Search results for: code-division multiple access
2184 A PWM Controller with Multiple-Access Table Look-up for DC-DC Buck Conversion
Authors: Steve Hung-Lung Tu, Chu-Tse Lee
Abstract:A new power regulator controller with multiple-access PID compensator is proposed, which can achieve a minimum memory requirement for fully table look-up. The proposed regulator controller employs hysteresis comparators, an error process unit (EPU) for voltage regulation, a multiple-access PID compensator and a lowpower- consumption digital PWM (DPWM). Based on the multipleaccess mechanism, the proposed controller can alleviate the penalty of large amount of memory employed for fully table look-up based PID compensator in the applications of power regulation. The proposed controller has been validated with simulation results.
Keywords: Multiple access, PID compensator, PWM, Buck conversion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1315
2183 Outage Capacity Analysis for Next Generation Wireless Communication Using Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access
Authors: Md. Sohidul Islam, Ahmad Fartheen Khan
In recent times, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) has received significant attention as an upcoming candidate in the world of 5G systems. The main reason for getting NOMA in 5G is because of its capacity to provide services to many users who have the same time and frequency resources. It is best used as "multiple-input, multiple-output" (MIMO) technology. In this paper, we are going to investigate outage probability as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and target rate user. These methods will be implemented using cooperative communication and fair power allocation, respectively.
Keywords: Non-orthogonal Multiple Access, Fair Power Allocation, Outage Probability, Target Rate User, Cooperative Communication, massive multiple input multiple output, MIMO, Successive Interference Cancellation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 72
2182 Design and Performance Analysis of One Dimensional Zero Cross-Correlation Coding Technique for a Fixed Wavelength Hopping SAC-OCDMA
Authors: Satyasen Panda, Urmila Bhanja
This paper presents a SAC-OCDMA code with zero cross correlation property to minimize the Multiple Access Interface (MAI) as New Zero Cross Correlation code (NZCC), which is found to be more scalable compared to the other existing SAC-OCDMA codes. This NZCC code is constructed using address segment and data segment. In this work, the proposed NZCC code is implemented in an optical system using the Opti-System software for the spectral amplitude coded optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) scheme. The main contribution of the proposed NZCC code is the zero cross correlation, which reduces both the MAI and PIIN noises. The proposed NZCC code reveals properties of minimum cross-correlation, flexibility in selecting the code parameters and supports a large number of users, combined with high data rate and longer fiber length. Simulation results reveal that the optical code division multiple access system based on the proposed NZCC code accommodates maximum number of simultaneous users with higher data rate transmission, lower Bit Error Rates (BER) and longer travelling distance without any signal quality degradation, as compared to the former existing SAC-OCDMA codes.
Keywords: Cross Correlation, Optical Code Division Multiple Access, Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access, Multiple Access Interference, Phase Induced Intensity Noise, New Zero Cross Correlation code.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1727
2181 Design and Performance Improvement of Three-Dimensional Optical Code Division Multiple Access Networks with NAND Detection Technique
Authors: Satyasen Panda, Urmila Bhanja
Abstract:In this paper, we have presented and analyzed three-dimensional (3-D) matrices of wavelength/time/space code for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks with NAND subtraction detection technique. The 3-D codes are constructed by integrating a two-dimensional modified quadratic congruence (MQC) code with one-dimensional modified prime (MP) code. The respective encoders and decoders were designed using fiber Bragg gratings and optical delay lines to minimize the bit error rate (BER). The performance analysis of the 3D-OCDMA system is based on measurement of signal to noise ratio (SNR), BER and eye diagram for a different number of simultaneous users. Also, in the analysis, various types of noises and multiple access interference (MAI) effects were considered. The results obtained with NAND detection technique were compared with those obtained with OR and AND subtraction techniques. The comparison results proved that the NAND detection technique with 3-D MQC\MP code can accommodate more number of simultaneous users for longer distances of fiber with minimum BER as compared to OR and AND subtraction techniques. The received optical power is also measured at various levels of BER to analyze the effect of attenuation.
Keywords: Cross correlation, three-dimensional optical code division multiple access, spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access, multiple access interference, phase induced intensity noise, three-dimensional modified quadratic congruence/modified prime code.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1396
2180 Performance of Subcarrier- OCDMA System with Complementary Subtraction Detection Technique
Authors: R. K. Z. Sahbudin, M. K. Abdullah, M. Mokhtar, S. B. A. Anas, S. Hitam
Abstract:A subcarrier - spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access system using the Khazani-Syed code with Complementary subtraction detection technique is proposed. The proposed system has been analyzed by taking into account the effects of phase-induced intensity noise, shot noise, thermal noise and intermodulation distortion noise. The performance of the system has been compared with the spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access system using the Hadamard code and the Modified Quadratic Congruence code. The analysis shows that the proposed system can eliminate the multiple access interference using the Complementary subtraction detection technique, and hence improve the overall system performance.
Keywords: Complementary subtraction, Khazani-Syed code, multiple access interference, phase-induced intensity noiseProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1571
2179 Analysis of MAC Protocols with Correlation Receiver for OCDMA Networks - Part II
Authors: Shivaleela E. S., Shrikant S. Tangade
In this paper optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) packet network is considered, which offers inherent security in the access networks. Two types of random access protocols are proposed for packet transmission. In protocol 1, all distinct codes and in protocol 2, distinct codes as well as shifted versions of all these codes are used. O-CDMA network performance using optical orthogonal codes (OOCs) 1-D and two-dimensional (2-D) wavelength/time single-pulse-per-row (W/T SPR) codes are analyzed. The main advantage of using 2-D codes instead of onedimensional (1-D) codes is to reduce the errors due to multiple access interference among different users. In this paper, correlation receiver is considered in the analysis. Using analytical model, we compute and compare packet-success probability for 1-D and 2-D codes in an O-CDMA network and the analysis shows improved performance with 2-D codes as compared to 1-D codes.
Keywords: Optical code-division multiple-access, optical CDMA correlation receiver, wavelength/time optical CDMA codes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1273
2178 Combined Beamforming and Channel Estimation in WCDMA Communication Systems
Authors: Nermin A. Mohamed, Mohamed F. Madkour
We address the problem of joint beamforming and multipath channel parameters estimation in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) communication systems that employ Multiple-Access Interference (MAI) suppression techniques in the uplink (from mobile to base station). Most of the existing schemes rely on time multiplex a training sequence with the user data. In WCDMA, the channel parameters can also be estimated from a code multiplexed common pilot channel (CPICH) that could be corrupted by strong interference resulting in a bad estimate. In this paper, we present new methods to combine interference suppression together with channel estimation when using multiple receiving antennas by using adaptive signal processing techniques. Computer simulation is used to compare between the proposed methods and the existing conventional estimation techniques.
Keywords: Adaptive arrays, channel estimation, interferencecancellation, wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2193
2177 A Web Service Platform for Support Multiple Programming Language to Access Biomedical Image Databases
Authors: Mohd Kamir Yusof, Suhailan Dato' Safei
Abstract:Images are important in disease research, education, and clinical medicine. This paper presents a Web Service Platform (WSP) for support multiple programming languages to access image from biomedical databases. The main function WSP is to allow web users access image from biomedical databases. The WSP will receive web user-s queries. After that, it will send to Querying Server (QS) and the QS will search and retrieve data from biomedical databases. Finally, the information will display to the web users. Simple application is developed and tested for experiment purpose. Result from experiment indicated WSP can be used in biomedical environment.
Keywords: Biomedical, Image, Web Service PlatformProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1609
2176 Performance Analysis of QS-CDMA Systems
Authors: Cuiran Li, Jianli Xie, Chengshu Li
Abstract:In the paper, the performance of quasi-synchronous CDMA (QS-CDMA) system, which can allow an increased timing error in synchronized access, is discussed. Average BER performance of the system is analyzed in the condition of different access timing error and different asynchronous users by simulation in AWGN channel. The results show that QS-CDMA system is shown to have great performance gain over the asynchronous system when access timing error is within a few chips and asynchronous users is tolerable. However, with access timing error increasing and asynchronous users increasing, the performance of QS-CDMA will degrade. Also, we can determine the number of tolerable asynchronous users for different access timing error by simulation figures.
Keywords: Code-division multiple access, Quasi-SynchronousCDMA, Access timing errorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1196
2175 Performance Improvement of MAC Protocols for Broadband Power-Line Access Networks of Developing Countries: A Case of Tanzania
Authors: Abdi T. Abdalla, Justinian Anatory
This paper investigates the possibility of improving throughputs of some Media Access Controls protocols such as ALOHA, slotted ALOHA and Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance with the aim of increasing the performance of Powerline access networks. In this investigation, the real Powerline network topology in Tanzania located in Dar es Salaam City, Kariakoo area was used as a case study. During this investigation, Wireshark Network Protocol Analyzer was used to analyze data traffic of similar existing network for projection purpose and then the data were simulated using MATLAB. This paper proposed and analyzed three improvement techniques based on collision domain, packet length and combination of the two. From the results, it was found that the throughput of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance protocol improved noticeably while ALOHA and slotted ALOHA showed insignificant changes especially when the hybrid techniques were employed.
Keywords: Access Network, ALOHA, Broadband Powerline Communication, Slotted ALOHA, CSMA/CA and MAC Protocols.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1922
2174 An Investigation on Efficient Spreading Codes for Transmitter Based Techniques to Mitigate MAI and ISI in TDD/CDMA Downlink
Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil
We investigate efficient spreading codes for transmitter based techniques of code division multiple access (CDMA) systems. The channel is considered to be known at the transmitter which is usual in a time division duplex (TDD) system where the channel is assumed to be the same on uplink and downlink. For such a TDD/CDMA system, both bitwise and blockwise multiuser transmission schemes are taken up where complexity is transferred to the transmitter side so that the receiver has minimum complexity. Different spreading codes are considered at the transmitter to spread the signal efficiently over the entire spectrum. The bit error rate (BER) curves portray the efficiency of the codes in presence of multiple access interference (MAI) as well as inter symbol interference (ISI).
Keywords: Code division multiple access, time division duplex, transmitter technique, precoding, pre-rake, rake, spreading code.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1364
2173 Performance Analysis in 5th Generation Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems
Authors: Jihad S. Daba, Jean-Pierre Dubois, Georges El Soury
Fifth generation wireless networks guarantee significant capacity enhancement to suit more clients and services at higher information rates with better reliability while consuming less power. The deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output technology guarantees broadband wireless networks with the use of base station antenna arrays to serve a large number of users on the same frequency and time-slot channels. In this work, we evaluate the performance of massive multiple-input-multiple-output systems (MIMO) systems in 5th generation cellular networks in terms of capacity and bit error rate. Several cases were considered and analyzed to compare the performance of massive MIMO systems while varying the number of antennas at both transmitting and receiving ends. We found that, unlike classical MIMO systems, reducing the number of transmit antennas while increasing the number of antennas at the receiver end provides a better solution to performance enhancement. In addition, enhanced orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and beam division multiple access schemes further improve the performance of massive MIMO systems and make them more reliable.
Keywords: Beam division multiple access, D2D communication, enhanced OFDM, fifth generation broadband, massive MIMO.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 598
2172 Reduction of Multiple User Interference for Optical CDMA Systems Using Successive Interference Cancellation Scheme
Authors: Tawfig Eltaif, Hesham A. Bakarman, N. Alsowaidi, M. R. Mokhtar, Malek Harbawi
Abstract:Multiple User Interference (MUI) considers the primary problem in Optical Code-Division Multiple Access (OCDMA), which resulting from the overlapping among the users. In this article we aim to mitigate this problem by studying an interference cancellation scheme called successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme. This scheme will be tested on two different detection schemes, spectral amplitude coding (SAC) and direct detection systems (DS), using partial modified prime (PMP) as the signature codes. It was found that SIC scheme based on both SAC and DS methods had a potential to suppress the intensity noise, that is to say it can mitigate MUI noise. Furthermore, SIC/DS scheme showed much lower bit error rate (BER) performance relative to SIC/SAC scheme for different magnitude of effective power. Hence, many more users can be supported by SIC/DS receiver system.
Keywords: Multiple User Interference (MUI), Optical Code-Division Multiple Access (OCDMA), Partial Modified Prime Code (PMP), Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC), Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1631
2171 A Simplified Single Correlator Rake Receiver for CDMA Communications
Authors: K. Murali Krishna, Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil
This paper presents a single correlator RAKE receiver for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems. In conventional RAKE receivers, multiple correlators are used to despread the multipath signals and then to align and combine those signals in a later stage before making a bit decision. The simplified receiver structure presented here uses a single correlator and single code sequence generator to recover the multipaths. Modified Walsh- Hadamard codes are used here for data spreading that provides better uncorrelation properties for the multipath signals. The main advantage of this receiver structure is that it requires only a single correlator and a code generator in contrary to the conventional RAKE receiver concept with multiple correlators. It is shown in results that the proposed receiver achieves better bit error rates in comparison with the conventional one for more than one multipaths.
Keywords: RAKE receiver, Code division multiple access, ModifiedWalsh-Hadamard codes, Single correlator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3519
2170 A General Mandatory Access Control Framework in Distributed Environments
Authors: Feng Yang, Xuehai Zhou, Dalei Hu
In this paper, we propose a general mandatory access framework for distributed systems. The framework can be applied into multiple operating systems and can handle multiple stakeholders. Despite considerable advancements in the area of mandatory access control, a certain approach to enforcing mandatory access control can only be applied in a specific operating system. Other than PC market in which windows captures the overwhelming shares, there are a number of popular operating systems in the emerging smart phone environment, i.e. Android, Windows mobile, Symbian, RIM. It should be noted that more and more stakeholders are involved in smartphone software, such as devices owners, service providers and application providers. Our framework includes three parts—local decision layer, the middle layer and the remote decision layer. The middle layer takes charge of managing security contexts, OS API, operations and policy combination. The design of the remote decision layer doesn’t depend on certain operating systems because of the middle layer’s existence. We implement the framework in windows, linux and other popular embedded systems.
Keywords: Mandatory Access Control, Distributed System, General Platform.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2108
2169 Comparative Analysis of Various Multiuser Detection Techniques in SDMA-OFDM System Over the Correlated MIMO Channel Model for IEEE 802.16n
Authors: Susmita Das, Kala Praveen Bagadi
Abstract:SDMA (Space-Division Multiple Access) is a MIMO (Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output) based wireless communication network architecture which has the potential to significantly increase the spectral efficiency and the system performance. The maximum likelihood (ML) detection provides the optimal performance, but its complexity increases exponentially with the constellation size of modulation and number of users. The QR decomposition (QRD) MUD can be a substitute to ML detection due its low complexity and near optimal performance. The minimum mean-squared-error (MMSE) multiuser detection (MUD) minimises the mean square error (MSE), which may not give guarantee that the BER of the system is also minimum. But the minimum bit error rate (MBER) MUD performs better than the classic MMSE MUD in term of minimum probability of error by directly minimising the BER cost function. Also the MBER MUD is able to support more users than the number of receiving antennas, whereas the rest of MUDs fail in this scenario. In this paper the performance of various MUD techniques is verified for the correlated MIMO channel models based on IEEE 802.16n standard.
Keywords: Multiple input multiple output, multiuser detection, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, space division multiple access, Bit error rateProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1810
2168 WDM and OCDMA Systems under MAI Effects: A Comparison Analysis
Authors: Hilal A. Fadhil, Thanaa Hussein Abd, Hamza M. R. Al-Khafaji, S. A. Aljunid
Abstract:This paper presents a comparison between Spectrum- Sliced Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SS-WDM) and Spectrum Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC Optical CDMA) systems for different light sources. The performance of the system is shown in the simulated results of the bit error rate (BER) and the eye diagram of both systems. The comparison results indicate that the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) effects have a significant impact on SS-WDM over SAC Optical CDMA systems. Finally, in terms of spectral efficiency at constant BER of 10-12, SSWDM offers higher spectral efficiency than optical CDMA since no bandwidth expansion in needed.
Keywords: WDM, OCDMA, BER, RD codeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2211
2167 Adaptive Subchannel Allocation for MC-CDMA System
Authors: Cuiran Li, Jianli Xie, Chengshu Li
Abstract:Multicarrier code-division multiple-access is one of the effective techniques to gain its multiple access capability, robustness against fading, and to mitigate the ISI. In this paper, we propose an improved mulcarrier CDMA system with adaptive subchannel allocation. We analyzed the performance of our proposed system in frequency selective fading environment with narrowband interference existing and compared it with that of parallel transmission over many subchannels (namely, conventional MC-CDMA scheme) and DS-CDMA system. Simulation results show that adaptive subchannel allocation scheme, when used in conventional multicarrier CDMA system, the performance will be greatly improved.
Keywords: MC-CDMA, Rayleigh fading, Narrowbandinterference, Channel estimation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1460
2166 Performance Analysis of Selective Adaptive Multiple Access Interference Cancellation for Multicarrier DS-CDMA Systems
Authors: Maged Ahmed, Ahmed El-Mahdy
In this paper, Selective Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (SA-PIC) technique is presented for Multicarrier Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (MC DS-CDMA) scheme. The motivation of using SA-PIC is that it gives high performance and at the same time, reduces the computational complexity required to perform interference cancellation. An upper bound expression of the bit error rate (BER) for the SA-PIC under Rayleigh fading channel condition is derived. Moreover, the implementation complexities for SA-PIC and Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (APIC) are discussed and compared. The performance of SA-PIC is investigated analytically and validated via computer simulations.
Keywords: Adaptive interference cancellation, communicationsystems, multicarrier signal processing, spread spectrumProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1739
2165 A Fast Code Acquisition Scheme for O-CDMA Systems
Authors: Youngpo Lee, Jaewoo Lee, Seokho Yoon
Abstract:This paper proposes a fast code acquisition scheme for optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems. Unlike the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme employs multiple thresholds providing a shorter mean acquisition time (MAT) performance. The simulation results show that the MAT of the proposed scheme is shorter than that of the conventional scheme.
Keywords: Optical CDMA, acquisition, MAT, multiple-shiftProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1831
2164 Performance Evaluation of Distributed and Co-Located MIMO LTE Physical Layer Using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform
Authors: Ishak Suleiman, Ahmad Kamsani Samingan, Yeoh Chun Yeow, Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman
Abstract:In this paper, we evaluate the benefits of distributed 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink systems compared to that of the co-located 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink system. The performance evaluation was carried out experimentally by using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP), where the comparison between the 4x4 MIMO LTE transmission downlink system in distributed and co-located techniques was examined. The measured Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) results showed that the distributed technique achieved better system performance compared to the co-located arrangement.
Keywords: Multiple-input-multiple-output, MIMO, distributed MIMO, co-located MIMO, LTE.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1524
2163 Performance Analysis of IDMA Scheme Using Quasi-Cyclic Low Density Parity Check Codes
Authors: Anurag Saxena, Alkesh Agrawal, Dinesh Kumar
The next generation mobile communication systems i.e. fourth generation (4G) was developed to accommodate the quality of service and required data rate. This project focuses on multiple access technique proposed in 4G communication systems. It is attempted to demonstrate the IDMA (Interleave Division Multiple Access) technology. The basic principle of IDMA is that interleaver is different for each user whereas CDMA employs different signatures. IDMA inherits many advantages of CDMA such as robust against fading, easy cell planning; dynamic channel sharing and IDMA increase the spectral efficiency and reduce the receiver complexity. In this, performance of IDMA is analyzed using QC-LDPC coding scheme further it is compared with LDPC coding and at last BER is calculated and plotted in MATLAB.
Keywords: 4G, QC-LDPC, CDMA, IDMA.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1540
2162 Equalities in a Variety of Multiple Algebras
Authors: Mona Taheri
Abstract:The purpose of this research is to study the concepts of multiple Cartesian product, variety of multiple algebras and to present some examples. In the theory of multiple algebras, like other theories, deriving new things and concepts from the things and concepts available in the context is important. For example, the first were obtained from the quotient of a group modulo the equivalence relation defined by a subgroup of it. Gratzer showed that every multiple algebra can be obtained from the quotient of a universal algebra modulo a given equivalence relation. The purpose of this study is examination of multiple algebras and basic relations defined on them as well as introduction to some algebraic structures derived from multiple algebras. Among the structures obtained from multiple algebras, this article studies submultiple algebras, quotients of multiple algebras and the Cartesian product of multiple algebras.
Keywords: hypergroup, multiple algebrasProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1240
2161 MMSE Based Beamforming for Chip Interleaved CDMA in Aeronautical Mobile Radio Channel
Authors: Sherif K. El Dyasti, Esam A. Hagras, Adel E. El-Hennawy
This paper addresses the performance of antenna array beamforming on Chip-Interleaved Code Division Multiple Access (CI_CDMA) system based on Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) detector in aeronautical mobile radio channel. Multipath fading, Doppler shifts caused by the speed of the aircraft, and Multiple Access Interference (MAI) are the most important reasons that affect and reduce the performance of aeronautical system. In this paper we suggested the CI-CDMA with antenna array to combat this fading and improve the bit error rate (BER) performance. We further evaluate the performance of the proposed system in the four standard scenarios in aeronautical mobile radio channel.
Keywords: Aeronautical Channel, CI-CDMA, Beamforming.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1979
2160 On Pseudo-Random and Orthogonal Binary Spreading Sequences
Authors: Abhijit Mitra
Different pseudo-random or pseudo-noise (PN) as well as orthogonal sequences that can be used as spreading codes for code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular networks or can be used for encrypting speech signals to reduce the residual intelligence are investigated. We briefly review the theoretical background for direct sequence CDMA systems and describe the main characteristics of the maximal length, Gold, Barker, and Kasami sequences. We also discuss about variable- and fixed-length orthogonal codes like Walsh- Hadamard codes. The equivalence of PN and orthogonal codes are also derived. Finally, a new PN sequence is proposed which is shown to have certain better properties than the existing codes.
Keywords: Code division multiple access, pseudo-noise codes, maximal length, Gold, Barker, Kasami, Walsh-Hadamard, autocorrelation, crosscorrelation, figure of merit.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5871
2159 Concurrency in Web Access Patterns Mining
Authors: Jing Lu, Malcolm Keech, Weiru Chen
Abstract:Web usage mining is an interesting application of data mining which provides insight into customer behaviour on the Internet. An important technique to discover user access and navigation trails is based on sequential patterns mining. One of the key challenges for web access patterns mining is tackling the problem of mining richly structured patterns. This paper proposes a novel model called Web Access Patterns Graph (WAP-Graph) to represent all of the access patterns from web mining graphically. WAP-Graph also motivates the search for new structural relation patterns, i.e. Concurrent Access Patterns (CAP), to identify and predict more complex web page requests. Corresponding CAP mining and modelling methods are proposed and shown to be effective in the search for and representation of concurrency between access patterns on the web. From experiments conducted on large-scale synthetic sequence data as well as real web access data, it is demonstrated that CAP mining provides a powerful method for structural knowledge discovery, which can be visualised through the CAP-Graph model.
Keywords: concurrent access patterns (CAP), CAP mining and modelling, CAP-Graph, web access patterns (WAP), WAP-Graph, Web usage mining.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1589
2158 Performance Evaluation of One and Two Dimensional Prime Codes for Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems
Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Neena Gupta
Abstract:In this paper, we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension, i.e. time slots, whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research, we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system on a single platform. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes, but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.
Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 999
2157 Transfer Knowledge from Multiple Source Problems to a Target Problem in Genetic Algorithm
Authors: Tami Alghamdi, Terence Soule
To study how to transfer knowledge from multiple source problems to the target problem, we modeled the Transfer Learning (TL) process using Genetic Algorithms as the model solver. TL is the process that aims to transfer learned data from one problem to another problem. The TL process aims to help Machine Learning (ML) algorithms find a solution to the problems. The Genetic Algorithms (GA) give researchers access to information that we have about how the old problem is solved. In this paper, we have five different source problems, and we transfer the knowledge to the target problem. We studied different scenarios of the target problem. The results showed that combined knowledge from multiple source problems improves the GA performance. Also, the process of combining knowledge from several problems results in promoting diversity of the transferred population.
Keywords: Transfer Learning, Multiple Sources, Knowledge Transfer, Domain Adaptation, Source, Target.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 22
2156 System Performance Comparison of Turbo and Trellis Coded Optical CDMA Systems
Authors: M. Kulkarni, R. K. Sinha, D. R. Bhaskar
In this paper, we have compared the performance of a Turbo and Trellis coded optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system. The comparison of the two codes has been accomplished by employing optical orthogonal codes (OOCs). The Bit Error Rate (BER) performances have been compared by varying the code weights of address codes employed by the system. We have considered the effects of optical multiple access interference (OMAI), thermal noise and avalanche photodiode (APD) detector noise. Analysis has been carried out for the system with and without double optical hard limiter (DHL). From the simulation results it is observed that a better and distinct comparison can be drawn between the performance of Trellis and Turbo coded systems, at lower code weights of optical orthogonal codes for a fixed number of users. The BER performance of the Turbo coded system is found to be better than the Trellis coded system for all code weights that have been considered for the simulation. Nevertheless, the Trellis coded OCDMA system is found to be better than the uncoded OCDMA system. Trellis coded OCDMA can be used in systems where decoding time has to be kept low, bandwidth is limited and high reliability is not a crucial factor as in local area networks. Also the system hardware is less complex in comparison to the Turbo coded system. Trellis coded OCDMA system can be used without significant modification of the existing chipsets. Turbo-coded OCDMA can however be employed in systems where high reliability is needed and bandwidth is not a limiting factor.
Keywords: avalanche photodiode, optical code division multipleaccess, optical multiple access interference, Trellis codedmodulation, Turbo codeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1786
2155 Enhanced Performance of Fading Dispersive Channel Using Dynamic Frequency Hopping(DFH)
Authors: Walid M. Saad
Abstract:techniques are examined to overcome the performance degradation caused by the channel dispersion using slow frequency hopping (SFH) with dynamic frequency hopping (DFH) pattern adaptation. In DFH systems, the frequency slots are selected by continuous quality monitoring of all frequencies available in a system and modification of hopping patterns for each individual link based on replacing slots which its signal to interference ratio (SIR) measurement is below a required threshold. Simulation results will show the improvements in BER obtained by DFH in comparison with matched frequency hopping (MFH), random frequency hopping (RFH) and multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) in multipath slowly fading dispersive channels using a generalized bandpass two-path transfer function model, and will show the improvement obtained according to the threshold selection.
Keywords: code division multiple access (CDMA), dynamic channel allocation (DCA), dynamic channel assignment, frequency hopping, matched frequency hopping (MFH).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1559