Search results for: cytokine expression
374 A Novel Cytokine Derived Fusion Tag for Over- Expression of Heterologous Proteins in E. coli
Authors: S. Banerjee, A. Apte Deshpande, N. Mandi, S. Padmanabhan
Abstract:We report a novel fusion tag for expressing recombinant proteins in E. coli. The fusion tag is the C-terminus part of the human GMCSF gene comprising 45 amino acids, which aid in over expression of otherwise non expressible genes. Expression of hIFN a2b with this fusion tag also escapes the requirement of rare codons for expression. This is also a first report of a small fusion tag of human origin having affinity to heparin sepharose column facilitating the purification of fusion protein.
Keywords: fusion tag, bacterial expression, rare codons, human GMCSFProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1768
373 Impact of Tuberculosis Co-infection on Cytokine Expression in HIV-Infected Individuals
Authors: M. Nosik, I. Rymanova, N. Adamovich, S. Sevostyanihin, K. Ryzhov, Y. Kuimova, A. Kravtchenko, N. Sergeeva, A. Sobkin
HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) infections each speed the other's progress. HIV-infection increases the risk of TB disease. At the same time, TB infection is associated with clinical progression of HIV-infection. HIV+TB co-infected patients are also at higher risk of acquiring new opportunistic infections. An important feature of disease progression and clinical outcome is the innate and acquired immune responses. HIV and TB, however, have a spectrum of dysfunctions of the immune response. As cytokines play a crucial role in the immunopathology of both infections, it is important to study immune interactions in patients with dual infection HIV+TB. Plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ and immunoregulating cytokines IL-4, IL-10 were evaluated in 75 patients with dual infection HIV+TB, 58 patients with HIV monoinfection and 50 patients with TB monoinfection who were previously naïve for HAART. The decreased levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 were observed in patients with dual infection HIV+TB in comparison with patients who had only HIV or TB which means the profound suppression of Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion. Thus, those cytokines could possibly serve as immunological markers of progression of HIV-infection in patients with TB.
Keywords: HIV, Tuberculosis, TB, HIV associated with TB, Th1/ Th2 cytokine expression.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1450
372 Features of the Immune Response in Mice were Immunized with Polio Vaccine in Combination with Chitosan Preparations as Adjuvants
Authors: Nelly К. Akhmatova, Оlga V. Lebedinskaya, Stanislav G. Markushin, Elvin А. Akhmatov, Lidiya A. Geiderova, Еlena А. Lebedinskaya, Vera M. Axenova, Аnatoliy P. Godovalov
Abstract:The study of cytokine expression in mice under the influence of inactivated poliovirus and Imovaks polio vaccine in combination with derivatives of chitosan shows various kinds of processes. There is a significant increase in IL-12 in the serum of immunized animals, which should stimulate the production of IFN-γ NK-cells and T-cells and polarize the immune response to Th1 type. Thus, the derivatives of chitosan can promote cell component of the immune response, providing a full antiviral immunity.
Keywords: Poliovirus, chitosan, cytokine expression, antiviral immunity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1756
371 Immunolabeling of TGF-β during Muscle Regeneration
Authors: K. Nikovics, D. Riccobono, M. Oger, H. Morin, L. Barbier, T. Poyot, X. Holy, A. Bendahmane, M. Drouet, A. L. Favier
Muscle regeneration after injury (as irradiation) is of great importance. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms are still unclear. Cytokines are believed to play fundamental role in the different stages of muscle regeneration. They are secreted by many cell populations, but the predominant producers are macrophages and helper T cells. On the other hand, it has been shown that adipose tissue derived stromal/stem cell (ASC) injection could improve muscle regeneration. Stem cells probably induce the coordinated modulations of gene expression in different macrophage cells. Therefore, we investigated the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression of different cytokines occurring upon stem cells loading. Muscle regeneration was studied in an irradiated muscle of minipig animal model in presence or absence of ASC treatment (irradiated and treated with ASCs, IRR+ASC; irradiated not-treated with ASCs, IRR; and non-irradiated no-IRR). We characterized macrophage populations by immunolabeling in the different conditions. In our study, we found mostly M2 and a few M1 macrophages in the IRR+ASC samples. However, only few M2b macrophages were noticed in the IRR muscles. In addition, we found intensive fibrosis in the IRR samples. With in situ hybridization and immunolabeling, we analyzed the cytokine expression of the different macrophages and we showed that M2d macrophage are the most abundant in the IRR+ASC samples. By in situ hybridization, strong expression of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) was observed in the IRR+ASC but very week in the IRR samples. But when we analyzed TGF-β level with immunolabeling the expression was very different: many M2 macrophages showed week expression in IRR+ASC and few cells expressing stronger level in IRR muscles. Therefore, we investigated the MMP expressions in the different muscles. Our data showed that the M2 macrophages of the IRR+ASC muscle expressed MMP2 proteins. Our working hypothesis is that MMP2 expression of the M2 macrophages can decrease fibrosis in the IRR+ASC muscle by capturing TGF-β.
Keywords: Adipose tissue derived stromal/stem cell, cytokine, macrophage, muscle regeneration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 761
370 The in vitro Effects of Various Immunomodulatory Nutritional Compounds on Antigen-Stimulated Whole-Blood Culture Cytokine Production
Authors: Ayu S. Muhamad, Michael Gleeson
Immunomodulators are substances that alter immune system via dynamic regulation of messenger molecules. It can be divided into immunostimulant and immunosuppressant. It can help to increase immunity of people with a low immune system, and also can help to normalize an overactive immune system. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of in vitro exposure to low and high doses of several immunomodulators which include caffeine, kaloba and quercetin on antigen-stimulated whole blood culture cytokine production. Whole blood samples were taken from 5 healthy males (age: 32 ± 12 years; weight: 75.7 ± 6.1 kg; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.5 kg/m2) following an overnight fast with no vigorous activity during the preceding 24 h. The whole blood was then stimulated with 50 μl of 100 x diluted Pediacel vaccine and low or high dose of immunomodulators in the culture plate. After 20 h incubation (5% CO2, 37°C), it was analysed using the Evidence Investigator to determine the production of cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-1α. Caffeine and quercetin showed a tendency towards decrease cytokine production as the doses were increased. On the other hand, an upward trend was evident with kaloba, where a high dose of kaloba seemed to increase the cytokine production. In conclusion, we found that caffeine and quercetin have potential as immunosuppressant and kaloba as immunostimulant.
Keywords: Caffeine, cytokine, immunomodulators, kaloba, quercetin.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2195
369 Changes of in vitro Cytokine Production induced by δ-Lactams
Authors: Y. Baba hamed, A. Medjdoub, H. Merzouk, M. Narce
Abstract:The aim of this work was to study the in vitro effects of δ-lactam 1 and its 4-chlorophenyl derivative 2, on the proliferative responses of human lymphocytes and Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion. The possible protective role of vitamin E on intracellular stress oxidative induced by these compounds was also investigated. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using differential centrifugation on a density gradient of Histopaque. They were cultured with mitogen concanavalin A, vitamin E (10 μM) and with different concentrations of the compounds 1 and 2 (0.1 to 10 μM). Proliferation (MTT assay), IL-2, INFγ and IL-4 (Elisa kits), intracellular superoxide anion were determined. 1 and 2 were immunostimulant and increased cytokine secretion with a shift away from Th1 response to Th2. These properties were however accompanied by an increase in intracellular oxidative stress. The presence of vitamin E exhibited protective effects by reducing δ- lactam-induced superoxide anion generation in lymphocytes.
Keywords: Cytokines, δ-Lactams, In vitro Lymphocyte Proliferation, Superoxide AnionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3741
368 Dynamical Analysis of Circadian Gene Expression
Authors: Carla Layana Luis Diambra
Microarrays technique allows the simultaneous measurements of the expression levels of thousands of mRNAs. By mining this data one can identify the dynamics of the gene expression time series. By recourse of principal component analysis, we uncover the circadian rhythmic patterns underlying the gene expression profiles from Cyanobacterium Synechocystis. We applied PCA to reduce the dimensionality of the data set. Examination of the components also provides insight into the underlying factors measured in the experiments. Our results suggest that all rhythmic content of data can be reduced to three main components.
Keywords: circadian rhythms, clustering, gene expression, PCA.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1492
367 Analysis of DNA Microarray Data using Association Rules: A Selective Study
Authors: M. Anandhavalli Gauthaman
DNA microarrays allow the measurement of expression levels for a large number of genes, perhaps all genes of an organism, within a number of different experimental samples. It is very much important to extract biologically meaningful information from this huge amount of expression data to know the current state of the cell because most cellular processes are regulated by changes in gene expression. Association rule mining techniques are helpful to find association relationship between genes. Numerous association rule mining algorithms have been developed to analyze and associate this huge amount of gene expression data. This paper focuses on some of the popular association rule mining algorithms developed to analyze gene expression data.
Keywords: DNA microarray, gene expression, association rule mining.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2025
366 A New Velocity Expression for Open Channel and its Application to Lyari River
Authors: Rana Khalid Naeem, Asif Mansoor
Abstract:In this communication an expression for mean velocity of waste flow via an open channel is proposed which is an improvement over Manning formula. The discharges, storages and depths are computed at all locations of the Lyari river by utilizing proposed expression. The results attained through proposed expression are in good agreement with the observed data and better than those acquired using Manning formula.
Keywords: Comparison, Depth, Flow, Open Channel, Proposed Model, StorageProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1412
365 Freedom with Limitations: The Nature of Free Expression in the European Case-Law
Authors: Laszlo Vari
In the digital age, the spread of the mobile world and the nature of the cyberspace, offers many new opportunities for the prevalence of the fundamental right to free expression, and therefore, for free speech and freedom of the press; however, these new information communication technologies carry many new challenges. Defamation, censorship, fake news, misleading information, hate speech, breach of copyright etc., are only some of the violations, all of which can be derived from the harmful exercise of freedom of expression, all which become more salient in the internet. Here raises the question: how can we eliminate these problems, and practice our fundamental freedom rightfully? To answer this question, we should understand the elements and the characteristic of the nature of freedom of expression, and the role of the actors whose duties and responsibilities are crucial in the prevalence of this fundamental freedom. To achieve this goal, this paper will explore the European practice to understand instructions found in the case-law of the European Court of Human rights for the rightful exercise of freedom of expression.
Keywords: Collision of rights, European case-law, freedom opinion and expression, media law, freedom of information, online expressionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 793
364 Differentiation of Gene Expression Profiles Data for Liver and Kidney of Pigs
Authors: Khlopova N.S., Glazko V.I., Glazko T.T.
Abstract:Using DNA microarrays the comparative analysis of a gene expression profiles is carried out in a liver and kidneys of pigs. The hypothesis of a cross hybridization of one probe with different cDNA sites of the same gene or different genes is checked up, and it is shown, that cross hybridization can be a source of essential errors at revealing of a key genes in organ-specific transcriptome. It is reveald that distinctions in profiles of a gene expression are well coordinated with function, morphology, biochemistry and histology of these organs.
Keywords: Microarray, gene expression profiles, key genes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1452
363 Freedom of Expression and Its Restriction in Audio Visual Media
Authors: Sevil Yildiz
Audio visual communication is a type of collective expression. Due to inform the masses, give direction to opinions, and establish public opinion, audio visual communication must be subjected to special restrictions. This has been stipulated in both the Constitution and the European Human Rights Agreement. This paper aims to review freedom of expression and its restriction in audio visual media. For this purpose, the authorization of the Radio and Television Supreme Council to impose sanctions as an independent administrative authority empowered to regulate the field of audio visual communication has been reviewed with regard to freedom of expression and its limits.
Keywords: Audio visual media, freedom of expression, its limits, Radio and Television Supreme Council.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1425
362 Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Regulates Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Endothelial Cells via the Phosphorylation of JNK/p38
Authors: Chan-Jung Liang, Shu-Huei Wang, Pei-Jhen Wu, Jaw-Shiun Tsai, Chau-Chung Wu, Yuh-Lien Chen
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme degrading heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin, has been recognized as playing a crucial role in cellular defense against stressful conditions, not only related to heme release. In the present study, the effects of TNF-a on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) as well as the related mechanisms were investigated. 10 ng/mL TNF-α treatment significantly increased HO-1 expression after 6h, then a further increase at 12h and declined at 24h. Treatment with 2 ng/mL of TNF-a after 12 h resulted in a significant increase in HO-1 expression, which peaked at 10 ng/mL, then declined at 20 ng/mL. TNF-α induced HO-1 expression and then HO-1 expression reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression. Phosphorylation studies of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38, three subgroups of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) demonstrated TNF-α-induced ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation. The increase in HO-1 expression in response to TNF-α treatment was affected by pretreatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), not with PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor). The expression of HO-1 was stronger in aortas of TNF-α-treated apo-E deficient mice when compared with control mice. These results suggest that low dose of TNF-α treatment notably induced HO-1 expression was mediated through JNK/p38 phosphorylation and may have a protective potential in cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory response through the regulation of HO-1 expression.
Keywords: Heme oxygenase-1 inflammation, endothelial cells, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5626
361 A Heat-Inducible Transgene Expression System for Gene Therapy
Authors: Masaki Yamaguchi, Akira Ito, Noriaki Okamoto, Yoshinori Kawabe, Masamichi Kamihira
Abstract:Heat-inducible gene expression vectors are useful for hyperthermia-induced cancer gene therapy, because the combination of hyperthermia and gene therapy can considerably improve the therapeutic effects. In the present study, we developed an enhanced heat-inducible transgene expression system in which a heat-shock protein (HSP) promoter and tetracycline-responsive transactivator were combined. When the transactivator plasmid containing the tetracycline-responsive transactivator gene was co-transfected with the reporter gene expression plasmid, a high level of heat-induced gene expression was observed compared with that using the HSP promoter without the transactivator. In vitro evaluation of the therapeutic effect using HeLa cells showed that heat-induced therapeutic gene expression caused cell death in a high percentage of these cells, indicating that this strategy is promising for cancer gene therapy.
Keywords: Inducible gene expression, Gene therapy, Hyperthermia, Heat shock protein, Tetracycline transactivator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2004
360 Evaluation of Clustering Based on Preprocessing in Gene Expression Data
Authors: Seo Young Kim, Toshimitsu Hamasaki
Microarrays have become the effective, broadly used tools in biological and medical research to address a wide range of problems, including classification of disease subtypes and tumors. Many statistical methods are available for analyzing and systematizing these complex data into meaningful information, and one of the main goals in analyzing gene expression data is the detection of samples or genes with similar expression patterns. In this paper, we express and compare the performance of several clustering methods based on data preprocessing including strategies of normalization or noise clearness. We also evaluate each of these clustering methods with validation measures for both simulated data and real gene expression data. Consequently, clustering methods which are common used in microarray data analysis are affected by normalization and degree of noise and clearness for datasets.
Keywords: Gene expression, clustering, data preprocessing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1616
359 Simultaneous Clustering and Feature Selection Method for Gene Expression Data
Authors: T. Chandrasekhar, K. Thangavel, E. N. Sathishkumar
Microarrays are made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression profiles of thousands of genes under various experimental conditions. It is used to identify the co-expressed genes in specific cells or tissues that are actively used to make proteins. This method is used to analysis the gene expression, an important task in bioinformatics research. Cluster analysis of gene expression data has proved to be a useful tool for identifying co-expressed genes, biologically relevant groupings of genes and samples. In this work K-Means algorithms has been applied for clustering of Gene Expression Data. Further, rough set based Quick reduct algorithm has been applied for each cluster in order to select the most similar genes having high correlation. Then the ACV measure is used to evaluate the refined clusters and classification is used to evaluate the proposed method. They could identify compact clusters with feature selection method used to genes are selected.
Keywords: Clustering, Feature selection, Gene expression data, Quick reduct.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1859
358 Clinical Utility of Salivary Cytokines for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Authors: Masaki Yamaguchi, Daimei Sasayama, Shinsuke Washizuka
Abstract:The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of salivary cytokines for the screening of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. We carried out a case-control study, including 19 children with ADHD and 17 healthy children (controls). A multiplex bead array immunoassay was used to conduct a multi-analysis of 27 different salivary cytokines. Six salivary cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL12p70, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were significantly associated with the presence of ADHD (p < 0.05). An informative salivary cytokine panel was developed using VEGF by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 0.251). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that assessment of a panel using VEGF showed “good” capability for discriminating between ADHD patients and controls (area under the curve: 0.778). ADHD has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex, due to reduced VEGF levels. Our study highlights the possibility of utilizing differential salivary cytokine levels for point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in children with ADHD.
Keywords: Cytokine, saliva, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, child, biomarker.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 550
357 Iterative Clustering Algorithm for Analyzing Temporal Patterns of Gene Expression
Authors: Seo Young Kim, Jae Won Lee, Jong Sung Bae
Abstract:Microarray experiments are information rich; however, extensive data mining is required to identify the patterns that characterize the underlying mechanisms of action. For biologists, a key aim when analyzing microarray data is to group genes based on the temporal patterns of their expression levels. In this paper, we used an iterative clustering method to find temporal patterns of gene expression. We evaluated the performance of this method by applying it to real sporulation data and simulated data. The patterns obtained using the iterative clustering were found to be superior to those obtained using existing clustering algorithms.
Keywords: Clustering, microarray experiment, temporal pattern of gene expression data.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1259
356 Facial Expression Phoenix (FePh): An Annotated Sequenced Dataset for Facial and Emotion-Specified Expressions in Sign Language
Authors: Marie Alaghband, Niloofar Yousefi, Ivan Garibay
Abstract:Facial expressions are important parts of both gesture and sign language recognition systems. Despite the recent advances in both fields, annotated facial expression datasets in the context of sign language are still scarce resources. In this manuscript, we introduce an annotated sequenced facial expression dataset in the context of sign language, comprising over 3000 facial images extracted from the daily news and weather forecast of the public tv-station PHOENIX. Unlike the majority of currently existing facial expression datasets, FePh provides sequenced semi-blurry facial images with different head poses, orientations, and movements. In addition, in the majority of images, identities are mouthing the words, which makes the data more challenging. To annotate this dataset we consider primary, secondary, and tertiary dyads of seven basic emotions of "sad", "surprise", "fear", "angry", "neutral", "disgust", and "happy". We also considered the "None" class if the image’s facial expression could not be described by any of the aforementioned emotions. Although we provide FePh as a facial expression dataset of signers in sign language, it has a wider application in gesture recognition and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems.
Keywords: Annotated Facial Expression Dataset, Sign Language Recognition, Gesture Recognition, Sequenced Facial Expression Dataset.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 505
355 Improved Feature Extraction Technique for Handling Occlusion in Automatic Facial Expression Recognition
Authors: Khadijat T. Bamigbade, Olufade F. W. Onifade
The field of automatic facial expression analysis has been an active research area in the last two decades. Its vast applicability in various domains has drawn so much attention into developing techniques and dataset that mirror real life scenarios. Many techniques such as Local Binary Patterns and its variants (CLBP, LBP-TOP) and lately, deep learning techniques, have been used for facial expression recognition. However, the problem of occlusion has not been sufficiently handled, making their results not applicable in real life situations. This paper develops a simple, yet highly efficient method tagged Local Binary Pattern-Histogram of Gradient (LBP-HOG) with occlusion detection in face image, using a multi-class SVM for Action Unit and in turn expression recognition. Our method was evaluated on three publicly available datasets which are JAFFE, CK, SFEW. Experimental results showed that our approach performed considerably well when compared with state-of-the-art algorithms and gave insight to occlusion detection as a key step to handling expression in wild.
Keywords: Automatic facial expression analysis, local binary pattern, LBP-HOG, occlusion detection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 653
354 ALDH1A1 as a Cancer Stem Cell Marker: Value of Immunohistochemical Expression in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma
Authors: H. M. Abdelmoneim, N. A. Babtain, A. S. Barhamain, A. Z. Kufiah, A. S. Malibari, S. F. Munassar, R. S. Rawa
Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in men in developed countries. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) could be responsible for the progression and relapse of cancer. Therefore, CSCs markers could provide a prognostic strategy for human malignancies. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) activity has been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis and proposed to represent a functional marker for tumor initiating cells in various tumor types including prostate cancer. Material & Methods: We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic adenocarcinoma and assessed their significant correlations in 50 TURP sections. They were microscopically interpreted and the results were correlated with histopathological types and tumor grade. Results: In different prostatic histopathological lesions we found that ALDH1A1 expression was low in BPH (13.3%) and PIN (6.7%) and then its expression increased with prostatic adenocarcinoma (40%), and this was statistically highly significant (P value = 0.02). However, in different grades of prostatic adenocarcinoma we found that the higher the Gleason grade the higher the expression for ALDH1A1 and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.02). We compared the expression of ALDH1A1 in PIN and prostatic adenocarcinoma. ALDH1A1 expression was decreased in PIN and highly expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.04). Conclusion: Increasing ALDH1A1 expression is correlated with aggressive behavior of the tumor. Immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 might provide a potential approach to study tumorigenesis and progression of primary prostate carcinoma.
Keywords: ALDH1A1, BPH, PIN, prostatic adenocarcinoma.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1193
353 Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Induced Interleukin-17F and Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Expression by Echinacea purpurea in Broiler Chickens
Authors: Ali Asghar Saki, Sayed Ali Hosseini Siyar, Abbass Ashoori
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Echinacea purpurea on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-17F (IL-17F) in seven-day-old broiler chickens. Four groups were fed with concentration of 0 g/kg, 5 g/kg, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg from the root of E. purpurea in the basal diet and two other groups were only fed with the basal diet for 21 days. At the 28th day, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg diet) was injected in four groups and the basal diet group was injected by saline as control. The chickens’ spleen RNA expression was measured for the COX-2 and IL-17F genes by Real-Time PCR. The results have shown that chickens which were fed E. purpurea had a lower COX-2 and IL-17F mRNA expression. The chickens who have received LPS only, lymphocyte was lower than other treatments. Vital organ weights were not significantly different, but body weight loss was recovered by dietary herbs inclusion. The results of this study have shown the positive effect of an anti-inflammatory herb to prevent the undesirable effect of inflammation.
Keywords: Echinacea purpurea, broiler chickens, gene expression, lipopolysaccharide.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 861
352 A Cuckoo Search with Differential Evolution for Clustering Microarray Gene Expression Data
Authors: M. Pandi, K. Premalatha
A DNA microarray technology is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome. Elucidating the patterns hidden in gene expression data offers a tremendous opportunity for an enhanced understanding of functional genomics. However, the large number of genes and the complexity of biological networks greatly increase the challenges of comprehending and interpreting the resulting mass of data, which often consists of millions of measurements. It is handled by clustering which reveals the natural structures and identifying the interesting patterns in the underlying data. In this paper, gene based clustering in gene expression data is proposed using Cuckoo Search with Differential Evolution (CS-DE). The experiment results are analyzed with gene expression benchmark datasets. The results show that CS-DE outperforms CS in benchmark datasets. To find the validation of the clustering results, this work is tested with one internal and one external cluster validation indexes.
Keywords: DNA, Microarray, genomics, Cuckoo Search, Differential Evolution, Gene expression data, Clustering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1367
351 Cloning and Over Expression of an Aspergillus niger XP Phytase Gene (phyA) in Pichia pastoris
Authors: Ngo Thanh Xuan, Mai Thi Hang, Vu Nguyen Thanh
A. niger XP isolated from Vietnam produces very low amount of acidic phytase with optimal pH at 2.5 and 5.5. The phytase production of this strain was successfully improved through gene cloning and expression. A 1.4 - kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene was amplified by PCR and inserted into the expression vector pPICZαA with a signal peptide α- factor, under the control of AOX1 promoter. The recombined plasmid was transformed into the host strain P. pastoris KM71H and X33 by electroporation. Both host strains could efficiently express and secret phytase. The multicopy strains were screened for over expression of phytase. All the selected multicopy strains of P. pastoris X33 were examined for phytase activity, the maximum phytase yield of 1329 IU/ml was obtained after 4 days of incubation in medium BMM. The recombinant protein with MW of 97.4 KW showed to be the only one protein secreted in the culture broth. Multicopy transformant P. pastoris X33 supposed to be potential candidate for producing the commercial preparation of phytase.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger XP, cloning, over expression, Pichia pastoris, phyA , phytase.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2032
350 Emotion Classification using Adaptive SVMs
Authors: P. Visutsak
Abstract:The study of the interaction between humans and computers has been emerging during the last few years. This interaction will be more powerful if computers are able to perceive and respond to human nonverbal communication such as emotions. In this study, we present the image-based approach to emotion classification through lower facial expression. We employ a set of feature points in the lower face image according to the particular face model used and consider their motion across each emotive expression of images. The vector of displacements of all feature points input to the Adaptive Support Vector Machines (A-SVMs) classifier that classify it into seven basic emotions scheme, namely neutral, angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. The system was tested on the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) dataset of frontal view facial expressions . Our experiments on emotion classification through lower facial expressions demonstrate the robustness of Adaptive SVM classifier and verify the high efficiency of our approach.
Keywords: emotion classification, facial expression, adaptive support vector machines, facial expression classifier.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2131
349 A Neural Network Based Facial Expression Analysis using Gabor Wavelets
Authors: Praseeda Lekshmi.V, Dr.M.Sasikumar
Abstract:Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper we present a method to analyze facial expression from images by applying Gabor wavelet transform (GWT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on face images. Radial Basis Function (RBF) Network is used to classify the facial expressions. As a second stage, the images are preprocessed to enhance the edge details and non uniform down sampling is done to reduce the computational complexity and processing time. Our method reliably works even with faces, which carry heavy expressions.
Keywords: Face Expression, Radial Basis Function, GaborWavelet Transform, Human Computer Interaction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2003
348 Predicting Dispersion Coefficient in Free-Flowing Zones of Rivers by Genetic Programming
Authors: Rajeev Ranjan Sahay
Transient storage zones along the flow paths of rivers have great influence on the dispersion of pollutants that are either accidentally or otherwise led into them. The speed with which these pollution clouds get transported and dispersed downstream is, to a large extent, explained by the longitudinal dispersion coefficients in the free-flowing zones of rivers (Kf). In the present work, a new empirical expression for Kf has been derived employing genetic programming (GP) on published dispersion data. The proposed expression uses few hydraulic and geometric characteristics of a river that are readily available to field engineers. Based on various performance indices, the proposed expression is found superior to other existing expression for Kf.
Keywords: Dispersion, parameter estimation, rivers, transient pollutant.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1223
347 Possible Role of Polyamine on Tumor Spread after Surgical Trauma
Authors: Kuniyasu Soda
Surgical trauma seems to facilitate metastatic spread, although the underlying mechanisms are not known. Increased concentrations of polyamines (spermine and spermidine) in the blood seem to have associated with the enhanced malignant potential of cancer cells and decrease in anti-tumor immunity of cancer patients. In addition to de novo synthesis in rapidly growing cells such as normal regenerating cells and cancer cells, cells can take up polyamines from extra-cellular sources. We have shown that increased polyamine concentration results in decreases in cytokine production and expression of adhesion molecules involved in anti-tumor immunity, such as CD11a. And, immune cells in an environment with increased polyamine levels lose anti-tumor immune functions, such as lymphokine activated killer cell (LAK) activities. Because blood polyamine levels are increased in post-surgical patients, polyamine seems to have roles on post-traumatic tumor spread.
Keywords: Immune function, LAK, Polyamine, Surgical trauma.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1649
346 3D Definition for Human Smiles
Authors: Shyue-Ran Li, Kuohsiang Chen
Abstract:The study explored varied types of human smiles and extracted most of the key factors affecting the smiles. These key factors then were converted into a set of control points which could serve to satisfy the needs for creation of facial expression for 3D animators and be further applied to the face simulation for robots in the future. First, hundreds of human smile pictures were collected and analyzed to identify the key factors for face expression. Then, the factors were converted into a set of control points and sizing parameters calculated proportionally. Finally, two different faces were constructed for validating the parameters via the process of simulating smiles of the same type as the original one.
Keywords: 3D animation, facial expression, numerical, robot, smile parameter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1408
345 Bone Proteome Study in Ovariectomised Rats Supplemented with Palm Vitamin E
Authors: Patrick Nwabueze Okechukwu, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Gabriele Anisah Ruth Froemming, Mohd Yusri Idorus, Norazlina Mohamed
Abstract:Supplementation of palm vitamin E has been reported to prevent loss of bone density in ovariectomised female rats. The mechanism by which palm vitamin E exerts these effects is still unknown. We hypothesized that palm vitamin E may act by preventing the protein expression changes. Two dimensional poly acyrilamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and PD Quest software genomic solutions Investigator (proteomics) was used to analyze the differential protein expression profile in femoral and humeri bones harvested from three groups of rats; sham-operated rats (SO), ovariectomised rats (Ovx) and ovariectomised rats supplemented for 2 months with palm vitamin E. The results showed that there were over 300 valued spot on each of the groups PVE and OVX as compared to about 200 in SO. Comparison between the differential protein expression between OVX and PVE groups showed that ten spots were down –regulated in OVX but up-regulated in PVE. The ten differential spots were separately named P1-P10. The identification and understanding of the pathway of the differential protein expression among the groups is ongoing and may account for the molecular mechanism through which palm vitamin E exert its anti-osteoporotic effect.
Keywords: Palm vitamin E, ovariectomised, osteoporosis protein expression, 2-d-page.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1670