Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 501

Search results for: Seo Young Kim

501 On the Numbers of Various Young Tableaux

Authors: Hsuan-Chu Li

Abstract:

We demonstrate a way to count the number of Young tableau u of shape λ = (k, k,L, k) with | λ |= lk by expanding Schur function. This result gives an answer to the question that was put out by Jenny Buontempo and Brian Hopkins.

Keywords: Young tableau, Schur function.

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500 Teachers and Sports Coaches Supporting Young People-s Mental Health: Promotion, Prevention, and Early Intervention

Authors: Kelly R. Mazzer, Debra J. Rickwood, Thea Vanags

Abstract:

Young people have a high prevalence of mental health problems, yet tend not to seek help. Trusted adults in young people-s lives, such as teachers and sports coaches, can make a major positive contribution to the mental health of young people. Teachers and sports coaches may be in a position to be effective in supporting young people-s mental health through promotion, prevention and early intervention. This study reports findings from interviews with 21 teachers and 13 sports coaches of young people aged 12 to 18 in Canberra, Australia, regarding their perceptions of the relevance and effectiveness of their role in supporting young people-s mental health. Both teachers and coaches perceived having influential but slightly different roles to play in supporting mental health. There may be potential to elevate the influence of teachers and coaches as sources of support for young people and their mental health care.

Keywords: Early intervention, mental health promotion, coaches, teachers, young people

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499 Assessment of Analytical Equations for the Derivation of Young’s Modulus of Bonded Rubber Materials

Authors: Z. N. Haji, S. O. Oyadiji, H. Samami, O. Farrell

Abstract:

The prediction of the vibration response of rubber products by analytical or numerical method depends mainly on the predefined intrinsic material properties such as Young’s modulus, damping factor and Poisson’s ratio. Such intrinsic properties are determined experimentally by subjecting a bonded rubber sample to compression tests. The compression tests on such a sample yield an apparent Young’s modulus which is greater in magnitude than the intrinsic Young’s modulus of the rubber. As a result, many analytical equations have been developed to determine Young’s modulus from an apparent Young’s modulus of bonded rubber materials. In this work, the applicability of some of these analytical equations is assessed via experimental testing. The assessment is based on testing of vulcanized nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR70) samples using tensile test and compression test methods. The analytical equations are used to determine the intrinsic Young’s modulus from the apparent modulus that is derived from the compression test data of the bonded rubber samples. Then, these Young’s moduli are compared with the actual Young’s modulus that is derived from the tensile test data. The results show significant discrepancy between the Young’s modulus derived using the analytical equations and the actual Young’s modulus.

Keywords: Bonded rubber, quasi-static test, shape factor, apparent Young’s modulus.

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498 What Do Young People Seeking Professional Help Want and Expect From Therapy?

Authors: Clare Watsford, Debra Rickwood

Abstract:

Client expectations and preferences about therapy represent an important area of investigation as research shows they are linked to engagement in therapy and therapy outcomes. Studies examining young people-s expectations and preferences of therapy remain a neglected area of research. The present study explored what expectations and preferences young people seeking professional help held regarding: their role as a client, their therapist-s role, their therapeutic outcomes, and the processes of therapy. Gender and age differences were also examined. Participants included 188 young people aged 12-25 who completed a survey while attending their initial session at a youth mental health service. Data were analysed using quantitative methods. Results found the young people held significantly more pessimistic expectations around therapy when compared to what they had wanted therapy to be like. Few age and gender differences were found. Results highlight the importance of a collaborative therapy approach when working with young people.

Keywords: Client expectations, mental health services, preferences, young people

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497 A Statistical Study on Young UAE Driver’s Behavior towards Road Safety

Authors: Sadia Afroza, Rakiba Rouf

Abstract:

Road safety and associated behaviors have received significant attention in recent years, reflecting general public concern. This paper portrays a statistical scenario of the young drivers in UAE with emphasis on various concern points of young driver’s behavior and license issuance. Although there are many factors contributing to road accidents, statistically it is evident that age plays a major role in road accidents. Despite ensuring strict road safety laws enforced by the UAE government, there is a staggering correlation among road accidents and young driver’s at UAE. However, private organizations like BMW and RoadSafetyUAE have extended its support on conducting surveys on driver’s behavior with an aim to ensure road safety. Various strategies such as road safety law enforcement, license issuance, adapting new technologies like safety cameras and raising awareness can be implemented to improve the road safety concerns among young drivers.

Keywords: Driving behavior, GLDS, road safety, UAE drivers, young drivers.

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496 An Overview of the Risk for HIV/AIDS among Young Women in South Africa: Gender Based Violence

Authors: Shaneil Taylor

Abstract:

Gender-based violence is a reflection of the inequalities that are associated within a society between the men and women that affects the health, dignity, security and autonomy of its victims. There are various determinants that contribute to the health risk of young women who have experienced sexual violence, in countries that have a high prevalence rate for HIV. For instance, in South Africa, where the highest prevalence rate for HIV is among young women, their susceptibility to the virus has been increased by sexual violence and cultural inequalities. Therefore, this study is a review of literature that explores how gender-based violence increases the possibility for HIV/AIDS among young women in South Africa.

Keywords: Gender based violence, HIV/AIDS transmission, young women, Risky sexual behavior.

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495 Theory of Planned Behaviour and Young Romanians’ Self-Reported Speed

Authors: Alexandra Gheorghiu, Marie-Line Félonneau

Abstract:

Speeding represents one of the main concerns for road safety and it still is a subject for research. The need to address this problem and to understand why drivers over speed increases especially in Romania, where in 2011, speed was the main cause of car accidents. This article addresses this problem by using the theory of planned behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of young Romanian drivers (18 to 25 years) and several path analyses were made in order to verify if the model proposed by the theory of planned behaviour fits the data. One interesting result is that perceived behavioural control does not predict the intention to speed or self-reported driving speed, but subjective norms do. This implies that peers and social environment have a greater impact on young Romanian drivers than we thought.

Keywords: Speed, traffic safety, theory of planned behaviour, young drivers.

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494 Exploring Self-Directed Learning Among Children

Authors: Mariani Md Nor, Y. Saeednia

Abstract:

Self-directed learning (SDL) was developed initially for adult learning. Guglielmino constructed a scale to measure SDL. Recent researchers have applied this concept to children. Although there are sufficient theoretical evidences to present the possibility of applying this concept to children, empirical evidences were not provided. This study aimed to examine the quality of SDL and construct a scale to measure SDL among young children. A modified scale of Guglielmino-s scale was constructed and piloted with 183 subjects of age 9. Findings suggest that the qualities of SDL in young ages are apparently congruent with that of adults.

Keywords: SDLR, Self-Directed Learning, Young Children.

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493 Perceived Constraints on Sport Participation among Young Koreans in Australia

Authors: Jae Won Kang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine a broader range of sport constraints perceived by young Koreans in Australia who may need to adjust to changing behavioral expectations due to the socio-cultural transitions. Regardless of gender, in terms of quantitative findings, the most important participation constraints within the seven categories were resources, access, interpersonal, affective, religious, socio-cultural, and physical in that order. The most important constraining items were a lack of time, access, information, adaptive skills, and parental and family support in that order. Qualitative research found young Korean’s participation constraints among three categories (time, parental control and interpersonal constraints). It is possible that different ethnic groups would be constrained by different factors; however, this is outside the scope of this study.

Keywords: Constraints, cultural adjustment, Sport, Young Koreans in Australia.

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492 Determinants of Aggression among Young Adolescents

Authors: Rita C. Ramos

Abstract:

Aggression is a multi- factorial concept and multilevel in nature. The Young Adolescent is being influenced by family, school and community. This paper is aimed to determine the following: aggression level among young adolescents, difference of level of aggression on school and year levels and to determine the correlates of aggression. There were 142 high school students from two different national highs schools (Region 3 and National Capital Region).Convenience sampling was use in this study. The following measures were used namely: Aggression Scale, Parental Support Fighting Scale, Positive Behavior Scale and Exposure to Violence and Trauma questionnaire. There was no significant difference in aggression level among different year level and schools. The findings of the study suggested that high level of community violence and having low parental support for non-aggressive behavior contribute to the prediction of aggression.

Keywords: Aggression, Determinants, Young Adolescents.

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491 Young’s Modulus Variability: Influence on Masonry Vault Behavior

Authors: A. Zanaz, S. Yotte, F. Fouchal, A. Chateauneuf

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology for probabilistic assessment of bearing capacity and prediction of failure mechanism of masonry vaults at the ultimate state with consideration of the natural variability of Young’s modulus of stones. First, the computation model is explained. The failure mode corresponds to the four-hinge mechanism. Based on this consideration, the study of a vault composed of 16 segments is presented. The Young’s modulus of the segments is considered as random variable defined by a mean value and a coefficient of variation. A relationship linking the vault bearing capacity to the voussoirs modulus variation is proposed. The most probable failure mechanisms, in addition to that observed in the deterministic case, are identified for each variability level as well as their probability of occurrence. The results show that the mechanism observed in the deterministic case has decreasing probability of occurrence in terms of variability, while the number of other mechanisms and their probability of occurrence increases with the coefficient of variation of Young’s modulus. This means that if a significant change in the Young’s modulus of the segments is proven, taking it into account in computations becomes mandatory, both for determining the vault bearing capacity and for predicting its failure mechanism.

Keywords: Masonry, mechanism, probability, variability, vault.

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490 Attitude towards the Consumption of Social Media: Analyzing Young Consumers’ Travel Behavior

Authors: Farzana Sharmin, Mohammad Tipu Sultan, Benqian Li

Abstract:

Advancement of new media technology and consumption of social media have altered the way of communication in the tourism industry, mostly for consumers’ travel planning, online purchase, and experience sharing activity. There is an accelerating trend among young consumers’ to utilize this new media technology. This paper aims to analyze the attitude of young consumers’ about social media use for travel purposes. The convenience random sample method used to collect data from an urban area of Shanghai (China), consists of 225 young consumers’. This survey identified behavioral determinants of social media consumption by the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB). The instrument developed support on previous research to test hypotheses. The results of structural analyses indicate that attitude towards the use of social media is affected by external factors such as availability and accessibility of technology. In addition, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control have partially influenced the attitude of respondents’. The results of this study could help to improve social media travel marketing and promotional strategies for respective groups.

Keywords: Social media, theory of planned behavior, travel behavior, young consumer.

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489 The Influence of Consumer and Brand-Oriented Capabilities on Business Performance in Young Firms: A Quantitative Causal Model Analysis

Authors: Katharina Buttenberg

Abstract:

Customer and brand-oriented capabilities have been identified as key influencing capabilities for business performance. Especially in the early years of the firm, it is crucial to develop and consciously manage these capabilities. In this paper, the results of a quantitative analysis, investigating the causal relationship between customer- and brand-oriented (marketing) capabilities and business performance will be presented. The research displays the dependencies between the constructs and will provide practical implications for young firms in the acquisition and management of these capabilities.

Keywords: Brand-oriented capabilities, customer-oriented capabilities, entrepreneurship, resource-based theory, young firms.

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488 Scientific Orientation of Youth as the Basis of Formation of a New University Culture

Authors: Sh. E. Jamanbalayeva, G. S. Abdiraiymova, N. Zh. Biyekenova, D. K. Burkhanova

Abstract:

At present the process of formation of corporate values in Kazakh universities is under the influence of a whole range of socio-economic and cultural changes: on the one hand universities must maintain and transmit traditional cultural values of education, on the other, to improve quality of service and to involve young people to science, providing thus own competitiveness. Thus, this article presents some results of two cycles of sociological research conducted in 2012 and aimed at identifying possible ways to popularize science and readiness to participate of youth in given activities, expectations of young scientists and the prospects of future development of the Kazakh science.

Keywords: Corporate culture, higher education institutions, motivation reforms, young scientists.

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487 Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Young’s Modulus of Silica-Reinforced Epoxy Composite

Authors: Hyu Sang Jo, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the evaluation of thermal stability of the micrometer-sized silica particle reinforced epoxy composite was carried out through the measurement of thermal expansion coefficient and Young’s modulus of the specimens. For all the specimens in this study from the baseline to those containing 50 wt% silica filler, the thermal expansion coefficients and the Young’s moduli were gradually decreased down to 20% and increased up to 41%, respectively. The experimental results were compared with fillervolume- based simple empirical relations. The experimental results of thermal expansion coefficients correspond with those of Thomas’s model which is modified from the rule of mixture. However, the measured result for Young’s modulus tends to be increased slightly. The differences in increments of the moduli between experimental and numerical model data are quite large.

Keywords: Thermal Stability, Silica-Reinforced, Epoxy Composite, Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Empirical Model.

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486 Analyzing the Participation of Young People in Politics: An Exploratory Study Applied on Motivation in Croatia

Authors: Valentina Piric, Maja Martinovic, Zoran Barac

Abstract:

The application of marketing to the domain of politics has become relevant in recent times. With this article the authors wanted to explore the issue of the current political engagement among young people in Croatia. The question is what makes young people (age 18-30) politically active in young democracies such as that of the Republic of Croatia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to discover the real or hidden motivations behind the decision to actively participate in politics among young members of the two largest political parties in the country – the Croatian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Croatia. The study expected to find that the motivation for political engagement of young people is often connected with a possible achievement of individual goals and egoistic needs such as: self-acceptance, social success, financial success, prestige, reputation, status, recognition from the others etc. It was also expected that, due to the poor economic and social situation in the country, young people feel an increasing disconnection from politics. Additionally, the authors expected to find that there is a huge potential to engage young people in the political life of the country through a proper and more interactive use of marketing communication campaigns and social media platforms, with an emphasis on highly ethical motives of political activity and their benefits to society. All respondents included in the quantitative survey (sample size [N=100]) are active in one of the two largest political parties in Croatia. The sampling and distribution of the survey occurred in the field in September 2016. The results of the survey demonstrate that in Croatia, the way young people feel about politics and act accordingly, are in fact similar to what the theory describes. The research findings reveal that young people are politically active; however, the challenge is to find a way to motivate even more young people in Croatia to actively participate in the political and democratic processes in the country and to encourage them to see additional benefits out of this practice, not only related to their individual motives, but related more to the well-being of Croatia as a country and of every member of society. The research also discovered a huge potential for political marketing communication possibilities, especially related to interactive social media. It is possible that the social media channels have a stronger influence on the decision-making process among young people when compared to groups of reference. The level of interest in politics among young Croatians varies; some of them are almost indifferent, whilst others express a serious interest in different ways to actively contribute to the political life of the country, defining a participation in the political life of their country almost as their moral obligation. However, additional observations and further research need to be conducted to get a clearer and more precise picture about the interest in politics among young people in Croatia and their social potential.

Keywords: Croatia, marketing communication, motivation, politics, young people.

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485 A New Method in Short-Term Heart Rate Variability — Five-Class Density Histogram

Authors: Liping Li, Ke Li, Changchun Liu, Chengyu Liu, Yuanyang Li

Abstract:

A five-class density histogram with an index named cumulative density was proposed to analyze the short-term HRV. 150 subjects participated in the test, falling into three groups with equal numbers -- the healthy young group (Young), the healthy old group (Old), and the group of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Results of multiple comparisons showed a significant differences of the cumulative density in the three groups, with values 0.0238 for Young, 0.0406 for Old and 0.0732 for CHF (p<0.001). After 7 days and 14 days, 46 subjects from the Young and Old groups were retested twice following the same test protocol. Results showed good-to-excellent interclass correlations (ICC=0.783, 95% confidence interval 0.676-0.864). The Bland-Altman plots were used to reexamine the test-retest reliability. In conclusion, the method proposed could be a valid and reliable method to the short-term HRV assessment.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, congestive heart failure, heart rate variability, histogram.

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484 Young People’s Participation in Decision-Making Using Information and Communication Technology

Authors: Marina Diković

Abstract:

By giving personal opinions, suggestions and criticism through e-democracy, young people can reinforce the adoption of decisions which they have an impact on. The purpose of this research was to examine the opinion of university students about the possibility of their decision-making by using information and communication technology (ICT). The questionnaire examined young people's values and behaviour associated with e-democracy and the related decision-making. Students are most active online when it comes to finding information connected with their academic responsibilities, but less frequently take part in democratic processes in society, both at the national and local level. E-democracy as a tool can be learned in programmes of Human Rights Education and Citizenship Education. 

Keywords: Active citizens, e-democracy, information and communication technology, university students.

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483 Effects of Polyvictimization in Suicidal Ideation among Children and Adolescents in Chile

Authors: Oscar E. Cariceo

Abstract:

In Chile, there is a lack of evidence about the impact of polyvictimization on the emergence of suicidal thoughts among children and young people. Thus, this study aims to explore the association between the episodes of polyvictimization suffered by Chilean children and young people and the manifestation of signs related to suicidal tendencies. To achieve this purpose, secondary data from the First Polyvictimization Survey on Children and Adolescents of 2017 were analyzed, and a binomial logistic regression model was applied to establish the probability that young people are experiencing suicidal ideation episodes. The main findings show that women between the ages of 13 and 15 years, who are in seventh grade and second in subsidized schools, are more likely to express suicidal ideas, which increases if they have suffered different types of victimization, particularly physical violence, psychological aggression, and sexual abuse.

Keywords: Chile, polyvictimization, suicidal ideation, youth.

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482 Experimental Study on the Variation of Young's Modulus of Hollow Clay Brick Obtained from Static and Dynamic Tests

Authors: M. Aboudalle, Le Btth, M. Sari, F. Meftah

Abstract:

In parallel with the appearance of new materials, brick masonry had and still has an essential part of the construction market today, with new technical challenges in designing bricks to meet additional requirements. Being used in structural applications, predicting the performance of clay brick masonry allows a significant cost reduction, in terms of practical experimentation. The behavior of masonry walls depends on the behavior of their elementary components, such as bricks, joints, and coatings. Therefore, it is necessary to consider it at different scales (from the scale of the intrinsic material to the real scale of the wall) and then to develop appropriate models, using numerical simulations. The work presented in this paper focuses on the mechanical characterization of the terracotta material at ambient temperature. As a result, the static Young’s modulus obtained from the flexural test shows different values in comparison with the compression test, as well as with the dynamic Young’s modulus obtained from the Impulse excitation of vibration test. Moreover, the Young's modulus varies according to the direction in which samples are extracted, where the values in the extrusion direction diverge from the ones in the orthogonal directions. Based on these results, hollow bricks can be considered as transversely isotropic bimodulus material.

Keywords: Bimodulus material, hollow clay brick, impulse excitation of vibration, transversely isotropic material, Young’s modulus.

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481 Working with Children and Young People as a much Neglected Area of Education within the Social Studies Curriculum in Poland

Authors: Marta Czechowska-Bieluga

Abstract:

Social work education in Poland focuses mostly on developing competencies that address the needs of individuals and families affected by a variety of life's problems. As a result of the ageing of the Polish population, much attention is equally devoted to adults, including the elderly. However, social work with children and young people is the area of education which should be given more consideration. Social work students are mostly trained to cater to the needs of families and the competencies aimed to respond to the needs of children and young people do not receive enough attention and are only offered as elective classes. This paper strives to review the social work programmes offered by the selected higher education institutions in Poland in terms of social work training aimed at helping children and young people to address their life problems. The analysis conducted in this study indicates that university education for social work focuses on training professionals who will provide assistance only to adults. Due to changes in the social and political situation, including, in particular, changes in social policy implemented for the needy, it is necessary to extend this area of education to include the specificity of the support for children and young people; especially, in the light of the appearance of new support professions within the area of social work. For example, family assistants, whose task is to support parents in performing their roles as guardians and educators, also assist children. Therefore, it becomes necessary to equip social work professionals with competencies which include issues related to the quality of life of underage people living in families. Social work curricula should be extended to include the issues of child and young person development and the patterns governing this phase of life.

Keywords: Social work education, social work programmes, social worker, university.

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480 Effects of the Intermittent Exercise Programs on Lipid Profile and Anthropometric Characteristics at Obese Young Subjects

Authors: Vasilescu M., Rusu L, Balseanu TA., Cosma G., Dragomir M.

Abstract:

The aim of our research was to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on lipid profile and anthropometric characteristics in young subjects, diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MS). The study has been developed during 28 weeks on 20 young obese patients which have undertaken an intermittent submaximal exercise program. After 28 weeks of physical activity, the results show significant effects on anthropometric characteristics and serum lipid profile of research subjects. Additionally, the results of this study confirms the major correlation between the variations of intraabdominal adiposity, determined ultrasonographycally, and the changes of serum lipid concentrations, a better correlation than it is used abdominal circumference or body weight index.

Keywords: lipid metabolism, adiposity, physical exercise

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479 A Finite Element Model for Estimating Young-s Modulus of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Composites Incorporating Elastic Cross-Links

Authors: Kaveh PourAkbar Saffar, Nima JamilPour, Ahmad Raeisi Najafi, Gholamreza Rouhi, Ahmad Reza Arshi, Abdolhossein Fereidoon

Abstract:

The presence of chemical bonding between functionalized carbon nanotubes and matrix in carbon nanotube reinforced composites is modeled by elastic beam elements representing covalent bonding characteristics. Neglecting other reinforcing mechanisms in the composite such as relatively weak interatomic Van der Waals forces, this model shows close results to the Rule of Mixtures model-s prediction for effective Young-s modulus of a Representative Volume Element of composite for small volume fractions (~1%) and high aspect ratios (L/D>200) of CNTs.

Keywords: Beam Element, Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Composite, Cross-link, Young's modulus.

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478 Engagement of Young People in Social Networks: Awareness and Security

Authors: Lynette Drevin, Günther R. Drevin

Abstract:

Numerous threats have been identified when using social networks. The question is whether young people are aware of these negative impacts of online and mobile technologies. Will they identify threats when needed? Will they know where to get help? Students and school children were part of a survey where their behavior and use of Facebook and an instant messaging application - MXit were studied. This paper presents some of the results. It can be concluded that awareness on security and privacy issues should be raised. The benefit of doing such a survey is that it may help to direct educational efforts from a young age. In this way children – with their parents – can strive towards more secure behavior. Educators can focus their lessons towards the areas that need attention resulting in safer cyber interaction and ultimately more responsible online use.

Keywords: Facebook, Instant messaging, MXit, Privacy, Social networks Information Security awareness education, Trust.

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477 An Empirical Study of the Effect of Robot Programming Education on the Computational Thinking of Young Children: The Role of Flowcharts

Authors: Wei Sun, Yan Dong

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in introducing computational thinking at an early age. Computational thinking, like mathematical thinking, engineering thinking, and scientific thinking, is a kind of analytical thinking. Learning computational thinking skills is not only to improve technological literacy, but also allows learners to equip with practicable skills such as problem-solving skills. As people realize the importance of computational thinking, the field of educational technology faces a problem: how to choose appropriate tools and activities to help students develop computational thinking skills. Robots are gradually becoming a popular teaching tool, as robots provide a tangible way for young children to access to technology, and controlling a robot through programming offers them opportunities to engage in developing computational thinking. This study explores whether the introduction of flowcharts into the robotics programming courses can help children convert natural language into a programming language more easily, and then to better cultivate their computational thinking skills. An experimental study was adopted with a sample of children ages six to seven (N = 16) participated, and a one-meter-tall humanoid robot was used as the teaching tool. Results show that children can master basic programming concepts through robotic courses. Children's computational thinking has been significantly improved. Besides, results suggest that flowcharts do have an impact on young children’s computational thinking skills development, but it only has a significant effect on the "sequencing" and "correspondence" skills. Overall, the study demonstrates that the humanoid robot and flowcharts have qualities that foster young children to learn programming and develop computational thinking skills.

Keywords: Robotics, computational thinking, programming, young children, flowcharts.

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476 Design and Implementation of Cricket-based Location Tracking System

Authors: Byung Ki Kim, Ho Min Jung, Jae-Bong Yoo, Wan Yeon Lee, Chan Young Park, Young Woong Ko

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel approach to location system under indoor environment. The key idea of our work is accurate distance estimation with cricket-based location system using A* algorithm. We also use magnetic sensor for detecting obstacles in indoor environment. Finally, we suggest how this system can be used in various applications such as asset tracking and monitoring.

Keywords: Cricket, Indoor Location Tracking, Mobile Robot, Localization.

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475 Family Relationships and Coping with the Stress of Young People from Migrant Families with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to present a relation between family relationships and styles of approach to coping with stress among young people from migrant families with cerebral palsy. The study involved 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in the standard intellectual capacity) from families, in which at least one of parents is a migrant. To measure the level of communication in the family, the Family Relationships Questionnaire (FRQ) was employed, while the styles of coping with stress was investigated with the CISS Questionnaire. The relation between family relationships and styles of coping with stressful situations of the respondents was investigated. It was shown that there is an affiliation between the emotion-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “communication in my family”. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there is a linkage between the task-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “maternal control in mother-child relationship”. Young people with CP subjected to overprotection and control from their mothers in problem situations tend to focus on their own emotions instead of trying to undertake constructive actions. Excessive control in daily life by mothers results in passivity and a lack of motivation to cope with difficult situations.

Keywords: Young people with cerebral palsy, family relationships, styles of coping with stress, migration.

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474 Analysis of Roasted and Ground Grains on the Seoul (Korea) Market for Their Contaminants of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A and Fusarium Toxins by LC-MS/MS

Authors: So-young Jung, Bu-chuhl Choe, Gi-young Shin, Jung-hun Kim, Young-zoo Chae

Abstract:

A sensitive and specific method for quantitative determination of aflatoxins(B1, B2, G1,G2), deoxynivalenol, fumonisin(B1,B2), ochratoxin A, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 in roasted and ground grains using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. A double extraction using a phosphate buffer solution followed by methanol was applied to achieve effective co extraction of 11 mycotoxins. A multitoxin immunoaffinity column for all these mycotoxins was used to clean up the extract. The LODs of mycotoxins were 0.1~6.1 μg/kg, LOQs were 0.3~18.4 μg/kg. Forty seven samples collected from Seoul (Korea) for mycotoxin contamination monitoring. The results showed that the occurrence of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol were frequent. Zearalenone was detected in all samples and deoxynivalenol was detected in 80.9 % samples in the range 0.626 ~ 29.264 μg/kg and N.D ~ 48.332 μg/kg respectively. Fumonisins and ochratoxin A were detected in 46.8% samples and 17 % samples respectively, aflatoxins and T-2/HT-2 toxins were not detected all samples.

Keywords: LC-MS/MS, mycotoxins, roasted and ground grains.

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473 Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Young Asthmatic Children Ages 6-10 Years Old

Authors: Yen-Ting Wang, Kenny Wen-Chyuan Chen, I-Tsun Chiang, Lung-Ching Liang, Alex J.Y. Lee

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to establish the feasibility of a minute incremental exercise testing protocol in young asthma children. Twenty-two children with clinically diagnosed mild to moderate asthma volunteered to participate. The maximum incremental exercise test was performed using a cycle ergometer with an electromagnetic braking. A warm-up unloaded for 2 minutes then the workload was started at 40 watts for 2 minutes, and then stepwise increments of 8 watts per 2 minutes were applied. The pedaling frequency was set at 50 rpm. Ventilation and gas exchange were measured with a breath-by-breath automatic metabolic measurement system. Results showed that this test was well tolerated by all asthmatic children. Most of the children reached the VO2 plateau and satisfied the criteria for maximal respiratory exchange ratio of ≥ 1. This Study demonstrated that this testing protocol was suitable for young asthmatic children.

Keywords: Asthma, Child, Exercise, Pediatrics.

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472 Investigating the Influence of Porosity on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of a C/C Composite Using Image Based FE Modelling

Authors: Abdulrahman A. Alghamdi, Paul M. Mummery, Mohammad A. Sheikh

Abstract:

In this paper, 3D image based composite unit cell is constructed from high resolution tomographic images. Through-thickness thermal diffusivity and in-plane Young’s modulus are predicted for the composite unit cell. The accuracy of the image based composite unit cell is tested by comparing its results with the experimental results obtained from laser flash and tensile test. The FE predictions are in close agreement with experimental results. Through-thickness thermal diffusivity and in-plane Young’s modulus of a virgin C/C composite are predicted by replacing the properties of air (porosity) with the properties of carbon matrix. The effect of porosity was found to be more profound on thermal diffusivity than young’s modulus.

Keywords: Porosity, C/C composite, image based FE modelling, CMC.

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