lose its stable condition by over loading or occurring disturbance. According to the reasons that are mentioned, the prediction and recognition of voltage instability in power system has particular importance and it makes the network security stronger.This paper, by considering of power system contingencies based on the effects of them on Mega Watt Margin (MWM) and maximum loading point is focused in order to analyse the static voltage stability using continuation power flow method. The study has been carried out on IEEE 14-Bus Test System using Matlab and Psat softwares and results are presented.

Keywords: Contingency, Continuation Power Flow, Static Voltage Stability, Voltage Collapse.

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40 Effects of Molybdenum on Phosphorus Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Amin Soltangheisi

Abstract:

A hydroponic trial was carried out to investigate the effect of molybdenum (Mo) on uptake of phosphorus (P) in different rice cultivars. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI, MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. Interaction of molybdenum×variety was significant on shoot phosphorus uptake (p≤0.01). Highest and lowest shoot phosphorus uptake were seen in Mo3V3 (0.6% plant-1) and Mo0V3 (0.14% plant-1) treatments, respectively. Molybdenum did not have a significant effect on root phosphorus content. According to results, application of molybdenum has a synergistic effect on uptake of phosphorus by rice plants.

Keywords: Molybdenum, Phosphorus, Uptake, rice.

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39 Uranium Adsorption Using a Composite Material Based on Platelet SBA-15 Supported Tin Salt Tungstomolybdophosphoric Acid

Authors: H. Aghayan, F. A. Hashemi, R. Yavari, S. Zolghadri

Abstract:

In this work, a new composite adsorbent based on a mesoporous silica SBA-15 with platelet morphology and tin salt of tungstomolybdophosphoric (TWMP) acid was synthesized and applied for uranium adsorption from aqueous solution. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transfer infra-red, and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, and then, effect of various parameters such as concentration of metal ions and contact time on adsorption behavior was examined. The experimental result showed that the adsorption process was explained by the Langmuir isotherm model very well, and predominant reaction mechanism is physisorption. Kinetic data of adsorption suggest that the adsorption process can be described by the pseudo second-order reaction rate model.

Keywords: Platelet SBA-15, tungstomolybdophosphoric acid, adsorption, uranium ion.

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38 Using Cloud Computing for E-Government: Challenges and Benefits

Authors: Sajjad Hashemi, Khalil Monfaredi, Mohammad Masdari

Abstract:

Cloud computing is a style of computing which is formed from the aggregation and development of technologies such as grid computing distributed computing, parallel computing and service-oriented architecture. And its aim is to provide computing, communication and storage resources in a safe environment based on service, as fast as possible, which is virtually provided via Internet platform. Considering that the provided Services in e-government are available via the Internet, thus cloud computing can be used in the implementation of e-government architecture and provide better service with the lowest economic cost using its benefits. In this paper, the Methods of using cloud computing in e-government has been studied and it's been attempted to identify the challenges and benefits of the cloud to get used in the e-government and proposals have been offered to overcome its shortcomings, encourage and partnership of governments and people to use this economical and new technology.

Keywords: Benefits, Cloud computing, Committee, Challenges, E-Government, Participation.

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37 Simulation Study of Radial Heat and Mass Transfer Inside a Fixed Bed Catalytic Reactor

Authors: K. Vakhshouri, M.M. Y. Motamed Hashemi

Abstract:

A rigorous two-dimensional model is developed for simulating the operation of a less-investigated type steam reformer having a considerably lower operating Reynolds number, higher tube diameter, and non-availability of extra steam in the feed compared with conventional steam reformers. Simulation results show that reasonable predictions can only be achieved when certain correlations for wall to fluid heat transfer equations are applied. Due to severe operating conditions, in all cases, strong radial temperature gradients inside the reformer tubes have been found. Furthermore, the results show how a certain catalyst loading profile will affect the operation of the reformer.

Keywords: Steam reforming, direct reduction, heat transfer, two-dimensional model, simulation.

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36 Comparison between Optimized Passive Vehicle Suspension System and Semi Active Fuzzy Logic Controlled Suspension System Regarding Ride and Handling

Authors: Mehrdad N. Khajavi, Vahid Abdollahi

Abstract:

The purpose of suspension system in automobiles is to improve the ride comfort and road handling. In this research the ride and handling performance of a specific automobile with passive suspension system is compared to a proposed fuzzy logic semi active suspension system designed for that automobile. The bodysuspension- wheel system is modeled as a two degree of freedom quarter car model. MATLAB/SIMULINK [1] was used for simulation and controller design. The fuzzy logic controller is based on two inputs namely suspension velocity and body velocity. The output of the fuzzy controller is the damping coefficient of the variable damper. The result shows improvement over passive suspension method.

Keywords: Suspension System, Ride Comfort, Fuzzy Logic Controller, Passive and Semi Active System.

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35 Study on the Mechanical Behavior of the Varactor of a Micro-Phase Shifter

Authors: Mehrdad Nouri Khajavi, Sajjad Ahoui Ghazvin, Ghader Rezazadeh, Mohammad Fathalilou

Abstract:

In this paper static and dynamic response of a varactor of a micro-phase shifter to DC, step DC and AC voltages have been studied. By presenting a mathematical modeling Galerkin-based step by step linearization method (SSLM) and Galerkin-based reduced order model have been used to solve the governing static and dynamic equations, respectively. The calculated static and dynamic pull-in voltages have been validated by previous experimental and theoretical results and a good agreement has been achieved. Then the frequency response and phase diagram of the system has been studied. It has been shown that applying the DC voltage shifts down the phase diagram and frequency response. Also increasing the damping ratio shifts up the phase diagram.

Keywords: MEMS, Phase Shifter, Pull-in Voltage, PhaseDiagram

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34 A Model Predictive Control Based Virtual Active Power Filter Using V2G Technology

Authors: Mahdi Zolfaghari, Seyed Hossein Hosseinian, Hossein Askarian Abyaneh, Mehrdad Abedi

Abstract:

This paper presents a virtual active power filter (VAPF) using vehicle to grid (V2G) technology to maintain power quality requirements. The optimal discrete operation of the power converter of electric vehicle (EV) is based on recognizing desired switching states using the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. A fast dynamic response, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and good reference tracking performance are realized through the presented control strategy. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink validate the effectiveness of the scheme in improving power quality as well as good dynamic response in power transferring capability.

Keywords: Virtual active power filter, V2G technology, model predictive control, electric vehicle, power quality.

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33 FEM Analysis of the Interaction between a Piezoresistive Tactile Sensor and Biological Tissues

Authors: Ahmad Atieh, Masoud Kalantari, Roozbeh Ahmadi, Javad Dargahi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy, Mehrdad Hosseini Zadeh

Abstract:

The present paper presents a finite element model and analysis for the interaction between a piezoresistive tactile sensor and biological tissues. The tactile sensor is proposed for use in minimally invasive surgery to deliver tactile information of biological tissues to surgeons. The proposed sensor measures the relative hardness of soft contact objects as well as the contact force. Silicone rubbers were used as the phantom of biological tissues. Finite element analysis of the silicone rubbers and the mechanical structure of the sensor were performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (v3.4) environment. The simulation results verify the capability of the sensor to be used to differentiate between different kinds of silicone rubber materials.

Keywords: finite element analysis, minimally invasive surgery, Neo-Hookean hyperelastic materials, tactile sensor.

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32 Improving Load Frequency Control of Multi-Area Power System by Considering Uncertainty by Using Optimized Type 2 Fuzzy Pid Controller with the Harmony Search Algorithm

Authors: Mehrdad Mahmudizad, Roya Ahmadi Ahangar

Abstract:

This paper presents the method of designing the type 2 fuzzy PID controllers in order to solve the problem of Load Frequency Control (LFC). The Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is used to regulate the measurement factors and the effect of uncertainty of membership functions of Interval Type 2 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (IT2FPID) controllers in order to reduce the frequency deviation resulted from the load oscillations. The simulation results implicitly show that the performance of the proposed IT2FPID LFC in terms of error, settling time and resistance against different load oscillations is more appropriate and preferred than PID and Type 1 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (T1FPID) controllers.

Keywords: Load Frequency Control, Fuzzy-PID controller, Type 2 fuzzy system, Harmony Search algorithm.

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31 Role and Effect of Temperature on LPG Sweetening Process

Authors: Ali Samadi Afshar, Sayed Reaza Hashemi

Abstract:

In the gas refineries of Iran-s South Pars Gas Complex, Sulfrex demercaptanization process is used to remove volatile and corrosive mercaptans from liquefied petroleum gases by caustic solution. This process consists of two steps. Removing low molecular weight mercaptans and regeneration exhaust caustic. Some parameters such as LPG feed temperature, caustic concentration and feed-s mercaptan in extraction step and sodium mercaptide content in caustic, catalyst concentration, caustic temperature, air injection rate in regeneration step are effective factors. In this paper was focused on temperature factor that play key role in mercaptans extraction and caustic regeneration. The experimental results demonstrated by optimization of temperature, sodium mercaptide content in caustic because of good oxidation minimized and sulfur impurities in product reduced.

Keywords: Caustic regeneration, demercaptanization, LPG sweetening, mercaptan extraction, temperature.

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