Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32321
The Determination of Aflatoxins in Paddy and Milled Fractions of Rice in Guyana: Preliminary Results

Authors: Donna M. Morrison, Lambert Chester, Coretta A. N. Samuels, David R. Ledoux


A survey was conducted in the five rice-growing regions in Guyana to determine the presence of aflatoxins in multiple fractions of rice in June/October 2015 growing season. The fractions were paddy, steamed paddy, cargo rice, white rice and parboiled rice. Samples were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A subset of the samples was further analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for concurrence. All analyses were conducted at the University of Missouri, USA. Of the 186 samples tested, 16 had aflatoxin concentrations greater than 20 ppb the recommended limit for aflatoxins in food according to the United States Food and Drug Administration. An additional three samples had aflatoxin B1 concentrations greater than the European Union Commission maximum levels for aflatoxin B1 in rice at 5 µg/kg and total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) at 10 µg/kg. The survey indicates that there is no widespread aflatoxin problem in rice in Guyana. The incidence of aflatoxins appears to be localized.

Keywords: Aflatoxins, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, high-performance liquid chromatography, rice fractions.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1449


[1] Food and Agricultural Organization. Rice Market Monitor, vol. XVIII, no. 4, December 2015.
[2] Ministry of Agriculture, Guyana Bumps up rice export in 2015 despite weak prices. 2015
[3] J. Varga, J. Frisvad, R. Samson. “A reappraisal of fungi producing aflatoxins”, World Mycotoxin Journal, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 263 – 277, April 2009.
[4] M. Klinch, “Aspergillus flavus: The major producer of aflatoxin”, Molecular Plant Pathology, vol.8, no. 6, pp. 713-722, November 2007.
[5] Guyana Rice Development Board’s Annual Report, 2014.
[6] Map of Guyana.
[7] M. J. Sweeney and A. D. W Dobson, “Mycotoxin production by Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium species”, Int J Food Microbiol., vol. 43, no. 3, pp.141-158, September 1998.
[8] X. Lai, H. Zhang, R. Liu and C. Liu, “Potential for aflatoxin B1 and B2 production by Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from rice samples”, Saudi J Biol Sci., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 176-180, March 2015.
[9] International Agency for Research on Cancer working group, IARC 2003.
[10] International Food Policy Research Institute. 2011. The Health Economics of aflatoxin: Global Burden of disease.
[11] M. I. Almeida, N. G. Almeida, K. L. Carvalho, G. A. A. Goncalves, C. N. Silva, E. A. Santos, J. C. Garcia, and E. A.Vargas, “Co-occurrence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, zearalone, deoxynivalenol and citreoviridin in rice in Brazil”, Food Additives and Contaminants. Food Addit Contam A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess, vol. 29 pp. 694-703, February 2012.
[12] J. D. Kelly, D. L. Eaton, F. P. Guengerich and R. A. Coulombe Jr., “Aflatoxin B1 activation in human lung” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 88-95, May 1997.
[13] X. J. Yang, H. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Li, Q. Bian, L. L. Qiu, Z. Li, Q. Liu, J. Li, X. Wang, S. L. Wang. “Cytochrome P450 2A13 mediates aflatoxin B1-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells”, Toxicology, vol..300, no. 3, pp.138-48, October 2012.
[14] S. Z. Iqbal, H. G. Mustafa, M. R. Asi and S. Jinap. “Variation in vitamin E and aflatoxins contamination in different rice varieties”, J of Cereal Sci., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 352-355, September 2014.
[15] K. R. N. Reddy, C. S. Reddy and B. Salleh, “Varietal differences in accumulation of Aflatoxin B1 in Indian Rice Cultivars”, World Mycotox J., vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 251-256, August 2010.
[16] P. J. Cotty, R. Jaime-Garcia, “Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination”, Int. J. Food Microbiol., vol. 119, no. 1-2, pp. 109-115. October 2007.
[17] R. Jaime-Garcia, and P. Cotty, “Crop Rotation and soil temperature influence the community structure of Aspergillus flavus in soil” Soil Biol and Biochem., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1842-1847, October 2010.
[18] M. Gummert, C. Balingbing, G. Barry and L. Estevez, “Management options, technologies and strategies for minimized contamination of rice”, World Mycotox J., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 151-159, May 2009.
[19] K. R. N. Reddy, P. Saritha, C. S. Reddy and K. Muralidharan, “Detection of Aspergillus spp and aflatoxin B1 in rice in India”, Food Microbiol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 27-31, February 2009.
[20] H. E. Ok, M. K. Dong, D. Kim, S. H. Chung, M. Chung, K. H. Park, H. S. Chun, “Mycobiota and natural occurrence of aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone in rice freshly harvested in South Korea”, Food Control, vol. 37 pp. 284-291, March 2014.
[21] W. Mousa, F. M. Ghazali, S. Jinap, H. M. Ghazali and S. Radu, “Modelling the effect of water activity and temperature on growth rate and aflatoxin production by two isolates of Aspergillus flavus on paddy”, J Applied Microbiology, vol. 111, no. 5, pp.1262-1274, November 2011.
[22] S. Choi, H. Jun, J. Bang, S. H. Chung, Y. Kim, B. S Kim, H. Kim, L. R. Beuchat and J. H. Ryu, “Behaviour of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum on rice as affected by milling, temperature and relative humidity during storage”, Food Microbiology, vol. 4, pp. 307-313, April 2015.
[23] A. C. Sales and T. Yoshizawa, “Updates profile of aflatoxin and Aspergillus section flavi contamination in rice and its by-products from the Philippines”, Food Addit Contam A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 429-436, February 2007.
[24] K. Tanaka, Y. Sago, Y. Zheng, H. Nakagawa and M. Kushiro, “Mycotoxins in rice” International J of Food Microbiol. Vol. 119, no. 1-2, pp.59-66, October 2007.
[25] A. S. Rofiat, F. Fanelli, O. Atanda, M. Sulyok, G. Cozzi, S. Bavaro, R. Krska, A. F. Logrieco and C. N. Ezekiel, “Fungal and bacterial metabolites associated with natural contamination of locally processed rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Nigeria”, Food Addit Contam A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess, vol. 32, no. 6 pp. 950-959, April 2015.
[26] M. W. Trucksess, H. K. Abbas, C. M. Weaver and W. T. Shier, “Distribution of aflatoxins in shelling and milling fractions of naturally contaminated rice”, Food Addit Contam A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1076-1082, May 2011.
[27] S. Z. Iqbal, M. R. Asi, A. Ariño, N. Akram and M. Zuber, “Aflatoxin contamination in different fractions of rice from Pakistan and estimation of dietary intakes”, Mycotox Res., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 175-180, August 2012.
[28] S. V. Reshma and R. Ahmad, “Natural Incidence of aflatoxins in parboiled rice during various stages of processing”, J Food Sci and Tech. vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 451-454, September 1998.
[29] G. S. Toteja, A. Mukherjee, S. Diwakar, P. Singh, B. N. Saxena, K. K. Sinha, A.K. Sinha, N. Kumar, K. V. Nagaraja, G. Bai, C. A. Krishna Prasad, S. Vanchinathan, R. Roy and S. Sarkar, “Aflatoxin B1 contamination of parboiled rice samples collected from different states of India: A multi-centre study”, Food Addit Contam A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 411–414, February 2007.
[30] J. M. R. S. Bandara, A. K. Vithanege and G. A. Bean, “Occurrence of aflatoxins in parboiled rice in Sri Lanka”, Mycopathologia, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 65-70. November 1991.
[31] J. M. R. S. Bandara, A. K. Vithanege and G. A. Bean, “Effect of parboiling and bran removal on aflatoxins in Sri Lankan rice”, Mycopathologia, vol. 115, no. 1, pp 31-35. July 1991.
[32] K. Li, F. Qiu, L. Jiang and M. Yang, “Dietary exposure assessment of aflatoxin of food stuff and edible oil from Shenzhen residents”, J Hygiene Res., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 630-636, 2014.
[33] R. M. Kilonzo, J. K. Imungi, W. M. Muiru, P. O. Lamuka and P. M. K. Njage, “Household dietary exposure to aflatoxins from maize and maize products in Kenya”, Food Addit Contam A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess, vol. 31, no. 12, 2055-2062, November 2014.
[34] F. Raad, L. Nasreddine, C. Hilan, M. Bartosik, D. Parent-Massin, “Dietary exposure to afaltoxins, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol from a total diet study in an adult urban Lebanese population”, Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 73 pp. 35-43, November 2014.
[35] Y. Sugita-Konishi, T. Sato, T. Saito, M. Nakajima, S. Tabata, T. Tanaka, H. Norizuki, Y. Itoh, S. Kai, K. Sugiyama, Y. Kamata, N. Yoshiike and S. Kamagai, “Exposure to aflatoxins in Japan: risk assessment for aflatoxin B1”, Food Addit Contam A, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 365-372, January 2010.
[36] United States Food and Drug Administration, “Guidance for Industry: Action Levels for Poisonous or Deleterious Substances in Human Food and Animal Feed”,, 2000
[37] European Union Commission, “European Union Commission Regulations”, Official Journal of the European Union. 50/8-12. 2010
[38] G. C. Dors, L. A. de Almeida Pinto L. and E Badiale-Furlong, “Migration of mycotoxins into rice starchy endosperm during the parboiling process”, LWT – Food Science and Technology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 433-437, April 2008.
[39] X. Lai, R. Liu, C. Ruan, H. Zhang and C. Liu. “Occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in rice samples from six provinces in China”, Food Control vol. 50, pp. 401-404, April 2015
[40] J. Iqbal, M.A. Asghar, A. Ahmed, M. A Khan and K. Jamil, “Aflatoxin contamination in Pakistani brown rice: A comparison of TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques”, Toxicology mechanisms and methods, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 544-551, August 2014.
[41] M. Sadegh, P. Rahnama and A. M. Sani, “Comparison of ELISA and HPLC techniques in determination of AFB1 in feedstuff”, Biotechnology: An Indian Journal vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 429-434, 2014.