Search results for: wound healing.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: wound healing.

69 Evaluation of Radiation Synthesized β-Glucan Hydrogel Wound Dressing using Rat Models

Authors: Hui J. Gwon, Youn M. Lim, Jong S. Park, Young C. Nho

Abstract:

In this study, hydrogels consisted of polyvinyl alcohol, propylene glycol and β-glucan were developed by radiation technique for wound dressing. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by examining of physical properties such as gel fraction and absorption ratio. The gel fraction and absorption ratio were dependent on the crosslinking density. On observing the wound healing of rat skin, the resulting hydrogels accelerated the wound healing comparing to cotton gauze. Therefore, the PVA/propylene glycol/β-glucan blended hydrogels can greatly accelerate the healing without causing irritation.

Keywords: β-Glucan, poly(vinyl alcohol), propylene glycol, radiation, wound dressing.

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68 Noninvasive Assessment of Low Power Laser Radiation Effect on Skin Wound Healing Using Infrared Thermography

Authors: M.A. Calin, S.V. Parasca, M.R. Calin, D. Savastru, D. Manea

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of laser radiation on the skin wound healing using infrared thermography as non-invasive method for the monitoring of the skin temperature changes during laser treatment. Thirty Wistar rats were used in this study. A skin lesion was performed at the leg on all rats. The animals were exposed to laser radiation (λ = 670 nm, P = 15 mW, DP = 16.31 mW/cm2) for 600 s. Thermal images of wound were acquired before and after laser irradiation. The results have demonstrated that the tissue temperature decreases from 35.5±0.50°C in the first treatment day to 31.3±0.42°C after the third treatment day. This value is close to the normal value of the skin temperature and indicates the end of the skin repair process. In conclusion, the improvements in the wound healing following exposure to laser radiation have been revealed by infrared thermography.

Keywords: skin, wound, laser, thermal image

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67 Wound Healing Dressing and Some Composites Such as Zeolite, TiO2, Chitosan and PLGA: A Review

Authors: L. B. Naves, L. Almeida

Abstract:

The development of Drugs Delivery System (DDS) has been widely investigated in the last decades. In this paper, first a general overview of traditional and modern wound dressing is presented. This is followed by a review of what scientists have done in the medical environment, focusing on the possibility to develop a new alternative for DDS through transdermal pathway, aiming to treat melanoma skin cancer.

Keywords: Cancer Therapy, Dressing Polymers, Melanoma, wound healing.

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66 Sericin Film: Influence of Concentration on its Physical Properties

Authors: N. Namviriyachote, N. Bang, P. Aramwit

Abstract:

Silk sericin (SS) is a glue-like protein from silkworm cocoon. With its outstanding moisturization and activation collagen synthesis properties, silk protein is applied for wound healing. Since wound dressing in film preparation can facilitate patients- convenience and reduce risk of wound contraction, SS and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films were prepared with various concentrations of SS. Their physical properties such as surface density, light transmission, protein dissolution and tensile modulus were investigated. The results presented that 3% SS with 2% PVA is the best ingredient for SS film forming.

Keywords: Sericin, silk protein, film, wound healing.

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65 Lactic Acid-Chitosan Films’ Properties and Their in vivo Wound Healing Activity

Authors: T. S. Moe, T. A. Khaing

Abstract:

Chitosan is a derivative of chitin, a compound usually isolated from the shells of some crustaceans such as crab, lobster and shrimp. It has biocompatible, biodegradable, and antimicrobial properties. To use these properties of chitosan in biomedical fields, chitosan films (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) were prepared by using l% lactic acid as solvent. The effects of chitosan films on tensile strength, elongation at break, degree of swelling, thickness, morphology, allergic and irritation reactions and antibacterial property were evaluated. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were used as tested microorganisms. In vivo wound healing activities of chitosan films were investigated using mice model. As results, Chitosan films have similar appearance and good swelling properties and 4% chitosan film showed the better swelling activity and the greatest elongation ratio than the other chitosan films. They also showed their good activity of wound healing in mice model. Moreover, the results showed that the films did not produce any unwilling symptoms (allergy or irritation). In conclusion, it is evident that the chitosan film has the potentiality to use as wound healing biofilms in the biomedical fields.

Keywords: Chitosan, wound healing, antibacterial activity.

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64 Fractal Dimension of Breast Cancer Cell Migration in a Wound Healing Assay

Authors: R. Sullivan, T. Holden, G. Tremberger, Jr, E. Cheung, C. Branch, J. Burrero, G. Surpris, S. Quintana, A. Rameau, N. Gadura, H. Yao, R. Subramaniam, P. Schneider, S. A. Rotenberg, P. Marchese, A. Flamhlolz, D. Lieberman, T. Cheung

Abstract:

Migration in breast cancer cell wound healing assay had been studied using image fractal dimension analysis. The migration of MDA-MB-231 cells (highly motile) in a wound healing assay was captured using time-lapse phase contrast video microscopy and compared to MDA-MB-468 cell migration (moderately motile). The Higuchi fractal method was used to compute the fractal dimension of the image intensity fluctuation along a single pixel width region parallel to the wound. The near-wound region fractal dimension was found to decrease three times faster in the MDA-MB- 231 cells initially as compared to the less cancerous MDA-MB-468 cells. The inner region fractal dimension was found to be fairly constant for both cell types in time and suggests a wound influence range of about 15 cell layer. The box-counting fractal dimension method was also used to study region of interest (ROI). The MDAMB- 468 ROI area fractal dimension was found to decrease continuously up to 7 hours. The MDA-MB-231 ROI area fractal dimension was found to increase and is consistent with the behavior of a HGF-treated MDA-MB-231 wound healing assay posted in the public domain. A fractal dimension based capacity index has been formulated to quantify the invasiveness of the MDA-MB-231 cells in the perpendicular-to-wound direction. Our results suggest that image intensity fluctuation fractal dimension analysis can be used as a tool to quantify cell migration in terms of cancer severity and treatment responses.

Keywords: Higuchi fractal dimension, box-counting fractal dimension, cancer cell migration, wound healing.

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63 Wound Healing Effect of Ocimum sanctum Leaves Extract in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Manish Kumar Gautam, Raj Kumar Goel

Abstract:

Delayed wound healing in diabetes is primarily associated with hyperglycemia, over-expression of inflammatory marker, oxidative stress and delayed collagen synthesis. This unmanaged wound is producing high economic burden on the society. Thus research is required to develop new and effective treatment strategies to deal with this emerging issue. Our present study incorporates the evaluation of wound healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum (OSE) in streptozotocin (45mg/kg)-induced diabetic rats with concurrent wound ulcer. The animals showing diabetes (Blood glucose level >140 and <250 mg/dL) will be selected for wound healing study using standard dead space wound model. Wounds were created by implanting two polypropylene tubes (0.5 x 2.5 cm2 each), one on either side in the lumbar region on the dorsal surface of each rat. On the 10th postwounding day, the animals were sacrificed and granulation tissue formed on the implanted tubes was carefully dissected out and study the status of antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase, SOD and Glutathione, GSH) free radicals (Lipid peroxidation, LPO and nitric oxide, NO) acute inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase, MPO) connective tissue determinants, hydroxyproline, hexosamine and hexuronic acid, which play a major role in wound healing and diabetes. Besides the anti-diabetic parameters (estimation of serum blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol), the above parameters for wound healing were studied both in normal, untreated and OSE treated diabetic rats. The effects of extract on above parameters will be compared with known standard antioxidant (Vitamin E) and anti-diabetic (Glybenclamide) drugs. OSE 400 mg/kg substantiated by significantly decreased serum blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol. OSE also decrease granulation tissue free radicals (LPO, 58.1% and NO, 52.7%) and myeloperoxidase (MPO, 63.3%), and enhanced antioxidants (GSH, 116.4% and SOD, 201.1%)

Keywords: Wound healing, diabetes, Ocimum sanctum, Antioxidant, Free radical, Myeloperoxidase

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62 Antiinflammatory and Wound Healing Activity of Sedum Essential Oils Growing in Kazakhstan

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

The article represents the results of clinical researches of composite herbal medicinal product based on essential oils of Sedum plants growing in Kazakhstan in commercial reserves at the territory of Kazakhstan. The results of comparative analysis are represented in obstetric-gynecologic practice during combined therapy for postnatal complications, inflammatory infiltrates in the area of surgical wounds including wounds after caesarean section.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, bioactive substances, essential oils, isolation, Sedum L., wound healing.

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61 A Comparison on Healing Effects of an Ayurvedic Preparation and Silver Sulfadiazine on Burn Wounds in Albino Rats

Authors: S. S. Pathak, M. A. Borkar, S. S. Patel

Abstract:

To compare Healing Effects of an Ayurvedic Preparation and Silver Sulfadiazine on burn wounds in Albino Rats. Methods: Albino rats– 30 male / female rats weighing between 150-200 g were used in the study. They were individually housed and maintained on normal diet and water ad libitum. Partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted, on overnight-starved animals under pentobarbitone (30mg/kg, i.p.) anaesthesia, by pouring hot molten wax at 80oC into a plastic cylinder of 300 mm2 circular openings placed on the shaven back of the animal. Apart from the drugs under investigation no local/ systemic chemotherapeutic cover will be provided to animals. All the animals were assessed for the percentage of wound contraction, signs of infection, scab formation and histopathological examination. Results: Percentage of wound healing was significantly better in the test ointment group compared to the standard. Signs of infection were observed in more animals in the test ointment group compared to the standard. Scab formation also took place earlier in the test ointment group compared to standard. Epithelial regeneration and healing profile was better in the test ointment compared to the standard. Moreover the test ointment group did not show any raised margins in the wound or blackish discoloration as was observed in silver sulfadiazine group. Conclusion: The burn wound healing effect of the ayurvedic ointment under study is better in comparison to standard therapy of silver sulfadiazine. The problem of infection encountered with the test ointment can be overcome by changing the concentrations and proportions of the ingredients in the test ointment which constitutes the further plan of the study.

Keywords: Ayurvedic test ointment, burn wounds, Silver sulfadiazine.

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60 Indications and Characteristics of Clinical Application of Periodontal Suturing

Authors: Saimir Heta, Ilma Robo, Vera Ostreni, Glorja Demika, Sonila Kapaj

Abstract:

Suturing, as a procedure of joining the lips of the lembo or wound, is important at the beginning of the healing process. This procedure helps to pass the healing process from the procedure per secundam to the stages of healing per primam, thus logically reducing the healing time of the wound. The purpose of this article is to publish some data on the clinical characteristics of periodontal suturing, presenting the advantages and disadvantages of different types of suture threads. The article is a mini-review type of articles selected from the application of keywords on the PubMed page. The number of articles extracted from this article publication page is in accordance with the 10-year publication time limit. The element that remains in the individual selection of the dentist applying the suture is the selection of the suture material. At a moment when some types of sutures are offered for use, some elements should be considered in the selection of the suture depending on the constituent material, the cross-section of the suture elements, and whether it collects bacteria in the "pits" created by the material. The presence of bacteria is a source of infection and possible delay in the healing of the sutured wound. The marketing of suture types offers a variety of materials, from which the selection of the most suitable suture type for specific application cases is a personal indication of the dental surgeon based on professional experiences and knowledge in this field.

Keywords: Suture, suture material, types of sutures, clinical application.

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59 The Use of Hydrocolloid Dressing in the Management of Open Wounds in Big Cats

Authors: Catherine Portelli

Abstract:

Felines, such as Panthera tigris, Panthera leo and Puma concolor, have become common residents in animal parks and zoos. They often sustain injuries from other felines within the same, or adjacent enclosures and from playing with items of enrichment and structures of the enclosure itself. These open wounds, and their treatments, are often challenging in veterinary practice, where feline-specific studies are lacking. This study is based on the author’s clinical experience gained while working at local animal parks in the past five years, and current evidence of hydrocolloid dressing applied to other species. Hydrocolloid dressing is used for secondary healing of chronic and acute wounds, where there is a considerable amount of tissue loss. The patients included in this study were sedated using medetomidine and ketamine every three to four days, for wound treatment and bandage change. Comparative studies of different techniques of open wound management will improve the healing process of exotic felines in the future by decreasing the time of recovery and incidence of other complications. Such studies will also aid with treatment of injuries sustained in wild felines, such as foot hold trap and bite wounds, found in natural conservation areas and wild animal sanctuaries.

Keywords: Felines, hydrocolloid dressing, open wound, secondary healing.

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58 Self-Healing Performance of Heavyweight Concrete with Steam Curing

Authors: Hideki Igawa, Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Takashi Yokomuro, Hideo Eguchi

Abstract:

In this study, the crack self-healing performance of the heavyweight concrete used in the walls of containers and structures designed to shield radioactive materials was investigated. A steam curing temperature that preserves self-healing properties and demolding strength was identified. The presented simultaneously mixing method using the expanding material and the fly ash in the process of admixture can maximize the self-curing performance. Also adding synthetic fibers in the heavyweight concrete improved the self-healing performance.

Keywords: Expanding material, heavyweight concrete, self-healing performance, synthetic fiber.

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57 Polymeric Sustained Biodegradable Patch Formulation for Wound Healing

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Gyati Shilakari Asthana

Abstract:

It is the patient compliance and stability in combination with controlled drug delivery and biocompatibility that forms the core feature in present research and development of sustained biodegradable patch formulation intended for wound healing. The aim was to impart sustained degradation, sterile formulation, significant folding endurance, elasticity, biodegradability, bio-acceptability and strength. The optimized formulation comprised of polymers including Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin, and Citric Acid PEG Citric acid (CPEGC) triblock dendrimers and active Curcumin. Polymeric mixture dissolved in geometric order in suitable medium through continuous stirring under ambient conditions. With continued stirring Curcumin was added with aid of DCM and Methanol in optimized ratio to get homogenous dispersion. The dispersion was sonicated with optimum frequency and for given time and later casted to form a patch form. All steps were carried out under strict aseptic conditions. The formulations obtained in the acceptable working range were decided based on thickness, uniformity of drug content, smooth texture and flexibility and brittleness. The patch kept on stability using butter paper in sterile pack displayed folding endurance in range of 20 to 23 times without any evidence of crack in an optimized formulation at room temperature (RT) (24 ± 2°C). The patch displayed acceptable parameters after stability study conducted in refrigerated conditions (8±0.2°C) and at RT (24 ± 2°C) up to 90 days. Further, no significant changes were observed in critical parameters such as elasticity, biodegradability, drug release and drug content during stability study conducted at RT 24±2°C for 45 and 90 days. The drug content was in range 95 to 102%, moisture content didn’t exceeded 19.2% and patch passed the content uniformity test. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation factor R2>0.9. The biodegradable patch based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.

Keywords: Sustained biodegradation, wound healing, polymeric patch, stability.

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56 Rotor Side Speed Control Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink for Wound Induction Motor

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In recent advancements in electric machine and drives, wound rotor motor is extensively used. The merit of using wound rotor induction motor is to control speed/torque characteristics by inserting external resistance. Wound rotor induction motor can be used in the cases such as (a) low inrush current, (b) load requiring high starting torque, (c) lower starting current is required, (d) loads having high inertia, and (e) gradual built up of torque. Examples include conveyers, cranes, pumps, elevators, and compressors. This paper includes speed control of wound induction motor using MATLAB/Simulink for rotor resistance and slip power recovery method. The characteristics of these speed control methods are hence analyzed.

Keywords: Wound rotor induction motor, MATLAB/Simulink, rotor resistance method, slip power recovery method.

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55 Vietnamese Indigenous Healing’s Implication for Vietnamese Women Counseling in Korea

Authors: Youngsub Oh, Youngsoon Kim

Abstract:

As the second largest group among international marriages in Korea, Vietnamese married immigrant women have been exposed to psychological crisis like divorce and family violence. The purpose of this study is to understand how to counsel those women from the perspective of indigenous healing as their own psychological problem-solving way. To this end, this study reviewed Vietnamese cultural literatures on their mentality as well as Vietnamese medical literatures on indigenous healing. The research results are as follows: First, cultural foundations that have formed Vietnamese mentality are Confucian value system, reserved communication, and religious pluralism. These cultural backgrounds play an important role in understanding their own therapeutic tradition. Second, Vietnamese indigenous healing considers cause of mental disease as a collapse of balance between mind and body and environment. Thus, indigenous treatment deals with psychological problems through a recovery of the balance from the holistic perspective. In fact, indigenous healing has been actively practiced in everyday place as well as hospital until today. The implications of Vietnamese indigenous healing for multicultural counseling in Korea are as follows: First, Korean counselors need to interactively understand their own assumptions on indigenous healing as well as counselees’ own assumptions. Second, a variety of psychological intervention strategies can be drawn from Vietnamese indigenous healing. Third, indigenous healing needs to be integrated with modern techniques of counseling and psychotherapy, as both treatments are not mutually exclusive but complementary.

Keywords: Indigenous healing, Vietnamese married immigrant women in Korea, multicultural counseling.

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54 Main Puteri Traditional Malay Healing Ceremony

Authors: M. G. Nasuruddin, S. Ishak

Abstract:

This paper deals with the traditional Malay healing ritualistic ceremony known as Main Puteri. This non-invasive intervention uses the vehicle of performance to administer the healing process. It employs the performance elements of Makyung, that is, music, movements/dance and dramatic dialogue to heal psychosomatic maladies. There are two perspectives to this therapeutic healing process, one traditional and the other scientific. From the traditional perspective, the psychosomatic illness is attributed to the infestations/possessions by malevolent spirits. To heal such patients, these spirits must be exorcised through placating them by making offerings. From the scientific perspective, the music (sonic orders), movements (kinetic energy) and smell (olfactory) connect with the brain waves to release the chemicals that would activate the internal healing energy. Currently, in Main Puteri, the therapeutic healing ritual is no longer relevant as modern clinical medicine has proven to be more effective. Thus, Main Puteri is an anachronism in today’s technologically advanced Malaysia.

Keywords: Exorcism, Main Puteri, Shamans, Therapeutic Healing.

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53 Self-Healing Phenomenon Evaluation in Cementitious Matrix with Different Water/Cement Ratios and Crack Opening Age

Authors: V. G. Cappellesso, D. M. G. da Silva, J. A. Arndt, N. dos Santos Petry, A. B. Masuero, D. C. C. Dal Molin

Abstract:

Concrete elements are subject to cracking, which can be an access point for deleterious agents that can trigger pathological manifestations reducing the service life of these structures. Finding ways to minimize or eliminate the effects of this aggressive agents’ penetration, such as the sealing of these cracks, is a manner of contributing to the durability of these structures. The cementitious self-healing phenomenon can be classified in two different processes. The autogenous self-healing that can be defined as a natural process in which the sealing of this cracks occurs without the stimulation of external agents, meaning, without different materials being added to the mixture, while on the other hand, the autonomous seal-healing phenomenon depends on the insertion of a specific engineered material added to the cement matrix in order to promote its recovery. This work aims to evaluate the autogenous self-healing of concretes produced with different water/cement ratios and exposed to wet/dry cycles, considering two ages of crack openings, 3 days and 28 days. The self-healing phenomenon was evaluated using two techniques: crack healing measurement using ultrasonic waves and image analysis performed with an optical microscope. It is possible to observe that by both methods, it possible to observe the self-healing phenomenon of the cracks. For young ages of crack openings and lower water/cement ratios, the self-healing capacity is higher when compared to advanced ages of crack openings and higher water/cement ratios. Regardless of the crack opening age, these concretes were found to stabilize the self-healing processes after 80 days or 90 days.

Keywords: Self-healing, autogenous, water/cement ratio, curing cycles, test methods.

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52 Research on Emotional Healing Street Furniture under the Background of Urban Micro-Renewal

Authors: Tanhao Gao, Hongtao Zhou

Abstract:

With the COVID-19 pandemic spreading worldwide, people are facing more significant mental pressure. The government and social groups are sparing no effort to find ways to heal people's emotions and return to normal life. Therefore, research on emotional healing has urgency and practical significance. From the perspective of urban planning, street furniture has the potential to become "emotional healing touchpoints." This study first analyzed the suitable places for adding emotional healing street furniture in the background of urban micro-renewal and combined the 15-minute living circle, the leftover space, and urban acupuncture theories, then used the 5W analysis method to show the main characteristics of emotionally healing street furniture. Finally, the research discovers four design strategies, which can be summarized as: A. Exploring the renewal potential of the leftover space; B. Integrating with local culture and the surrounding environment; C. Discovering quick and straightforward ways of interaction; D. Finding a delicate balance between artistry and functionality. Then, we take one emotional healing street furniture located on Chifeng Road as an example to show the design strategies vividly.

Keywords: Emotional healing, street furniture, urban micro-renewal, urban acupuncture.

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51 Healing Performances: Ethnographic Concepts and Emic Perspectives

Authors: S. Ishak, M. G. Nasuruddin

Abstract:

This paper looks at healing performances as ethnographic expressions of local knowledge and culture embedded within the Malay psyche and gemeinschaft. As society develops and progresses, these healing performances are caught within conflicting trajectories which become compounded by the contestations of tradition, religious concerns, locality and modernity. As exemplifications of the Malay ethos, these performances practice common rituals, cater to the innate needs of the practitioners and serve the targeted, closed, local community. This paper traces the ethnographic methods in documenting these practices as rituals of healing in a post-modern world. It delineates the ethnographic concepts used to analyze these rituals, and to semiotically read the varied binarial oppositions and juxtapositions. The paper concludes by highlighting the reconciliatory processes involved in maintaining these ritual performances as exemplifications of the Malay ethos playing an important role in the re-aligning, re-balancing and healing of the Malay community’s psyche.

Keywords: Angin/winds, Semangat/spirits, Traditional Theatres, Trance.

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50 Introduction of Self-Healing Concrete and Different Methods of Its Scientific Implementation

Authors: Davoud Beheshtizadeh, Davood Jafari

Abstract:

Concrete, with its unique properties and advantages, has gained widespread and increasing use in the construction industry, particularly in a country's infrastructure. However, concrete exhibits certain defects, most notably the presence of micro-cracks that occur after the setting process, leading to increased costs for infrastructure repair and maintenance. As a result, self-healing concretes have garnered attention in various countries in recent years. These concretes employ different mechanisms for repair, including physical, chemical, biological, and combined approaches, each with its own subsets and implementation methods. Certain mechanisms hold significant importance, leading to specialized production methods. Given the novelty of this subject in Iran, there is limited knowledge or, in some cases, a complete lack of understanding. This paper presents various self-healing concrete mechanisms and the advantages, disadvantages, and application scope of each method.

Keywords: Micro-cracks, self-healing concrete, microcapsules, concrete, cement, self-sensitive.

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49 Investigation of Grid Supply Harmonic Effects in Wound Rotor Induction Machines

Authors: Nur Sarma, Paul M. Tuohy, Siniša Djurović

Abstract:

This paper presents an in-depth investigation of the effects of several grid supply harmonic voltages on the stator currents of an example wound rotor induction machine. The observed effects of higher order grid supply harmonics are identified using a finite element time stepping transient model, as well as a time-stepping electromagnetic model. In addition, a number of analytical equations to calculate the spectral content of the stator currents are presented in the paper. The presented equations are validated through comparison with the obtained spectra predicted using the finite element and electromagnetic models. The presented study provides a better understanding of the origin of supply harmonic effects identified in the stator currents of the example wound rotor induction machine. Furthermore, the study helps to understand the effects of higher order supply harmonics on the harmonic emissions of the wound rotor induction machine.  

Keywords: Wound rotor induction machine, supply harmonics, current spectrum, power spectrum, power quality, harmonic emissions, finite element analysis.

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48 Fusion of Colour and Depth Information to Enhance Wound Tissue Classification

Authors: Darren Thompson, Philip Morrow, Bryan Scotney, John Winder

Abstract:

Patients with diabetes are susceptible to chronic foot wounds which may be difficult to manage and slow to heal. Diagnosis and treatment currently rely on the subjective judgement of experienced professionals. An objective method of tissue assessment is required. In this paper, a data fusion approach was taken to wound tissue classification. The supervised Maximum Likelihood and unsupervised Multi-Modal Expectation Maximisation algorithms were used to classify tissues within simulated wound models by weighting the contributions of both colour and 3D depth information. It was found that, at low weightings, depth information could show significant improvements in classification accuracy when compared to classification by colour alone, particularly when using the maximum likelihood method. However, larger weightings were found to have an entirely negative effect on accuracy.

Keywords: Classification, data fusion, diabetic foot, stereophotogrammetry, tissue colour.

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47 Extraction and Analysis of Hypericum perforatum L. from Turkey

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, Z. Eslek, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Hypericum perforatum L. is a member of the Hypericaceae (Guttiferae) family and commonly known as St. John’s wort. There is a growing interest in this medicinal plant because of the constituents of this genus. A number of species have been shown to possess various biological activities such as antiviral, wound healing, analgesic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and also have therapeutic effects on burns, bruises, swelling, anxiety and mild to moderate depression. In this study, the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. are extracted and the main and effective constituents are determined. The analysis of the extracts was performed by GC-MS and LC-MS. As a next step, it is aimed to investigate the usage of the main constituents of the medicinal plant.

Keywords: Hypericaceae, Hypericum perforatum L., GC-MS, Guttiferae, LC-MS, Medicinal plant, St. John’s wort.

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46 Clarification of Synthetic Juice through Spiral Wound Ultrafiltration Module at Turbulent Flow Region and Cleaning Study

Authors: Vijay Singh, Chandan Das

Abstract:

Synthetic juice clarification was done through spiral wound ultrafiltration (UF) membrane module. Synthetic juice was clarified at two different operating conditions, such as, with and without permeates recycle at turbulent flow regime. The performance of spiral wound ultrafiltration membrane was analyzed during clarification of synthetic juice. Synthetic juice was the mixture of deionized water, sucrose and pectin molecule. The operating conditions are: feed flowrate of 10 lpm, pressure drop of 413.7 kPa and Reynolds no of 5000. Permeate sample was analyzed in terms of volume reduction factor (VRF), viscosity (Pa.s), ⁰Brix, TDS (mg/l), electrical conductivity (μS) and turbidity (NTU). It was observe that the permeate flux declined with operating time for both conditions of with and without permeate recycle due to increase of concentration polarization and increase of gel layer on membrane surface. For without permeate recycle, the membrane fouling rate was faster compared to with permeate recycle. For without permeate recycle, the VRF rose up to 5 and for with recycle permeate the VRF is 1.9. The VRF is higher due to adsorption of solute (pectin) molecule on membrane surface and resulting permeateflux declined with VRF. With permeate recycle, quality was within acceptable limit. Fouled membrane was cleaned by applying different processes (e.g., deionized water, SDS and EDTA solution). Membrane cleaning was analyzed in terms of permeability recovery.

Keywords: Synthetic juice, Spiral wound, ultrafiltration, Reynolds No, Volume reduction factor.

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45 Sexual Trauma and Connecting with the Self: Analyzing Mindfulness Strategies When Dissociation Is Triggered During Masturbation

Authors: Alisha Fisher

Abstract:

Healing from sexual trauma can be a tumultuous process, filled with loneliness, confusion, and many unknowns or surprising road bumps. Survivors of sexual violence will often battle with the post traumatic difficulties following the trauma, some of which involve struggles with reconnecting with sexual pleasure. The goal of this paper is to analyze various papers to identify if there is a connection to survivors navigating the symptom of dissociation during self-sexual pleasuring care through grounding and mindfulness strategies. We conclude that there can be benefits to engaging in strategies of grounding and mindfulness can bring a level of presence to survivor’s mind, and body that can assist with reducing the anxieties and dissociation events dur solo sexual play. As such, service providers of survivors of sexual violence should be discussing the options of solo masturbation experiences mixed with grounding and mindfulness processes for survivors to heal and re-claim their sexual lifestyles.

Keywords: Masturbation healing, sexual violence survivor, survivor healing, survivor masturbation.

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44 Mechanical Evaluation of Stainless Steel and Titanium Dynamic Hip Screws for Trochanteric Fracture

Authors: Supakit Rooppakhun, Nattapon Chantarapanich, Bancha Chernchujit, Banchong Mahaisavariya, Sedthawatt Sucharitpwatskul, Kriskrai Sitthiseripratip

Abstract:

This study aimed to present the mechanical performance evaluation of the dynamic hip screw (DHS) for trochanteric fracture by means of finite element method. The analyses were performed based on stainless steel and titanium implant material definitions at various stages of bone healing and including implant removal. The assessment of the mechanical performance used two parameters, von Mises stress to evaluate the strength of bone and implant and elastic strain to evaluate fracture stability. The results show several critical aspects of dynamic hip screw for trochanteric fracture stabilization. In the initial stage of bone healing process, partial weight bearing should be applied to avoid the implant failure. In the late stage of bone healing, stainless steel implant should be removed.

Keywords: Trochanteric fracture, Dynamic hip screw (DHS), Finite element analysis.

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43 The Effect of Electrical Stimulation Intensity on VEGF Expression and Biomechanical Properties during Wound

Authors: M R Asadi, G Torkaman, M Hedayati

Abstract:

We evaluated the effect of sensory (direct current (DC), 600μA) and motor (monophasic current, pulse duration 300μs, 100 Hz, 2.5-3mA) intensities of cathodal electrical stimulation (ES) current to release VEGF and biomechanical properties of wound. 54 male Sprague-dawley rats were randomly assigned into one control and two experimental groups. A full thickness skin incision was made on animals- dorsal region. The experimental groups received ES for 1h/day and every other day. VEGF expression was measured in skin on the 7th day after surgical incision and tensile strength was measured on 21st day. On the 7th day, the values of skin VEGF in the sensory group were significantly greater than those of the other groups (p < 0.05). Sensory and Motor intensity stimulation, can not improve the biomechanical properties of the repaired wounds. It seems the mechanical environment induced by sensory and motor intensity of electrical stimulation, could not simulate the role of normal daily stress and strain to maturation of collagen fibers and their cross links. Further work is needed to determine the relationship between VEGF expression after ES and its effect on tensile strength of healed wound.

Keywords: Biomechanical properties Direct current, Monophasic current, Skin, VEGF

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42 Torque Based Selection of ANN for Fault Diagnosis of Wound Rotor Asynchronous Motor-Converter Association

Authors: Djalal Eddine Khodja, Boukhemis Chetate

Abstract:

In this paper, an automatic system of diagnosis was developed to detect and locate in real time the defects of the wound rotor asynchronous machine associated to electronic converter. For this purpose, we have treated the signals of the measured parameters (current and speed) to use them firstly, as indicating variables of the machine defects under study and, secondly, as inputs to the Artificial Neuron Network (ANN) for their classification in order to detect the defect type in progress. Once a defect is detected, the interpretation system of information will give the type of the defect and its place of appearance.

Keywords: Artificial Neuron Networks (ANN), Effective Value (RMS), Experimental results, Failure detection Indicating values, Motor-converter unit.

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41 Analytical Studies on Volume Determination of Leg Ulcer using Structured Light and Laser Triangulation Data Acquisition Techniques

Authors: M. Abdul-Rani, K. K. Chong, A. F. M. Hani, Y. B. Yap, A. Jamil

Abstract:

Imaging is defined as the process of obtaining geometric images either two dimensional or three dimensional by scanning or digitizing the existing objects or products. In this research, it applied to retrieve 3D information of the human skin surface in medical application. This research focuses on analyzing and determining volume of leg ulcers using imaging devices. Volume determination is one of the important criteria in clinical assessment of leg ulcer. The volume and size of the leg ulcer wound will give the indication on responding to treatment whether healing or worsening. Different imaging techniques are expected to give different result (and accuracies) in generating data and images. Midpoint projection algorithm was used to reconstruct the cavity to solid model and compute the volume. Misinterpretation of the results can affect the treatment efficacy. The objectives of this paper is to compare the accuracy between two 3D data acquisition method, which is laser triangulation and structured light methods, It was shown that using models with known volume, that structured-light-based 3D technique produces better accuracy compared with laser triangulation data acquisition method for leg ulcer volume determination.

Keywords: Imaging, Laser Triangulation, Structured Light, Volume Determination.

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40 Relevance for Traditional Medicine in South Africa: Experiences of Urban Traditional Healers, Izinyanga

Authors: Ntokozo Mthembu

Abstract:

Access to relevant health indicates people’s likelihood of survival, including craft of indigenous healing and its related practitioners- izinyanga. However, the emergence of a dreaded novel corona virus - COVID-19 that has engulfed almost the whole world has necessitated the need to revisit the state of traditional healers in South Africa. This circumstance tended to expose the reality of social settings in various social structures and related policies including the manner coloniality reveal its ugly head when it comes treatment between western and African based therapeutic practices in this country. In attempting to gain a better understanding of such experiences, primary and secondary sources were consulted when collecting data that perusal of various literature in this instance including face-to-face interviews with traditional healers working on the street of Tshwane Municipality in South Africa. Preliminary findings revealed that the emergence of this deadly virus coincided with the moment when the government agenda was focussed on fulfilment of its promise of addressing the past inequity practices, including the transformation of medical sector. This scenario can be witnessed by the manner in which government and related agencies such as health department keeps on undermining indigenous healing practice irrespective of its historical record in terms of healing profession and fighting various diseases before times of father of medicine, Imhotep. Based on these preliminary findings, it is recommended that the government should hasten the incorporation of African knowledge systems especially medicine to offer alternatives and diverse to assess the underutilised indigenous African therapeutic approach and relevant skills that could be useful in combating ailments such as COVID 19. Perhaps, the plural medical systems should be recognized and related policies are formulated to guarantee mutual respect among citizens and the incorporation of healing practices in South African health sector, Africa and in the broader global community.

Keywords: Indigenous healing practice, inyanga, COVID-19, therapeutic, urban, experience.

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