Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 32009
Clinical Utility of Salivary Cytokines for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Abstract:The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of salivary cytokines for the screening of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. We carried out a case-control study, including 19 children with ADHD and 17 healthy children (controls). A multiplex bead array immunoassay was used to conduct a multi-analysis of 27 different salivary cytokines. Six salivary cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL12p70, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were significantly associated with the presence of ADHD (p < 0.05). An informative salivary cytokine panel was developed using VEGF by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 0.251). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that assessment of a panel using VEGF showed “good” capability for discriminating between ADHD patients and controls (area under the curve: 0.778). ADHD has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex, due to reduced VEGF levels. Our study highlights the possibility of utilizing differential salivary cytokine levels for point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in children with ADHD.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3455667Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 491
 G. Polanczyk, M. S.de Lima, B. L. Horta, J. Biederman, L. A. Rohde, “The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis,” Am. J. Psychiatry, vol. 164, no. 6, pp. 942–948, Jun. 2007.
 R. L.Findling, “Evolution of the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A review,” Clin. Ther., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 942–957, May. 2008.
 A. A. J. Verlaet, C. M. Maasakkers, N. Hermans, H. F. J. Savelkoul, “Rationale for Dietary Antioxidant Treatment of ADHD,” Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 4). pii. E405, Mar. 2018.
 A. Soltanifar, H. Massoudian, Z. Salimi, F. Moharreri, “The comparison between the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in ADHD children with healthy subjects,” J. Child. Adolesc. Psych., vol. 2 no. 3, pp. 3–6, Dec. 2018.
 A. H. Darwish, T. M. Elgohary, N. A. Nosair, “Serum Interleukin-6 Level in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),” J. Child. Neurol., vol. 34, no. 2, pp.61–67, Feb. 2019.
 B. B. Mittleman, F. X. Castellanos, L. K. Jacobsen, J. L. Rapoport, S. E. Swedo, G. M. Shearer, “Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokines in Pediatric Neuropsychiatric Disease,” J. Immunol., vol. 159, no. 6, pp.2994–2999, Sep. 1997.
 R. H. Mitchell, B. I.Goldstein, “Inflammation in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric disorders: A systematic review,” J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psych., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 274–296, Mar. 2014.
 I. Tomas, N. Arias-Bujanda, M. Alonso-Sampedro, M.A. Casares-de-Cal, C. Sanchez-Sellero, D. Suarez-Quintanilla, C. Balsa-Castro, “Cytokine-based predictive models to estimate the probability of chronic periodontitis: Development of diagnostic nomograms,” Sci. Rep., 7: 11580, 2017.
 T. Koizumi, V. Shetty, and M. Yamaguchi, “A Salivary Cytokine Panel Indicative of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer,” J. Int. Med. Res., vol.46, no.9, pp. 3570-3582, Jun. 2018.
 S. Daly, D. Rinewalt, C. Fhied, S. Basu, B. Mahon, M. J. Liptay, E. Hong, G. Chmielewski, M. A. Yoder, P. N. Shah, E. S. Edell, F. Maldonado, A. O. Bungum, J. A. Borgia, “Development and validation of a plasma biomarker panel for discerning clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules,” J. Thorac. Oncol., IASLC vol. 8, no. 1, pp.31–36, Jan. 2013.
 C. DeCotiis, Y. Hu, A. K. Greenberg, M. Huie, J. J. Tsay, H. Pass, J. D. Goldberg, W. N. Rom, “Inflammatory cytokines and non-small cell lung cancer in a CT-scan screening cohort: Background review of the literature,” Cancer Biomark., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 219–233, Feb. 2016.
 M. Yamaguchi, S. Okamura, T. Yamaji, M. Iwasaki, S. Tsugane, V. Shetty, T. Koizumi, “Plasma Cytokine Levels and the Presence of Colorectal Cancer,” PLoS ONE, vol.14, no.3, p. e0213602, Mar. 2019.
 S. Kezic, G. M. O’Regan, R. Lutter, I. Jakasa, E. S. Koster, S. Saunders, P. Caspers, P. M. J. H. Kemperman, G. J. Puppels, A. Sandilands, H. Chen, L/ E/ Campbell, K. Kroboth, R. Watson, P. G. Fallon, W. H. I. McLean, A. D. Irvine, “Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations are associated with enhanced expression of IL-1 cytokines in the stratum corneum of patients with atopic dermatitis and in a murine model of filaggrin deficiency,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 1031–1039, Apr. 2012.
 M. Attur, H-Y. Wang, V. B. Kraus, J. Bukowski, N. Aziz, S. Krasnokutsky, J. Samuels, J. Greenberg, G. McDaniel, S. B. Abramson, K. S. Kornman, “Radiographic severity of knee osteoarthritis is conditional on interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene variations,” Ann. Rheum. Dis., vol. 69, no. 5, pp.856–861, 2010.
 R. M. O’Brien, “A caution regarding rules of thumb for variance inflation factors,” Qual. Quant., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 673–690, Oct. 2007.
 H. F. Dvorak, “Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor: a critical cytokine in tumor angiogenesis and a potential target for diagnosis and therapy,” J. Clin. Oncol., vol. 20, no. 21, pp.4368–4380, Nov. 2002.
 B. Budziszewska, A. Basta-Kaim, M. Kubera, W. Lasoń, “Immunological and endocrinological pattern in ADHD etiopathogenesis,” Przegl. Lek., vol. 67, no. 11, pp.1200–204, 2010
 J. Thome, A. Ehlis, A. J. Fallgatter, K. Krauel, K. W. Lange, P. Riederer, M. Romanos, R. Taurines, O. Tucha, M. Uzbekov, M. Gerlach, “Biomarkers for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A consensus report of the WFSBP task force on biological markers and the World Federation of ADHD,” World J.Biol.Psychia., vol.13, no.5, pp.379–400, 2012.