Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 559

Search results for: freedom of expression

559 Freedom with Limitations: The Nature of Free Expression in the European Case-Law

Authors: Laszlo Vari

Abstract:

In the digital age, the spread of the mobile world and the nature of the cyberspace, offers many new opportunities for the prevalence of the fundamental right to free expression, and therefore, for free speech and freedom of the press; however, these new information communication technologies carry many new challenges. Defamation, censorship, fake news, misleading information, hate speech, breach of copyright etc., are only some of the violations, all of which can be derived from the harmful exercise of freedom of expression, all which become more salient in the internet. Here raises the question: how can we eliminate these problems, and practice our fundamental freedom rightfully? To answer this question, we should understand the elements and the characteristic of the nature of freedom of expression, and the role of the actors whose duties and responsibilities are crucial in the prevalence of this fundamental freedom. To achieve this goal, this paper will explore the European practice to understand instructions found in the case-law of the European Court of Human rights for the rightful exercise of freedom of expression.

Keywords: Collision of rights, European case-law, freedom opinion and expression, media law, freedom of information, online expression

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558 Freedom of Expression and Its Restriction in Audio Visual Media

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

Abstract:

Audio visual communication is a type of collective expression. Due to inform the masses, give direction to opinions, and establish public opinion, audio visual communication must be subjected to special restrictions. This has been stipulated in both the Constitution and the European Human Rights Agreement. This paper aims to review freedom of expression and its restriction in audio visual media. For this purpose, the authorization of the Radio and Television Supreme Council to impose sanctions as an independent administrative authority empowered to regulate the field of audio visual communication has been reviewed with regard to freedom of expression and its limits.

Keywords: Audio visual media, freedom of expression, its limits, Radio and Television Supreme Council.

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557 Freedom of Media, Democracy and Gezi Park

Authors: Emine Tirali

Abstract:

This article provides a conceptual framework of the freedom of media and its correlation with democracy. In a democracy, media should serve the publics’ right to know and reflect human rights violations and offer options for meaningful political choices and effective participation in civic affairs. On that point, the 2013 events at Gezi Park in Turkey are a good empirical example to be discussed. During the events, when self-censorship was broadly employed by mainstream Turkish media, social media filled the important role of providing information to the public. New technologies have made information into a fundamental tool for change and growth, and as a consequence, societies worldwide have merged into a single, interdependent, and autonomous organism. For this reason, violations of human rights can no longer be considered domestic issues, but rather global ones. Only global political action is an adequate response. Democracy depends on people shaping the society they live in, and in order to accomplish this, they need to express themselves. Freedom of expression is therefore necessary in order to understand diversity and differing perspectives, which in turn are necessary to resolve conflicts among people. Moreover, freedom of information is integral to freedom of expression. In this context, the international rules and laws regarding freedom of expression and freedom of information – indispensable for a free and independent media – are examined. These were put in place by international institutions such as the United Nations, UNESCO, the Council of Europe, and the European Union, which have aimed to build a free, democratic, and pluralist world committed to human rights and the rule of law. The methods of international human rights institutions depend on effective and frequent employment of mass media to relay human rights violations to the public. Therefore, in this study, the relationship between mass media and democracy, the process of how mass media forms public opinion, the problems of mass media, the neo-liberal theory of mass media, and the use of mass media by NGOs will be evaluated.

Keywords: Freedom of expression, democracy, public opinion, self-censorship.

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556 Oakes Test and Proportionality Test: Balance between the Practical Costs of Limiting Rights and the Benefits Arising from the Law

Authors: Rafael Tedrus Bento

Abstract:

The analysis of proportionality as a test is raised as a basic foundation for the achievement of Fundamental Rights. We used legal dogmatics and empirical analysis to seek the expected results, from the reading of the RV Oakes trial by the Supreme Court of Canada. In cases involving freedom of expression, two tests are used to resolve disputes. The first examines whether, in fact, the case can be characterized as a violation of freedom of expression; the second assesses whether this violation can be justified by the reasonable limit clause. This test was defined in the RV Oakes trial by the Supreme Court of Canada, concluding with the Oakes Test, used worldwide as a proportionality test. Resulting is a proportionality between the effects of the limiting measure and the objective - the more serious the harmful effects of a measure, the more important the objective must be.

Keywords: Oakes, proportionality. fundamental rights, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

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555 A Simple Affymetrix Ratio-transformation Method Yields Comparable Expression Level Quantifications with cDNA Data

Authors: Chintanu K. Sarmah, Sandhya Samarasinghe, Don Kulasiri, Daniel Catchpoole

Abstract:

Gene expression profiling is rapidly evolving into a powerful technique for investigating tumor malignancies. The researchers are overwhelmed with the microarray-based platforms and methods that confer them the freedom to conduct large-scale gene expression profiling measurements. Simultaneously, investigations into cross-platform integration methods have started gaining momentum due to their underlying potential to help comprehend a myriad of broad biological issues in tumor diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. However, comparing results from different platforms remains to be a challenging task as various inherent technical differences exist between the microarray platforms. In this paper, we explain a simple ratio-transformation method, which can provide some common ground for cDNA and Affymetrix platform towards cross-platform integration. The method is based on the characteristic data attributes of Affymetrix- and cDNA- platform. In the work, we considered seven childhood leukemia patients and their gene expression levels in either platform. With a dataset of 822 differentially expressed genes from both these platforms, we carried out a specific ratio-treatment to Affymetrix data, which subsequently showed an improvement in the relationship with the cDNA data.

Keywords: Gene expression profiling, microarray, cDNA, Affymetrix, childhood leukaemia.

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554 A Novel Cytokine Derived Fusion Tag for Over- Expression of Heterologous Proteins in E. coli

Authors: S. Banerjee, A. Apte Deshpande, N. Mandi, S. Padmanabhan

Abstract:

We report a novel fusion tag for expressing recombinant proteins in E. coli. The fusion tag is the C-terminus part of the human GMCSF gene comprising 45 amino acids, which aid in over expression of otherwise non expressible genes. Expression of hIFN a2b with this fusion tag also escapes the requirement of rare codons for expression. This is also a first report of a small fusion tag of human origin having affinity to heparin sepharose column facilitating the purification of fusion protein.

Keywords: fusion tag, bacterial expression, rare codons, human GMCSF

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553 Dynamical Analysis of Circadian Gene Expression

Authors: Carla Layana Luis Diambra

Abstract:

Microarrays technique allows the simultaneous measurements of the expression levels of thousands of mRNAs. By mining this data one can identify the dynamics of the gene expression time series. By recourse of principal component analysis, we uncover the circadian rhythmic patterns underlying the gene expression profiles from Cyanobacterium Synechocystis. We applied PCA to reduce the dimensionality of the data set. Examination of the components also provides insight into the underlying factors measured in the experiments. Our results suggest that all rhythmic content of data can be reduced to three main components.

Keywords: circadian rhythms, clustering, gene expression, PCA.

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552 Analysis of DNA Microarray Data using Association Rules: A Selective Study

Authors: M. Anandhavalli Gauthaman

Abstract:

DNA microarrays allow the measurement of expression levels for a large number of genes, perhaps all genes of an organism, within a number of different experimental samples. It is very much important to extract biologically meaningful information from this huge amount of expression data to know the current state of the cell because most cellular processes are regulated by changes in gene expression. Association rule mining techniques are helpful to find association relationship between genes. Numerous association rule mining algorithms have been developed to analyze and associate this huge amount of gene expression data. This paper focuses on some of the popular association rule mining algorithms developed to analyze gene expression data.

Keywords: DNA microarray, gene expression, association rule mining.

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551 A New Velocity Expression for Open Channel and its Application to Lyari River

Authors: Rana Khalid Naeem, Asif Mansoor

Abstract:

In this communication an expression for mean velocity of waste flow via an open channel is proposed which is an improvement over Manning formula. The discharges, storages and depths are computed at all locations of the Lyari river by utilizing proposed expression. The results attained through proposed expression are in good agreement with the observed data and better than those acquired using Manning formula.

Keywords: Comparison, Depth, Flow, Open Channel, Proposed Model, Storage

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550 The Employee's Right to Observe the Religious Worship Day: Position of the Portuguese Constitutional Court

Authors: Susana Sousa Machado

Abstract:

The present article seeks to carry out along the lines of interpretation of the recent Portuguese Constitutional Court case law on the possibility of an employee to observe a worship day imposed by religious beliefs. In this approach to the question, considerations on the subject of the relationship between religious freedom and labour relations will inevitably arise. We intend to draw conclusions of practical application from the court decisions on the matter of freedom of religion.

Keywords: Freedom of Religion, Religion Beliefs, Workplace, Worship Day.

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549 Differentiation of Gene Expression Profiles Data for Liver and Kidney of Pigs

Authors: Khlopova N.S., Glazko V.I., Glazko T.T.

Abstract:

Using DNA microarrays the comparative analysis of a gene expression profiles is carried out in a liver and kidneys of pigs. The hypothesis of a cross hybridization of one probe with different cDNA sites of the same gene or different genes is checked up, and it is shown, that cross hybridization can be a source of essential errors at revealing of a key genes in organ-specific transcriptome. It is reveald that distinctions in profiles of a gene expression are well coordinated with function, morphology, biochemistry and histology of these organs.

Keywords: Microarray, gene expression profiles, key genes.

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548 Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Regulates Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Endothelial Cells via the Phosphorylation of JNK/p38

Authors: Chan-Jung Liang, Shu-Huei Wang, Pei-Jhen Wu, Jaw-Shiun Tsai, Chau-Chung Wu, Yuh-Lien Chen

Abstract:

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme degrading heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin, has been recognized as playing a crucial role in cellular defense against stressful conditions, not only related to heme release. In the present study, the effects of TNF-a on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) as well as the related mechanisms were investigated. 10 ng/mL TNF-α treatment significantly increased HO-1 expression after 6h, then a further increase at 12h and declined at 24h. Treatment with 2 ng/mL of TNF-a after 12 h resulted in a significant increase in HO-1 expression, which peaked at 10 ng/mL, then declined at 20 ng/mL. TNF-α induced HO-1 expression and then HO-1 expression reduced  vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression. Phosphorylation studies of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38, three subgroups of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) demonstrated TNF-α-induced ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation. The increase in HO-1 expression in response to TNF-α treatment was affected by pretreatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), not with PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor). The expression of HO-1 was stronger in aortas of TNF-α-treated apo-E deficient mice when compared with control mice. These results suggest that low dose of TNF-α treatment notably induced HO-1 expression was mediated through JNK/p38 phosphorylation and may have a protective potential in cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory response through the regulation of HO-1 expression.

Keywords: Heme oxygenase-1 inflammation, endothelial cells, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs).

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547 Advanced ILQ Control for Buck-Converter viaTwo-Degrees of Freedom Servo-System

Authors: Sidshchadhaa Aumted, Shuhei Shiina, Hiroshi Takami

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an advanced ILQ control for the buck-converter via two-degrees of freedom servo-system. Our presented strategy is based on Inverse Linear Quadratic (ILQ) servo-system controller without solving Riccati-s equation directly. The optimal controller of the current and voltage control system is designed. The stability and robust control are analyzed. A conscious and persistent effort has been made to improve ILQ control via two-degrees of freedom guarantees the optimal gains on the basis of polynomial pole assignment, which our results of the proposed strategy shows that the advanced ILQ control can be controlled independently the step response and the disturbance response by appending a feed-forward compensator.

Keywords: Optimal voltage control, inverse LQ design method, second order polynomial, two-degrees of freedom.

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546 A Heat-Inducible Transgene Expression System for Gene Therapy

Authors: Masaki Yamaguchi, Akira Ito, Noriaki Okamoto, Yoshinori Kawabe, Masamichi Kamihira

Abstract:

Heat-inducible gene expression vectors are useful for hyperthermia-induced cancer gene therapy, because the combination of hyperthermia and gene therapy can considerably improve the therapeutic effects. In the present study, we developed an enhanced heat-inducible transgene expression system in which a heat-shock protein (HSP) promoter and tetracycline-responsive transactivator were combined. When the transactivator plasmid containing the tetracycline-responsive transactivator gene was co-transfected with the reporter gene expression plasmid, a high level of heat-induced gene expression was observed compared with that using the HSP promoter without the transactivator. In vitro evaluation of the therapeutic effect using HeLa cells showed that heat-induced therapeutic gene expression caused cell death in a high percentage of these cells, indicating that this strategy is promising for cancer gene therapy.

Keywords: Inducible gene expression, Gene therapy, Hyperthermia, Heat shock protein, Tetracycline transactivator.

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545 Evaluation of Clustering Based on Preprocessing in Gene Expression Data

Authors: Seo Young Kim, Toshimitsu Hamasaki

Abstract:

Microarrays have become the effective, broadly used tools in biological and medical research to address a wide range of problems, including classification of disease subtypes and tumors. Many statistical methods are available for analyzing and systematizing these complex data into meaningful information, and one of the main goals in analyzing gene expression data is the detection of samples or genes with similar expression patterns. In this paper, we express and compare the performance of several clustering methods based on data preprocessing including strategies of normalization or noise clearness. We also evaluate each of these clustering methods with validation measures for both simulated data and real gene expression data. Consequently, clustering methods which are common used in microarray data analysis are affected by normalization and degree of noise and clearness for datasets.

Keywords: Gene expression, clustering, data preprocessing.

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544 Simultaneous Clustering and Feature Selection Method for Gene Expression Data

Authors: T. Chandrasekhar, K. Thangavel, E. N. Sathishkumar

Abstract:

Microarrays are made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression profiles of thousands of genes under various experimental conditions. It is used to identify the co-expressed genes in specific cells or tissues that are actively used to make proteins. This method is used to analysis the gene expression, an important task in bioinformatics research. Cluster analysis of gene expression data has proved to be a useful tool for identifying co-expressed genes, biologically relevant groupings of genes and samples. In this work K-Means algorithms has been applied for clustering of Gene Expression Data. Further, rough set based Quick reduct algorithm has been applied for each cluster in order to select the most similar genes having high correlation. Then the ACV measure is used to evaluate the refined clusters and classification is used to evaluate the proposed method. They could identify compact clusters with feature selection method used to genes are selected.

Keywords: Clustering, Feature selection, Gene expression data, Quick reduct.

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543 From e-Government to e-Democracy Challenges and Opportunities for Development in Montenegro

Authors: Tamara Djurickovic MSc

Abstract:

Internet today has a huge impact on all aspects of life, and also in the area of the broader context of democracy, politics and politicians. If democracy is freedom of choice, there are a number of conditions that can ensure in practice the freedom to be achieved and realized. These preconditions must be achieved regardless of the manner of voting. The key contribution of ICT to achieve freedom of choice is that technology enables the correlation of the citizens and elected representatives on the better way than it was possible without the Internet. In this sense, we can say that the Internet and ICT are changing significantly, and potentially improving the environment in which democratic processes are taking place. This paper aims to describe trends in use of ICT in democratic processes, and analyzes the challenges for implementation of e-Democracy in Montenegro

Keywords: About four key words or phrases in alphabetical order, separated by commas.

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542 Analytical Approach of the In-Pipe Robot on Branched Pipe Navigation and Its Solution

Authors: Yoon Koo Kang, Jung wan Park, Hyun Seok Yang

Abstract:

This paper determines most common model of in-pipe robots to derive its degree of freedom in order to compare with the necessary degree of freedom required for a system to move inside pipelines freely in order to derive analytical reason for losing control of in-pipe robots at branched pipe. DOF of most common mechanism in in-pipe robots can be calculated by considering the robot as a parallel manipulator. A new design based on previously researched in-pipe robot PAROYS has been suggested, and its possibility to overcome branched section has been simulated.

Keywords: Branched pipe, Degree of freedom, In-pipe robot, Parallel manipulator.

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541 Iterative Clustering Algorithm for Analyzing Temporal Patterns of Gene Expression

Authors: Seo Young Kim, Jae Won Lee, Jong Sung Bae

Abstract:

Microarray experiments are information rich; however, extensive data mining is required to identify the patterns that characterize the underlying mechanisms of action. For biologists, a key aim when analyzing microarray data is to group genes based on the temporal patterns of their expression levels. In this paper, we used an iterative clustering method to find temporal patterns of gene expression. We evaluated the performance of this method by applying it to real sporulation data and simulated data. The patterns obtained using the iterative clustering were found to be superior to those obtained using existing clustering algorithms.

Keywords: Clustering, microarray experiment, temporal pattern of gene expression data.

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540 Facial Expression Phoenix (FePh): An Annotated Sequenced Dataset for Facial and Emotion-Specified Expressions in Sign Language

Authors: Marie Alaghband, Niloofar Yousefi, Ivan Garibay

Abstract:

Facial expressions are important parts of both gesture and sign language recognition systems. Despite the recent advances in both fields, annotated facial expression datasets in the context of sign language are still scarce resources. In this manuscript, we introduce an annotated sequenced facial expression dataset in the context of sign language, comprising over 3000 facial images extracted from the daily news and weather forecast of the public tv-station PHOENIX. Unlike the majority of currently existing facial expression datasets, FePh provides sequenced semi-blurry facial images with different head poses, orientations, and movements. In addition, in the majority of images, identities are mouthing the words, which makes the data more challenging. To annotate this dataset we consider primary, secondary, and tertiary dyads of seven basic emotions of "sad", "surprise", "fear", "angry", "neutral", "disgust", and "happy". We also considered the "None" class if the image’s facial expression could not be described by any of the aforementioned emotions. Although we provide FePh as a facial expression dataset of signers in sign language, it has a wider application in gesture recognition and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems.

Keywords: Annotated Facial Expression Dataset, Sign Language Recognition, Gesture Recognition, Sequenced Facial Expression Dataset.

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539 Improved Feature Extraction Technique for Handling Occlusion in Automatic Facial Expression Recognition

Authors: Khadijat T. Bamigbade, Olufade F. W. Onifade

Abstract:

The field of automatic facial expression analysis has been an active research area in the last two decades. Its vast applicability in various domains has drawn so much attention into developing techniques and dataset that mirror real life scenarios. Many techniques such as Local Binary Patterns and its variants (CLBP, LBP-TOP) and lately, deep learning techniques, have been used for facial expression recognition. However, the problem of occlusion has not been sufficiently handled, making their results not applicable in real life situations. This paper develops a simple, yet highly efficient method tagged Local Binary Pattern-Histogram of Gradient (LBP-HOG) with occlusion detection in face image, using a multi-class SVM for Action Unit and in turn expression recognition. Our method was evaluated on three publicly available datasets which are JAFFE, CK, SFEW. Experimental results showed that our approach performed considerably well when compared with state-of-the-art algorithms and gave insight to occlusion detection as a key step to handling expression in wild.

Keywords: Automatic facial expression analysis, local binary pattern, LBP-HOG, occlusion detection.

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538 ALDH1A1 as a Cancer Stem Cell Marker: Value of Immunohistochemical Expression in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

Authors: H. M. Abdelmoneim, N. A. Babtain, A. S. Barhamain, A. Z. Kufiah, A. S. Malibari, S. F. Munassar, R. S. Rawa

Abstract:

Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in men in developed countries. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) could be responsible for the progression and relapse of cancer. Therefore, CSCs markers could provide a prognostic strategy for human malignancies. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) activity has been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis and proposed to represent a functional marker for tumor initiating cells in various tumor types including prostate cancer. Material & Methods: We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic adenocarcinoma and assessed their significant correlations in 50 TURP sections. They were microscopically interpreted and the results were correlated with histopathological types and tumor grade. Results: In different prostatic histopathological lesions we found that ALDH1A1 expression was low in BPH (13.3%) and PIN (6.7%) and then its expression increased with prostatic adenocarcinoma (40%), and this was statistically highly significant (P value = 0.02). However, in different grades of prostatic adenocarcinoma we found that the higher the Gleason grade the higher the expression for ALDH1A1 and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.02). We compared the expression of ALDH1A1 in PIN and prostatic adenocarcinoma. ALDH1A1 expression was decreased in PIN and highly expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.04). Conclusion: Increasing ALDH1A1 expression is correlated with aggressive behavior of the tumor. Immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 might provide a potential approach to study tumorigenesis and progression of primary prostate carcinoma.

Keywords: ALDH1A1, BPH, PIN, prostatic adenocarcinoma.

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537 Bioarm, a Prostheses without Surgery

Authors: J. Sagouis, A. Chamel, E. Carre, C. Casasreales, G. Rudnik, M. Cerdan

Abstract:

Robotics provides answers to amputees. The most expensive solutions surgically connect the prosthesis to nerve endings. There are also several types of non-invasive technologies that recover nerve messages passing through the muscles. After analyzing these messages, myoelectric prostheses perform the desired movement. The main goal is to avoid all surgeries, which can be heavy and offer cheaper alternatives. For an amputee, we use valid muscles to recover the electrical signal involved in a muscle movement. EMG sensors placed on the muscle allows us to measure a potential difference, which our program transforms into control for a robotic arm with two degrees of freedom. We have shown the feasibility of non-invasive prostheses with two degrees of freedom. Signal analysis and an increase in degrees of freedom is still being improved.

Keywords: Prosthesis, electromyography (EMG), robotic arm, nerve message.

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536 Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Induced Interleukin-17F and Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Expression by Echinacea purpurea in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ali Asghar Saki, Sayed Ali Hosseini Siyar, Abbass Ashoori

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Echinacea purpurea on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-17F (IL-17F) in seven-day-old broiler chickens. Four groups were fed with concentration of 0 g/kg, 5 g/kg, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg from the root of E. purpurea in the basal diet and two other groups were only fed with the basal diet for 21 days. At the 28th day, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg diet) was injected in four groups and the basal diet group was injected by saline as control. The chickens’ spleen RNA expression was measured for the COX-2 and IL-17F genes by Real-Time PCR. The results have shown that chickens which were fed E. purpurea had a lower COX-2 and IL-17F mRNA expression. The chickens who have received LPS only, lymphocyte was lower than other treatments. Vital organ weights were not significantly different, but body weight loss was recovered by dietary herbs inclusion. The results of this study have shown the positive effect of an anti-inflammatory herb to prevent the undesirable effect of inflammation.

Keywords: Echinacea purpurea, broiler chickens, gene expression, lipopolysaccharide.

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535 A Cuckoo Search with Differential Evolution for Clustering Microarray Gene Expression Data

Authors: M. Pandi, K. Premalatha

Abstract:

A DNA microarray technology is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome. Elucidating the patterns hidden in gene expression data offers a tremendous opportunity for an enhanced understanding of functional genomics. However, the large number of genes and the complexity of biological networks greatly increase the challenges of comprehending and interpreting the resulting mass of data, which often consists of millions of measurements. It is handled by clustering which reveals the natural structures and identifying the interesting patterns in the underlying data. In this paper, gene based clustering in gene expression data is proposed using Cuckoo Search with Differential Evolution (CS-DE). The experiment results are analyzed with gene expression benchmark datasets. The results show that CS-DE outperforms CS in benchmark datasets. To find the validation of the clustering results, this work is tested with one internal and one external cluster validation indexes.

Keywords: DNA, Microarray, genomics, Cuckoo Search, Differential Evolution, Gene expression data, Clustering.

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534 Cloning and Over Expression of an Aspergillus niger XP Phytase Gene (phyA) in Pichia pastoris

Authors: Ngo Thanh Xuan, Mai Thi Hang, Vu Nguyen Thanh

Abstract:

A. niger XP isolated from Vietnam produces very low amount of acidic phytase with optimal pH at 2.5 and 5.5. The phytase production of this strain was successfully improved through gene cloning and expression. A 1.4 - kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene was amplified by PCR and inserted into the expression vector pPICZαA with a signal peptide α- factor, under the control of AOX1 promoter. The recombined plasmid was transformed into the host strain P. pastoris KM71H and X33 by electroporation. Both host strains could efficiently express and secret phytase. The multicopy strains were screened for over expression of phytase. All the selected multicopy strains of P. pastoris X33 were examined for phytase activity, the maximum phytase yield of 1329 IU/ml was obtained after 4 days of incubation in medium BMM. The recombinant protein with MW of 97.4 KW showed to be the only one protein secreted in the culture broth. Multicopy transformant P. pastoris X33 supposed to be potential candidate for producing the commercial preparation of phytase.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger XP, cloning, over expression, Pichia pastoris, phyA , phytase.

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533 Emotion Classification using Adaptive SVMs

Authors: P. Visutsak

Abstract:

The study of the interaction between humans and computers has been emerging during the last few years. This interaction will be more powerful if computers are able to perceive and respond to human nonverbal communication such as emotions. In this study, we present the image-based approach to emotion classification through lower facial expression. We employ a set of feature points in the lower face image according to the particular face model used and consider their motion across each emotive expression of images. The vector of displacements of all feature points input to the Adaptive Support Vector Machines (A-SVMs) classifier that classify it into seven basic emotions scheme, namely neutral, angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. The system was tested on the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) dataset of frontal view facial expressions [7]. Our experiments on emotion classification through lower facial expressions demonstrate the robustness of Adaptive SVM classifier and verify the high efficiency of our approach.

Keywords: emotion classification, facial expression, adaptive support vector machines, facial expression classifier.

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532 Mapping of C* Elements in Finite Element Method using Transformation Matrix

Authors: G. H. Majzoob, B. Sharifi Hamadani

Abstract:

Mapping between local and global coordinates is an important issue in finite element method, as all calculations are performed in local coordinates. The concern arises when subparametric are used, in which the shape functions of the field variable and the geometry of the element are not the same. This is particularly the case for C* elements in which the extra degrees of freedoms added to the nodes make the elements sub-parametric. In the present work, transformation matrix for C1* (an 8-noded hexahedron element with 12 degrees of freedom at each node) is obtained using equivalent C0 elements (with the same number of degrees of freedom). The convergence rate of 8-noded C1* element is nearly equal to its equivalent C0 element, while it consumes less CPU time with respect to the C0 element. The existence of derivative degrees of freedom at the nodes of C1* element along with excellent convergence makes it superior compared with it equivalent C0 element.

Keywords: Mapping, Finite element method, C* elements, Convergence, C0 elements.

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531 A Neural Network Based Facial Expression Analysis using Gabor Wavelets

Authors: Praseeda Lekshmi.V, Dr.M.Sasikumar

Abstract:

Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper we present a method to analyze facial expression from images by applying Gabor wavelet transform (GWT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on face images. Radial Basis Function (RBF) Network is used to classify the facial expressions. As a second stage, the images are preprocessed to enhance the edge details and non uniform down sampling is done to reduce the computational complexity and processing time. Our method reliably works even with faces, which carry heavy expressions.

Keywords: Face Expression, Radial Basis Function, GaborWavelet Transform, Human Computer Interaction.

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530 Predicting Dispersion Coefficient in Free-Flowing Zones of Rivers by Genetic Programming

Authors: Rajeev Ranjan Sahay

Abstract:

Transient storage zones along the flow paths of rivers have great influence on the dispersion of pollutants that are either accidentally or otherwise led into them. The speed with which these pollution clouds get transported and dispersed downstream is, to a large extent, explained by the longitudinal dispersion coefficients in the free-flowing zones of rivers (Kf). In the present work, a new empirical expression for Kf has been derived employing genetic programming (GP) on published dispersion data. The proposed expression uses few hydraulic and geometric characteristics of a river that are readily available to field engineers. Based on various performance indices, the proposed expression is found superior to other existing expression for Kf.

Keywords: Dispersion, parameter estimation, rivers, transient pollutant.

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