Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4245

Search results for: information extraction

4245 Use of Bayesian Network in Information Extraction from Unstructured Data Sources

Authors: Quratulain N. Rajput, Sajjad Haider

Abstract:

This paper applies Bayesian Networks to support information extraction from unstructured, ungrammatical, and incoherent data sources for semantic annotation. A tool has been developed that combines ontologies, machine learning, and information extraction and probabilistic reasoning techniques to support the extraction process. Data acquisition is performed with the aid of knowledge specified in the form of ontology. Due to the variable size of information available on different data sources, it is often the case that the extracted data contains missing values for certain variables of interest. It is desirable in such situations to predict the missing values. The methodology, presented in this paper, first learns a Bayesian network from the training data and then uses it to predict missing data and to resolve conflicts. Experiments have been conducted to analyze the performance of the presented methodology. The results look promising as the methodology achieves high degree of precision and recall for information extraction and reasonably good accuracy for predicting missing values.

Keywords: Information Extraction, Bayesian Network, ontology, Machine Learning

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4244 Information Extraction from Unstructured and Ungrammatical Data Sources for Semantic Annotation

Authors: Quratulain N. Rajput, Sajjad Haider, Nasir Touheed

Abstract:

The internet has become an attractive avenue for global e-business, e-learning, knowledge sharing, etc. Due to continuous increase in the volume of web content, it is not practically possible for a user to extract information by browsing and integrating data from a huge amount of web sources retrieved by the existing search engines. The semantic web technology enables advancement in information extraction by providing a suite of tools to integrate data from different sources. To take full advantage of semantic web, it is necessary to annotate existing web pages into semantic web pages. This research develops a tool, named OWIE (Ontology-based Web Information Extraction), for semantic web annotation using domain specific ontologies. The tool automatically extracts information from html pages with the help of pre-defined ontologies and gives them semantic representation. Two case studies have been conducted to analyze the accuracy of OWIE.

Keywords: Ontology, Semantic Annotation, Wrapper, Information Extraction.

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4243 Mechanisms of Ginger Bioactive Compounds Extract Using Soxhlet and Accelerated Water Extraction

Authors: M. N. Azian, A. N. Ilia Anisa, Y. Iwai

Abstract:

The mechanism for extraction bioactive compounds from plant matrix is essential for optimizing the extraction process. As a benchmark technique, a soxhlet extraction has been utilized for discussing the mechanism and compared with an accelerated water extraction. The trends of both techniques show that the process involves extraction and degradation. The highest yields of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in soxhlet extraction were 13.948, 7.12, 10.312 and 2.306 mg/g, respectively. The optimum 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol extracted by the accelerated water extraction at 140oC were 68.97±3.95 mg/g at 3min, 18.98±3.04 mg/g at 5min, 5.167±2.35 mg/g at 3min and 14.57±6.27 mg/g at 3min, respectively. The effect of temperature at 3mins shows that the concentration of 6-shogaol increased rapidly as decreasing the recovery of 6-gingerol.

Keywords: Mechanism, bioactive compounds, soxhlet extraction, accelerated water extraction.

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4242 Extraction of Significant Phrases from Text

Authors: Yuan J. Lui

Abstract:

Prospective readers can quickly determine whether a document is relevant to their information need if the significant phrases (or keyphrases) in this document are provided. Although keyphrases are useful, not many documents have keyphrases assigned to them, and manually assigning keyphrases to existing documents is costly. Therefore, there is a need for automatic keyphrase extraction. This paper introduces a new domain independent keyphrase extraction algorithm. The algorithm approaches the problem of keyphrase extraction as a classification task, and uses a combination of statistical and computational linguistics techniques, a new set of attributes, and a new machine learning method to distinguish keyphrases from non-keyphrases. The experiments indicate that this algorithm performs better than other keyphrase extraction tools and that it significantly outperforms Microsoft Word 2000-s AutoSummarize feature. The domain independence of this algorithm has also been confirmed in our experiments.

Keywords: classification, keyphrase extraction, machine learning, summarization

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4241 Automatic Extraction of Water Bodies Using Whole-R Method

Authors: Nikhat Nawaz, S. Srinivasulu, P. Kesava Rao

Abstract:

Feature extraction plays an important role in many remote sensing applications. Automatic extraction of water bodies is of great significance in many remote sensing applications like change detection, image retrieval etc. This paper presents a procedure for automatic extraction of water information from remote sensing images. The algorithm uses the relative location of R color component of the chromaticity diagram. This method is then integrated with the effectiveness of the spatial scale transformation of whole method. The whole method is based on water index fitted from spectral library. Experimental results demonstrate the improved accuracy and effectiveness of the integrated method for automatic extraction of water bodies.

Keywords: Chromaticity, Feature Extraction, Remote Sensing, Spectral library, Water Index.

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4240 Extraction Condition of Echinocactus grusonii

Authors: R. Oonsivilai, N. Chaijareonudomroung, Y. Huantanom, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

The optimal extraction condition of dried Echinocactus grusonii powder was studied. The three independent variables are raw material drying temperature, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The dependent variables are both yield percentage of crude extract and total phenolic quantification as gallic acid equivalent in crude extract. The experimental design was based on central composite design. Highest yield percentage of crude extract could get from extraction condition at raw material drying temperature at 60°C, extraction temperature at 15°C, and extraction time for 25 min °C. Moreover, the crude extract with highest phenolic occurred by extraction condition of raw material drying temperature at 60°C, extraction temperature at 35 °C, and extraction lasting 25 min.

Keywords: Drying temperature, Extraction temperature, Optimal condition, Total phenolic

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4239 Event Information Extraction System (EIEE): FSM vs HMM

Authors: Shaukat Wasi, Zubair A. Shaikh, Sajid Qasmi, Hussain Sachwani, Rehman Lalani, Aamir Chagani

Abstract:

Automatic Extraction of Event information from social text stream (emails, social network sites, blogs etc) is a vital requirement for many applications like Event Planning and Management systems and security applications. The key information components needed from Event related text are Event title, location, participants, date and time. Emails have very unique distinctions over other social text streams from the perspective of layout and format and conversation style and are the most commonly used communication channel for broadcasting and planning events. Therefore we have chosen emails as our dataset. In our work, we have employed two statistical NLP methods, named as Finite State Machines (FSM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for the extraction of event related contextual information. An application has been developed providing a comparison among the two methods over the event extraction task. It comprises of two modules, one for each method, and works for both bulk as well as direct user input. The results are evaluated using Precision, Recall and F-Score. Experiments show that both methods produce high performance and accuracy, however HMM was good enough over Title extraction and FSM proved to be better for Venue, Date, and time.

Keywords: Emails, Event Extraction, Event Detection, Finite state machines, Hidden Markov Model.

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4238 CFD Simulation of Dense Gas Extraction through Polymeric Membranes

Authors: Azam Marjani, Saeed Shirazian

Abstract:

In this study is presented a general methodology to predict the performance of a continuous near-critical fluid extraction process to remove compounds from aqueous solutions using hollow fiber membrane contactors. A comprehensive 2D mathematical model was developed to study Porocritical extraction process. The system studied in this work is a membrane based extractor of ethanol and acetone from aqueous solutions using near-critical CO2. Predictions of extraction percentages obtained by simulations have been compared to the experimental values reported by Bothun et al. [5]. Simulations of extraction percentage of ethanol and acetone show an average difference of 9.3% and 6.5% with the experimental data, respectively. More accurate predictions of the extraction of acetone could be explained by a better estimation of the transport properties in the aqueous phase that controls the extraction of this solute.

Keywords: Solvent extraction, Membrane, Mass transfer, Densegas, Modeling

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4237 PIELG: A Protein Interaction Extraction Systemusing a Link Grammar Parser from Biomedical Abstracts

Authors: Rania A. Abul Seoud, Nahed H. Solouma, Abou-Baker M. Youssef, Yasser M. Kadah

Abstract:

Due to the ever growing amount of publications about protein-protein interactions, information extraction from text is increasingly recognized as one of crucial technologies in bioinformatics. This paper presents a Protein Interaction Extraction System using a Link Grammar Parser from biomedical abstracts (PIELG). PIELG uses linkage given by the Link Grammar Parser to start a case based analysis of contents of various syntactic roles as well as their linguistically significant and meaningful combinations. The system uses phrasal-prepositional verbs patterns to overcome preposition combinations problems. The recall and precision are 74.4% and 62.65%, respectively. Experimental evaluations with two other state-of-the-art extraction systems indicate that PIELG system achieves better performance. For further evaluation, the system is augmented with a graphical package (Cytoscape) for extracting protein interaction information from sequence databases. The result shows that the performance is remarkably promising.

Keywords: Link Grammar Parser, Interaction extraction, protein-protein interaction, Natural language processing.

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4236 Thermodynamic Study of Seed Oil Extraction by Organic Solvents

Authors: Zhila Safari, Ali Ashrafizadeh, Najaf Hedayat

Abstract:

Thermodynamics characterization Sesame oil extraction by Acetone, Hexane and Benzene has been evaluated. The 120 hours experimental Data were described by a simple mathematical model. According to the simulation results and the essential criteria, Acetone is superior to other solvents but under certain conditions where oil extraction takes place Hexane is superior catalyst.

Keywords: Liquid-solid extraction, seed oil, ThermodynamicStudy.

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4235 Effect of Enzyme and Heat Pretreatment on Sunflower Oil Recovery Using Aqueous and Hexane Extractions

Authors: E. Danso-Boateng

Abstract:

The effects of enzyme action and heat pretreatment on oil extraction yield from sunflower kernels were analysed using hexane extraction with Soxhlet, and aqueous extraction with incubator shaker. Ground kernels of raw and heat treated kernels, each with and without Viscozyme treatment were used. Microscopic images of the kernels were taken to analyse the visible effects of each treatment on the cotyledon cell structure of the kernels. Heat pretreated kernels before both extraction processes produced enhanced oil extraction yields than the control, with steam explosion the most efficient. In hexane extraction, applying a combination of steam explosion and Viscozyme treatments to the kernels before the extraction gave the maximum oil extractable in 1 hour; while for aqueous extraction, raw kernels treated with Viscozyme gave the highest oil extraction yield. Remarkable cotyledon cell disruption was evident in kernels treated with Viscozyme; whereas steam explosion and conventional heat treated kernels had similar effects.

Keywords: Enzyme-assisted aqueous and hexane extraction, heatpretreatment, sunflower cotyledon structure, sunflower oil extraction

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4234 Motion Recognition Based On Fuzzy WP Feature Extraction Approach

Authors: Keun-Chang Kwak

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with motion recognition based fuzzy WP(Wavelet Packet) feature extraction approach from Vicon physical data sets. For this purpose, we use an efficient fuzzy mutual-information-based WP transform for feature extraction. This method estimates the required mutual information using a novel approach based on fuzzy membership function. The physical action data set includes 10 normal and 10 aggressive physical actions that measure the human activity. The data have been collected from 10 subjects using the Vicon 3D tracker. The experiments consist of running, seating, and walking as physical activity motion among various activities. The experimental results revealed that the presented feature extraction approach showed good recognition performance.

Keywords: Motion recognition, fuzzy wavelet packet, Vicon physical data.

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4233 Subcritical Water Extraction of Mannitol from Olive Leaves

Authors: S. M. Ghoreishi, R. Gholami Shahrestani, S. H. Ghaziaskar

Abstract:

Subcritical water extraction was investigated as a novel and alternative technology in the food and pharmaceutical industry for the separation of Mannitol from olive leaves and its results was compared with those of Soxhlet extraction. The effects of temperature, pressure, and flow rate of water and also momentum and mass transfer dimensionless variables such as Reynolds and Peclet Numbers on extraction yield and equilibrium partition coefficient were investigated. The 30-110 bars, 60-150°C, and flow rates of 0.2-2 mL/min were the water operating conditions. The results revealed that the highest Mannitol yield was obtained at 100°C and 50 bars. However, extraction of Mannitol was not influenced by the variations of flow rate. The mathematical modeling of experimental measurements was also investigated and the model is capable of predicting the experimental measurements very well. In addition, the results indicated higher extraction yield for the subcritical water extraction in contrast to Soxhlet method.

Keywords: Extraction, Mannitol, Modeling, Olive leaves, Soxhlet extraction, Subcritical water.

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4232 Automatic Extraction of Roads from High Resolution Aerial and Satellite Images with Heavy Noise

Authors: Yan Li, Ronald Briggs

Abstract:

Aerial and satellite images are information rich. They are also complex to analyze. For GIS systems, many features require fast and reliable extraction of roads and intersections. In this paper, we study efficient and reliable automatic extraction algorithms to address some difficult issues that are commonly seen in high resolution aerial and satellite images, nonetheless not well addressed in existing solutions, such as blurring, broken or missing road boundaries, lack of road profiles, heavy shadows, and interfering surrounding objects. The new scheme is based on a new method, namely reference circle, to properly identify the pixels that belong to the same road and use this information to recover the whole road network. This feature is invariable to the shape and direction of roads and tolerates heavy noise and disturbances. Road extraction based on reference circles is much more noise tolerant and flexible than the previous edge-detection based algorithms. The scheme is able to extract roads reliably from images with complex contents and heavy obstructions, such as the high resolution aerial/satellite images available from Google maps.

Keywords: Automatic road extraction, Image processing, Feature extraction, GIS update, Remote sensing, Geo-referencing

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4231 A Proposed Information Extraction Technique in Engineering Drawing for Reuse Design

Authors: Mohd Fahmi Mohamad Amran, Riza Sulaiman, Saliyah Kahar, Suziyanti Marjudi, Muhammad FairuzAbd Rauf

Abstract:

The extensive number of engineering drawing will be referred for planning process and the changes will produce a good engineering design to meet the demand in producing a new model. The advantage in reuse of engineering designs is to allow continuous product development to further improve the quality of product development, thus reduce the development costs. However, to retrieve the existing engineering drawing, it is time consuming, a complex process and are expose to errors. Engineering drawing file searching system will be proposed to solve this problem. It is essential for engineer and designer to have some sort of medium to enable them to search for drawing in the most effective way. This paper lays out the proposed research project under the area of information extraction in engineering drawing.

Keywords: Computer aided design, information extraction, engineering drawing, reuse design.

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4230 Evolving Knowledge Extraction from Online Resources

Authors: Zhibo Xiao, Tharini Nayanika de Silva, Kezhi Mao

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an evolving knowledge extraction system named AKEOS (Automatic Knowledge Extraction from Online Sources). AKEOS consists of two modules, including a one-time learning module and an evolving learning module. The one-time learning module takes in user input query, and automatically harvests knowledge from online unstructured resources in an unsupervised way. The output of the one-time learning is a structured vector representing the harvested knowledge. The evolving learning module automatically schedules and performs repeated one-time learning to extract the newest information and track the development of an event. In addition, the evolving learning module summarizes the knowledge learned at different time points to produce a final knowledge vector about the event. With the evolving learning, we are able to visualize the key information of the event, discover the trends, and track the development of an event.

Keywords: Evolving learning, knowledge extraction, knowledge graph, text mining.

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4229 Effect of Wheat Flour Extraction Rates on Flour Composition, Farinographic Characteristics and Sensory Perception of Sourdough Naans

Authors: Ghulam Mueen-ud-Din, Salim-ur-Rehman, Faqir M. Anjum, Haq Nawaz, Mian A. Murtaza

Abstract:

The effect of wheat flour extraction rates on flour composition, farinographic characteristics and the quality of sourdough naans was investigated. The results indicated that by increasing the extraction rate, the amount of protein, fiber, fat and ash increased, whereas moisture content decreased. Farinographic characteristic like water absorption and dough development time increased with an increase in flour extraction rate but the dough stabilities and tolerance indices were reduced with an increase in flour extraction rates. Titratable acidity for both sourdough and sourdough naans also increased along with flour extraction rate. The study showed that overall quality of sourdough naans were affected by both flour extraction rate and starter culture used. Sensory analysis of sourdough naans revealed that desirable extraction rate for sourdough naan was 76%.

Keywords: Extraction rates, Farinographic characteristics, Flour composition, Sourdough naans, Wheat flour.

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4228 Extraction Condition of Phaseolus vulgaris

Authors: Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai, Jutarat Manatwiyangkool, Anant Oonsivilai

Abstract:

Theoptimal extraction condition of dried Phaseolus vulgaris powderwas studied. The three independent variables are raw material concentration, shaking and centrifugaltime. The dependent variables are both yield percentage of crude extract and alphaamylase enzyme inhibition activity. The experimental design was based on box-behnkendesign. Highest yield percentage of crude extract could get from extraction condition at concentration of 1, 0,1, concentration of 0.15 M ,extraction time for 2hour, and separationtime for60 min. Moreover, the crude extract with highest alpha-amylase enzyme inhibition activityoccurred by extraction condition at concentration of 0.10 M, extraction time for 2 min, and separation time for 45 min

Keywords: Extraction time, Optimal condition, Alpha-amylase enzymeinhibition activity

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4227 A New Method for Rapid DNA Extraction from Artemia (Branchiopoda, Crustacea)

Authors: R. Manaffar, R. Maleki, S. Zare, N. Agh, S. Soltanian, B. Sehatnia, P. Sorgeloos, P. Bossier, G. Van Stappen

Abstract:

Artemia is one of the most conspicuous invertebrates associated with aquaculture. It can be considered as a model organism, offering numerous advantages for comprehensive and multidisciplinary studies using morphologic or molecular methods. Since DNA extraction is an important step of any molecular experiment, a new and a rapid method of DNA extraction from adult Artemia was described in this study. Besides, the efficiency of this technique was compared with two widely used alternative techniques, namely Chelex® 100 resin and SDS-chloroform methods. Data analysis revealed that the new method is the easiest and the most cost effective method among the other methods which allows a quick and efficient extraction of DNA from the adult animal.

Keywords: APD, Artemia, DNA extraction, Molecularexperiments

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4226 An Automatic Feature Extraction Technique for 2D Punch Shapes

Authors: Awais Ahmad Khan, Emad Abouel Nasr, H. M. A. Hussein, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari

Abstract:

Sheet-metal parts have been widely applied in electronics, communication and mechanical industries in recent decades; but the advancement in sheet-metal part design and manufacturing is still behind in comparison with the increasing importance of sheet-metal parts in modern industry. This paper presents a methodology for automatic extraction of some common 2D internal sheet metal features. The features used in this study are taken from Unipunch ™ catalogue. The extraction process starts with the data extraction from STEP file using an object oriented approach and with the application of suitable algorithms and rules, all features contained in the catalogue are automatically extracted. Since the extracted features include geometry and engineering information, they will be effective for downstream application such as feature rebuilding and process planning.

Keywords: Feature Extraction, Internal Features, Punch Shapes, Sheet metal, STEP.

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4225 Optimization for Subcritical Water Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Rambutan Peels

Authors: Nuttawan Yoswathana, M. N. Eshtiaghi

Abstract:

Rambutan is a tropical fruit which peel possesses antioxidant properties. This work was conducted to optimize extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from rambutan peel. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to optimize subcritical water extraction (SWE) on temperature, extraction time and percent solvent mixture. The results demonstrated that the optimum conditions for SWE were as follows: temperature 160°C, extraction time 20min. and concentration of 50% ethanol. Comparison of the phenolic compounds from the rambutan peels in maceration 6h, soxhlet 4h, and SWE 20min., it indicated that total phenolic content (using Folin-Ciocalteu-s phenol reagent) was 26.42, 70.29, and 172.47mg of tannic acid equivalent (TAE) per g dry rambutan peel, respectively. The comparative study concluded that SWE was a promising technique for phenolic compounds extraction from rambutan peel, due to much more two times of conventional techniques and shorter extraction times.

Keywords: Subcritical water extraction, Rambutan peel, phenolic compounds, response surface methodology

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4224 Optimization of Deglet-Nour Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Phenol Extraction Conditions

Authors: Lekbir Adel, Alloui-Lombarkia Ourida, Mekentichi Sihem, Noui Yassine, Baississe Salima

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity from Deglet-Nour variety. The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The effects of extraction variables, namely types of solvent (methanol, ethanol and acetone) and extraction time (1h, 6h, 12h and 24h) on phenolics extraction yield were evaluated. It has been shown that the time of extraction and types of solvent have a statistically significant influence on the extraction of phenolic compounds from Deglet-Nour variety. The optimised conditions yielded values of 80.19 ± 6.37 mg GAE/100 g FW for TPC, 2.34 ± 0.27 mg QE/100 g FW for TFC and 90.20 ± 1.29% for antioxidant activity were methanol solvent and 6 hours of time. According to the results obtained in this study, Deglet-Nour variety can be considered as a natural source of phenolic compounds with good antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: Deglet-Nour variety, Date palm Fruit, Phenolic compounds, Total flavonoids, Antioxidant activity, Extraction, Optimization.

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4223 Optimization and Kinetic Study of Gaharu Oil Extraction

Authors: Muhammad Hazwan H., Azlina M.F., Hasfalina C.M., Zurina Z.A., Hishamuddin J

Abstract:

Gaharu that produced by Aquilaria spp. is classified as one of the most valuable forest products traded internationally as it is very resinous, fragrant and highly valuable heartwood. Gaharu has been widely used in aromatheraphy, medicine, perfume and religious practices. This work aimed to determine the factors affecting solid liquid extraction of gaharu oil using hexane as solvent under experimental condition. The kinetics of extraction was assumed and verified based on a second-order mechanism. The effect of three main factors, which were temperature, reaction time and solvent to solid ratio were investigated to achieve maximum oil yield. The optimum condition were found at temperature 65°C, 9 hours reaction time and solvent to solid ratio of 12:1 with 14.5% oil yield. The kinetics experimental data agrees and well fitted with the second order extraction model. The initial extraction rate (h) was 0.0115 gmL-1min-1; the extraction capacity (Cs) was 1.282gmL-1; the second order extraction constant (k) was 0.007 mLg-1min-1 and coefficient of determination, R2 was 0.945.

Keywords: Gaharu, solid liquid extraction, optimization, kinetics.

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4222 Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Melon Shells

Authors: A. Brinda Lakshmi, J. Lakshmi Priya

Abstract:

Cantaloupes (muskmelon and watermelon) contain biologically active molecules such as carotenoids which are natural pigments used as food colorants and afford health benefits. ß-carotene is the major source of carotenoids present in muskmelon and watermelon shell. Carotenoids were extracted using Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) utilising organic lipophilic solvents such as acetone, methanol, and hexane. Extraction conditions feed-solvent ratio, microwave power, ultrasound frequency, temperature and particle size were varied and optimized. It was found that the yield of carotenoids was higher using UAE than MAE, and muskmelon had the highest yield of carotenoids when was ethanol used as a solvent for 0.5 mm particle size.

Keywords: Carotenoids, extraction, muskmelon shell, watermelon shell.

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4221 Designing a Tool for Software Maintenance

Authors: Amir Ngah, Masita Abdul Jalil, Zailani Abdullah

Abstract:

The aim of software maintenance is to maintain the software system in accordance with advancement in software and hardware technology. One of the early works on software maintenance is to extract information at higher level of abstraction. In this paper, we present the process of how to design an information extraction tool for software maintenance. The tool can extract the basic information from old programs such as about variables, based classes, derived classes, objects of classes, and functions. The tool have two main parts; the lexical analyzer module that can read the input file character by character, and the searching module which users can get the basic information from the existing programs. We implemented this tool for a patterned sub-C++ language as an input file.

Keywords: Extraction tool, software maintenance, reverse engineering, C++.

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4220 Development of a Semantic Wiki-based Feature Library for the Extraction of Manufacturing Feature and Manufacturing Information

Authors: Hendry Muljadi, Hideaki Takeda, Koichi Ando

Abstract:

A manufacturing feature can be defined simply as a geometric shape and its manufacturing information to create the shape. In a feature-based process planning system, feature library that consists of pre-defined manufacturing features and the manufacturing information to create the shape of the features, plays an important role in the extraction of manufacturing features with their proper manufacturing information. However, to manage the manufacturing information flexibly, it is important to build a feature library that can be easily modified. In this paper, the implementation of Semantic Wiki for the development of the feature library is proposed.

Keywords: Manufacturing feature, feature library, feature ontology, process planning, Wiki, MediaWiki, Semantic Wiki.

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4219 Modeling and Prediction of Zinc Extraction Efficiency from Concentrate by Operating Condition and Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: S. Mousavian, D. Ashouri, F. Mousavian, V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, N. Ghazinia

Abstract:

PH, temperature and time of extraction of each stage,  agitation speed and delay time between stages effect on efficiency of  zinc extraction from concentrate. In this research, efficiency of zinc  extraction was predicted as a function of mentioned variable by  artificial neural networks (ANN). ANN with different layer was  employed and the result show that the networks with 8 neurons in  hidden layer has good agreement with experimental data.

 

Keywords: Zinc extraction, Efficiency, Neural networks, Operating condition.

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4218 Extraction and Characterization of Oil from Avocado Peels

Authors: Tafere Aga Bullo

Abstract:

The peels of avocados, like other fruit peels, are commonly discarded, not knowing their potential use. This study carried out to extract oils from avocado peels and to characterize the extracted oils with the view to determine their suitability for consumption and other uses. Soxhlet apparatus was used for extraction using n-hexane as a solvent, which is chosen based on the fact that it has a very low value of toxicity and a great extraction rate. The proximate analysis and physicochemical properties of the extracted oil were investigated. The percentage yield of oil extracted from the peel was found to be 40.6%. From this study, the optimum operating conditions for the extraction of oil from avocado peel oil for the particle size of 2.6 mm, solvent type N-hexane and extraction time of 3-5 hr. were considered. A general factorial design was applied to investigate the effect of process variables on oil yield. Maximum oil yield of 40.6% was obtained at an extraction time of 5 hr. The extracted avocado peel oil can be widely used in pharmaceutical and energy production.

Keywords: Avocado fruits, avocado oil, avocado peel oil, characterization.

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4217 Extraction of Phenol, o-Cresol, and p-Cresol from Coal Tar: Effect of Temperature and Mixing

Authors: Dewi S. Fardhyanti, Panut Mulyono, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Muslikhin Hidayat

Abstract:

Coal tar is a liquid by-product of the process of coal gasification and carbonation. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful compounds such as phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. This research needed to be done that given the optimum conditions for the separation of phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from the coal tar by solvent extraction process. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of two kinds of aqueous were used as solvents: methanol and acetone solutions, the effect of temperature (298, 306, and 313K) and mixing (30, 35, and 40rpm) for the separation of phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from coal tar by solvent extraction. Results indicated that phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol in coal tar were selectivity extracted into the solvent phase and these components could be separated by solvent extraction. The aqueous solution of methanol, mass ratio of solvent to feed, Eo/Ro=1, extraction temperature 306K and mixing 35 rpm were the most efficient for extraction of phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from coal tar.

Keywords: Coal tar, Distribution coefficient, Extraction, Yield.

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4216 Thermodynamic Study of Uranium Extraction from Tunisian Wet Process Phosphoric Acid

Authors: N. Khleifia, A. Hannachi, N. Abbes

Abstract:

In the present paper, an experimental investigation was conducted to study the thermodynamic of uranium extraction from Tunisian wet phosphoric acid using the synergistic solvent mixture of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and trioctyl phosphine oxid (TOPO) diluted in kerosene. The effect of different factors affecting the extraction process (temperature, TOPO and DEHPA concentrations) has been investigated. The obtained data of temperature effect on the extraction showed that the enthalpy change is -35.8 kJ.mol-1. The slope analysis method was used for determining the stoichiometry of the extracted species.

Keywords: DEHPA-TOPO, extraction, phosphoric acid, stoichiometry, uranium.

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