Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3258

Search results for: Phase Induced Intensity Noise

3258 PIIN Suppression Using Random Diagonal Code for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA System

Authors: Hilal Adnan Fadhil, Syed Alwei, R. Badlishah Ahmad

Abstract:

A new code for spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access system is proposed called Random diagonal (RD) code. This code is constructed using code segment and data segment. One of the important properties of this code is that the cross correlation at data segment is always zero, which means that Phase Intensity Induced Noise (PIIN) is reduced. For the performance analysis, the effects of phase-induced intensity noise, shot noise, and thermal noise are considered simultaneously. Bit-error rate (BER) performance is compared with Hadamard and Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) codes. It is shown that the system using this new code matrices not only suppress PIIN, but also allows larger number of active users compare with other codes. Simulation results shown that using point to point transmission with three encoded channels, RD code has better BER performance than other codes, also its found that at 0 dbm PIIN noise are 10-10 and 10-11 for RD and MFH respectively.

Keywords: OCDMA, MFH, PIIN, and BER.

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3257 Performance of Subcarrier- OCDMA System with Complementary Subtraction Detection Technique

Authors: R. K. Z. Sahbudin, M. K. Abdullah, M. Mokhtar, S. B. A. Anas, S. Hitam

Abstract:

A subcarrier - spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access system using the Khazani-Syed code with Complementary subtraction detection technique is proposed. The proposed system has been analyzed by taking into account the effects of phase-induced intensity noise, shot noise, thermal noise and intermodulation distortion noise. The performance of the system has been compared with the spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access system using the Hadamard code and the Modified Quadratic Congruence code. The analysis shows that the proposed system can eliminate the multiple access interference using the Complementary subtraction detection technique, and hence improve the overall system performance.

Keywords: Complementary subtraction, Khazani-Syed code, multiple access interference, phase-induced intensity noise

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3256 Coexistence of Two Different Types of Intermittency near the Boundary of Phase Synchronization in the Presence of Noise

Authors: Olga I. Moskalenko, Maksim O. Zhuravlev, Alexey A. Koronovskii, Alexander E. Hramov

Abstract:

Intermittent behavior near the boundary of phase synchronization in the presence of noise is studied. In certain range of the coupling parameter and noise intensity the intermittency of eyelet and ring intermittencies is shown to take place. Main results are illustrated using the example of two unidirectional coupled Rössler systems. Similar behavior is shown to take place in two hydrodynamical models of Pierce diode coupled unidirectional.

Keywords: Chaotic oscillators, phase synchronization, noise, intermittency of intermittencies, control.

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3255 Design of an Ultra Low Power Low Phase Noise CMOS LC Oscillator

Authors: Mahdi Ebrahimzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce an ultra low power CMOS LC oscillator and analyze a method to design a low power low phase noise complementary CMOS LC oscillator. A 1.8GHz oscillator is designed based on this analysis. The circuit has power supply equal to 1.1 V and dissipates 0.17 mW power. The oscillator is also optimized for low phase noise behavior. The oscillator phase noise is -126.2 dBc/Hz and -144.4 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz and 8 MHz offset respectively.

Keywords: LC oscillator, Low Power, Low Phase Noise

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3254 Phase Noise Impact on BER in Space Communication

Authors: Ondrej Baran, Miroslav Kasal, Petr Vagner, Tomas Urbanec

Abstract:

This paper deals with the modeling and the evaluation of a multiplicative phase noise influence on the bit error ratio in a general space communication system. Our research is focused on systems with multi-state phase shift keying modulation techniques and it turns out, that the phase noise significantly affects the bit error rate, especially for higher signal to noise ratios. These results come from a system model created in Matlab environment and are shown in a form of constellation diagrams and bit error rate dependencies. The change of a user data bit rate is also considered and included into simulation results. Obtained outcomes confirm theoretical presumptions.

Keywords: Additive thermal noise, AWGN, BER, bit error rate, multiplicative phase noise, phase shift keying.

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3253 Phase Jitter Transfer in High Speed Data Links

Authors: Tsunwai Gary Yip

Abstract:

Phase locked loops in 10 Gb/s and faster data links are low phase noise devices. Characterization of their phase jitter transfer functions is difficult because the intrinsic noise of the PLLs is comparable to the phase noise of the reference clock signal. The problem is solved by using a linear model to account for the intrinsic noise. This study also introduces a novel technique for measuring the transfer function. It involves the use of the reference clock as a source of wideband excitation, in contrast to the commonly used sinusoidal excitations at discrete frequencies. The data reported here include the intrinsic noise of a PLL for 10 Gb/s links and the jitter transfer function of a PLL for 12.8 Gb/s links. The measured transfer function suggests that the PLL responded like a second order linear system to a low noise reference clock.

Keywords: Intrinsic phase noise, jitter in data link, PLL jitter transfer function, high speed clocking in electronic circuit

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3252 Bi-axial Stress Effects on Barkhausen-Noise

Authors: G. Balogh, I. A. Szabó, P. Z. Kovács

Abstract:

Mechanical stress has a strong effect on the magnitude of the Barkhausen-noise in structural steels. Because the measurements are performed at the surface of the material, for a sample sheet, the full effect can be described by a biaxial stress field. The measured Barkhausen-noise is dependent on the orientation of the exciting magnetic field relative to the axis of the stress tensor. The sample inhomogenities including the residual stress also modifies the angular dependence of the measured Barkhausen-noise. We have developed a laboratory device with a cross like specimen for bi-axial bending. The measuring head allowed performing excitations in two orthogonal directions. We could excite the two directions independently or simultaneously with different amplitudes. The simultaneous excitation of the two coils could be performed in phase or with a 90 degree phase shift. In principle this allows to measure the Barkhausen-noise at an arbitrary direction without moving the head, or to measure the Barkhausen-noise induced by a rotating magnetic field if a linear superposition of the two fields can be assumed.

Keywords: Barkhausen-noise, Bi-axial stress, Stress dependency, Stress measuring.

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3251 A novel Iterative Approach for Phase Noise Cancellation in Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) Systems

Authors: Joumana Farah, François Marx, Clovis Francis

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to emphasize and alleviate the effect of phase noise due to imperfect local oscillators on the performances of a Multi-Carrier CDMA system. After the cancellation of Common Phase Error (CPE), an iterative approach is introduced which iteratively estimates Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) components in the frequency domain and cancels their contribution in the time domain. Simulation are conducted in order to investigate the achievable performances for several parameters, such as the spreading factor, the modulation order, the phase noise power and the transmission Signal-to-Noise Ratio.

Keywords: Inter-carrier Interference, Multi-Carrier Code DivisionMultiple Access, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Phase noise.

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3250 Jitter Transfer in High Speed Data Links

Authors: Tsunwai Gary Yip

Abstract:

Phase locked loops for data links operating at 10 Gb/s or faster are low phase noise devices designed to operate with a low jitter reference clock. Characterization of their jitter transfer function is difficult because the intrinsic noise of the device is comparable to the random noise level in the reference clock signal. A linear model is proposed to account for the intrinsic noise of a PLL. The intrinsic noise data of a PLL for 10 Gb/s links is presented. The jitter transfer function of a PLL in a test chip for 12.8 Gb/s data links was determined in experiments using the 400 MHz reference clock as the source of simultaneous excitations over a wide range of frequency. The result shows that the PLL jitter transfer function can be approximated by a second order linear model.

Keywords: Intrinsic phase noise, jitter in data link, PLL jitter transfer function, high speed clocking in electronic circuit

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3249 Traffic Noise under Stop and Go Conditions in Intersections – A Case Study

Authors: Nima Jahandar, Amin Hosseinpour, Mohammad Ali Sahraei

Abstract:

Whit the increasing of traffic, noise emanated from motor vehicles increases as well, which subsequently causes adding to the stress of modern city. Thus, it is needed to look for most critical areas in terms of environmental and social impact of noise. There are several critical situations for noise emanated from motor vehicles such as stop and go situation which usually occurs near junctions or at-grade intersections. This study was conducted in two locations, most common types of intersections, crossroads and Tjunctions. The highest average noise levels are recorded during Go phase for T-junction, 64.4 dB, and Drive phase for crossroad, 64 dB. It implies that the existence of intersection caused the noise level to increase. The vehicles starting to move produce more sound than when they travel at a constant speed along the intersection. It is suggested that special considerations and priority of allocating funds should be given to these critical spots.

Keywords: Crossroad, T-junction, Traffic Noise, Stop and Go, Urban noise

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3248 Acoustic Noise Reduction in Single Phase SRM Drives by Random Switching Technique

Authors: Minh-Khai Nguyen, Young-Gook Jung, Young-Cheol Lim

Abstract:

It is known that if harmonic spectra are decreased, then acoustic noise also decreased. Hence, this paper deals with a new random switching strategy using DSP TMS320F2812 to decrease the harmonics spectra of single phase switched reluctance motor. The proposed method which combines random turn-on, turn-off angle technique and random pulse width modulation technique is shown. A harmonic spread factor (HSF) is used to evaluate the random modulation scheme. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the new method, the experimental results show that the harmonic intensity of output voltage for the proposed method is better than that for conventional methods.

Keywords: Single phase switched reluctance motor (SRM), harmonic spread factor (HSF), random switching technique.

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3247 Assessment of Noise Pollution in the City of Biskra, Algeria

Authors: Tallal Abdel Karim Bouzir, Nourdinne Zemmouri, Djihed Berkouk

Abstract:

In this research, a quantitative assessment of the urban sound environment of the city of Biskra, Algeria, was conducted. To determine the quality of the soundscape based on in-situ measurement, using a Landtek SL5868P sound level meter in 47 points, which have been identified to represent the whole city. The result shows that the urban noise level varies from 55.3 dB to 75.8 dB during the weekdays and from 51.7 dB to 74.3 dB during the weekend. On the other hand, we can also note that 70.20% of the results of the weekday measurements and 55.30% of the results of the weekend measurements have levels of sound intensity that exceed the levels allowed by Algerian law and the recommendations of the World Health Organization. These very high urban noise levels affect the quality of life, the acoustic comfort and may even pose multiple risks to people's health.

Keywords: Noise pollution, road traffic, sound intensity, public health, noise monitoring.

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3246 Ear Protectors and Their Action in Protecting Hearing System of Workers against Occupational Noise

Authors: F. Forouharmajd, S. Pourabdian, N. Ziayi Ghahnavieh

Abstract:

For many years, the ear protectors have been used to preventing the audio and non-audio effects of received noise from occupation environments. Despite performing hearing protection programs, there are many people which still suffer from noise-induced hearing loss. This study was conducted with the aim of determination of human hearing system response to received noise and the effectiveness of ear protectors on preventing of noise-induced hearing loss. Sound pressure microphones were placed in a simulated ear canal. The severity of noise measured inside and outside of ear canal. The noise reduction values due to installing ear protectors were calculated in the octave band frequencies and LabVIEW programmer. The results of noise measurement inside and outside of ear canal showed a different in received sound levels by ear canal. The effectiveness of ear protectors has been considerably reduced for the low frequency limits. A change in resonance frequency also was observed after using ear protectors. The study indicated the ear canal structure may affect the received noise and it may lead a difference between the received sound from the measured sound by a sound level meter, and hearing system. It means the human hearing system may probably respond different from a sound level meter. Hearing protectors’ efficiency declines by increasing the noise levels, and thus, they are not suitable to protect workers against industrial noise particularly low frequency noise. Hearing protectors may be solely a reason to damaging of hearing system in a special frequency via changing of human hearing system acoustical structure. We need developing the subjective method of hearing protectors testing, because their evaluation is not designed based on industrial noise or in the field.

Keywords: Ear protector, hearing system, occupational noise, workers.

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3245 Numerical Investigation on the Interior Wind Noise of a Passenger Car

Authors: Liu Ying-jie, Lu Wen-bo, Peng Cheng-jian

Abstract:

With the development of the automotive technology and electric vehicle, the contribution of the wind noise on the interior noise becomes the main source of noise. The main transfer path which the exterior excitation is transmitted through is the greenhouse panels and side windows. Simulating the wind noise transmitted into the vehicle accurately in the early development stage can be very challenging. The basic methodologies of this study were based on the Lighthill analogy; the exterior flow field around a passenger car was computed using unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) firstly and then a Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to compute the interior acoustic response. The major findings of this study include: 1) The Sound Pressure Level (SPL) response at driver’s ear locations is mainly induced by the turbulence pressure fluctuation; 2) Peaks were found over the full frequency range. It is found that the methodology used in this study could predict the interior wind noise induced by the exterior aerodynamic excitation in industry.

Keywords: Wind noise, computational fluid dynamics, finite element method, passenger car.

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3244 20 GHz Fractional Phased Locked Loop Circuit for the Gbps Wireless Communication

Authors: Ki-Jin Kim, Sanghoon Park, K. H. Ahn

Abstract:

This paper presents the 20-GHz fractional PLL (Phase Locked Loop) circuit for the next generation Wi-Fi by using 90 nm TSMC process. The newly suggested millimeter wave 16/17 pre-scalar is designed and verified by measurement to make the fractional PLL having a low quantization noise. The operational bandwidth of the 60 GHz system is 15 % of the carrier frequency which requires large value of Kv (VCO control gain) resulting in degradation of phase noise. To solve this problem, this paper adopts AFC (Automatic Frequency Controller) controlled 4-bit millimeter wave VCO with small value of Kv. Also constant Kv is implemented using 4-bit varactor bank. The measured operational bandwidth is 18.2 ~ 23.2 GHz which is 25 % of the carrier frequency. The phase noise of -58 and -96.2 dBc/Hz at 100 KHz and 1 MHz offset is measured respectively. The total power consumption of the PLL is only 30 mW.

Keywords: Millimeter Wave Fractional PLL, Wide band VCO, WPAN Transceiver.

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3243 Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA: Performance Analysis of PIIN Reduction Using VC Code Family

Authors: Hassan Yousif Ahmed, Ibrahima Faye, N.M.Saad, S.A. Aljined

Abstract:

Multi-user interference (MUI) is the main reason of system deterioration in the Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) system. MUI increases with the number of simultaneous users, resulting into higher probability bit rate and limits the maximum number of simultaneous users. On the other hand, Phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) problem which is originated from spontaneous emission of broad band source from MUI severely limits the system performance should be addressed as well. Since the MUI is caused by the interference of simultaneous users, reducing the MUI value as small as possible is desirable. In this paper, an extensive study for the system performance specified by MUI and PIIN reducing is examined. Vectors Combinatorial (VC) codes families are adopted as a signature sequence for the performance analysis and a comparison with reported codes is performed. The results show that, when the received power increases, the PIIN noise for all the codes increases linearly. The results also show that the effect of PIIN can be minimized by increasing the code weight leads to preserve adequate signal to noise ratio over bit error probability. A comparison study between the proposed code and the existing codes such as Modified frequency hopping (MFH), Modified Quadratic- Congruence (MQC) has been carried out.

Keywords: FBG, MUI, PIIN, SAC-OCDMA, VCC.

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3242 Adaptive Weighted Averaging Filter Using the Appropriate Number of Consecutive Frames

Authors: Mahmoud Saeidi, Ali Nazemipour

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive spatiotemporal filter that utilizes image sequences in order to remove noise. The consecutive frames include: current, previous and next noisy frames. The filter proposed in this paper is based upon the weighted averaging pixels intensity and noise variance in image sequences. It utilizes the Appropriate Number of Consecutive Frames (ANCF) based on the noisy pixels intensity among the frames. The number of consecutive frames is adaptively calculated for each region in image and its value may change from one region to another region depending on the pixels intensity within the region. The weights are determined by a well-defined mathematical criterion, which is adaptive to the feature of spatiotemporal pixels of the consecutive frames. It is experimentally shown that the proposed filter can preserve image structures and edges under motion while suppressing noise, and thus can be effectively used in image sequences filtering. In addition, the AWA filter using ANCF is particularly well suited for filtering sequences that contain segments with abruptly changing scene content due to, for example, rapid zooming and changes in the view of the camera.

Keywords: Appropriate Number of Consecutive Frames, Adaptive Weighted Averaging, Motion Estimation, Noise Variance, Motion Compensation

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3241 Millimeter Wave I/Q Generation with the Inductive Resonator Matched Poly-Phase Filter

Authors: Ki-Jin Kim, Sanghoon Park, K. H. Ahn

Abstract:

A way of generating millimeter wave I/Q signal using inductive resonator matched poly-phase filter is suggested. Normally the poly-phase filter generates quite accurate I/Q phase and magnitude but the loss of the filter is considerable due to series connection of passive RC components. This loss term directly increases system noise figure when the poly-phase filter is used in RF Front-end. The proposed matching method eliminates above mentioned loss and in addition provides gain on the passive filter. The working algorithm is illustrated by mathematical analysis. The generated I/Q signal is used in implementing millimeter wave phase shifter for the 60 GHz communication system to verify its effectiveness. The circuit is fabricated in 90 nm TSMC RF CMOS process under 1.2 V supply voltage. The measurement results showed that the suggested method improved gain by 6.5 dB and noise by 2.3 dB. The summary of the proposed I/Q generation is compared with previous works.

Keywords: Millimeter Wave Circuits, Local Distribution, I/Q Generator.

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3240 Pressure Induced Isenthalpic Oscillations with Condensation and Evaporation in Saturated Two-Phase Fluids

Authors: Joel V. Madison, Hans E. Kimmel

Abstract:

Saturated two-phase fluid flows are often subject to pressure induced oscillations. Due to compressibility the vapor bubbles act as a spring with an asymmetric non-linear characteristic. The volume of the vapor bubbles increases or decreases differently if the pressure fluctuations are compressing or expanding; consequently, compressing pressure fluctuations in a two-phase pipe flow cause less displacement in the direction of the pipe flow than expanding pressure fluctuations. The displacement depends on the ratio of liquid to vapor, the ratio of pressure fluctuations over average pressure and on the exciting frequency of the pressure fluctuations. In addition, pressure fluctuations in saturated vapor bubbles cause condensation and evaporation within the bubbles and change periodically the ratio between liquid to vapor, and influence the dynamical parameters for the oscillation. The oscillations are conforming to an isenthalpic process at constant enthalpy with no heat transfer and no exchange of work. The paper describes the governing non-linear equation for twophase fluid oscillations with condensation and evaporation, and presents steady state approximate solutions for free and for pressure induced oscillations. Resonance criteria and stability are discussed.

Keywords: condensation, evaporation, non-linear oscillations, pressure induced, two-phase flow

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3239 A Paradigm for Characterization and Checking of a Human Noise Behavior

Authors: Himanshu Dehra

Abstract:

This paper presents a paradigm for characterization and checking of human noise behavior. The definitions of ‘Noise’ and ‘Noise Behavior’ are devised. The concept of characterization and examining of Noise Behavior is obtained from the proposed paradigm of Psychoacoustics. The measurement of human noise behavior is discussed through definitions of noise sources and noise measurements. The noise sources, noise measurement equations and noise filters are further illustrated through examples. The theory and significance of solar energy acoustics is presented for life and its activities. Human comfort and health are correlated with human brain through physiological responses and noise protection. Examples of heat stress, intense heat, sweating and evaporation are also enumerated.

Keywords: Human brain, noise behavior, noise characterization, noise filters, physiological responses, psychoacoustics.

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3238 Decomposition of Graphs into Induced Paths and Cycles

Authors: I. Sahul Hamid, Abraham V. M.

Abstract:

A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of subgraphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path or an induced cycle in G, then ψ is called an induced path decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced path decomposition of G is called the induced path decomposition number of G and is denoted by πi(G). In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter.

Keywords: Path decomposition, Induced path decomposition, Induced path decomposition number.

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3237 Analysis of Vortex-Induced Vibration Characteristics for a Three-Dimensional Flexible Tube

Authors: Zhipeng Feng, Huanhuan Qi, Pingchuan Shen, Fenggang Zang, Yixiong Zhang

Abstract:

Numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibration of a three-dimensional flexible tube under uniform turbulent flow are calculated when Reynolds number is 1.35×104. In order to achieve the vortex-induced vibration, the three-dimensional unsteady, viscous, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and LES turbulence model are solved with the finite volume approach, the tube is discretized according to the finite element theory, and its dynamic equilibrium equations are solved by the Newmark method. The fluid-tube interaction is realized by utilizing the diffusion-based smooth dynamic mesh method. Considering the vortex-induced vibration system, the variety trends of lift coefficient, drag coefficient, displacement, vertex shedding frequency, phase difference angle of tube are analyzed under different frequency ratios. The nonlinear phenomena of locked-in, phase-switch are captured successfully. Meanwhile, the limit cycle and bifurcation of lift coefficient and displacement are analyzed by using trajectory, phase portrait, and Poincaré sections. The results reveal that: when drag coefficient reaches its minimum value, the transverse amplitude reaches its maximum, and the “lock-in” begins simultaneously. In the range of lock-in, amplitude decreases gradually with increasing of frequency ratio. When lift coefficient reaches its minimum value, the phase difference undergoes a suddenly change from the “out-of-phase” to the “in-phase” mode.

Keywords: Vortex induced vibration, limit cycle, CFD, FEM.

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3236 Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Noise-Reduction Transformer

Authors: Toshiaki Yanada, Kazumi Ishikawa

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the analysis and development of noise-reduction transformer that has a filter function for conductive noise transmission. Two types of prototype noise-reduction transformers with two different output voltages are proposed. To determine an optimum design for the noise-reduction transformer, noise attenuation characteristics are discussed based on the experiments and the equivalent circuit analysis. The analysis gives a relation between the circuit parameters and the noise attenuation. High performance step-down noise-reduction transformer for direct power supply to electronics equipment is developed. The input voltage of the transformer is 100 V and the output voltage is 5 V. Frequency characteristics of noise attenuation are discussed, and prevention of pulse noise transmission is demonstrated. Normal mode noise attenuation of this transformer is –80 dB, and common mode exceeds –90 dB. The step-down noise-reduction transformer eliminates pulse noise efficiently.

Keywords: conductive noise, EMC, EMI, noise attenuation, transformer.

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3235 Induced Graphoidal Covers in a Graph

Authors: K. Ratan Singh, P. K. Das

Abstract:

An induced graphoidal cover of a graph G is a collection ψ of (not necessarily open) paths in G such that every path in ψ has at least two vertices, every vertex of G is an internal vertex of at most one path in ψ, every edge of G is in exactly one path in ψ and every member of ψ is an induced cycle or an induced path. The minimum cardinality of an induced graphoidal cover of G is called the induced graphoidal covering number of G and is denoted by ηi(G) or ηi. Here we find induced graphoidal cover for some classes of graphs.

Keywords: Graphoidal cover, Induced graphoidal cover, Induced graphoidal covering number.

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3234 Design and Performance Improvement of Three-Dimensional Optical Code Division Multiple Access Networks with NAND Detection Technique

Authors: Satyasen Panda, Urmila Bhanja

Abstract:

In this paper, we have presented and analyzed three-dimensional (3-D) matrices of wavelength/time/space code for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks with NAND subtraction detection technique. The 3-D codes are constructed by integrating a two-dimensional modified quadratic congruence (MQC) code with one-dimensional modified prime (MP) code. The respective encoders and decoders were designed using fiber Bragg gratings and optical delay lines to minimize the bit error rate (BER). The performance analysis of the 3D-OCDMA system is based on measurement of signal to noise ratio (SNR), BER and eye diagram for a different number of simultaneous users. Also, in the analysis, various types of noises and multiple access interference (MAI) effects were considered. The results obtained with NAND detection technique were compared with those obtained with OR and AND subtraction techniques. The comparison results proved that the NAND detection technique with 3-D MQC\MP code can accommodate more number of simultaneous users for longer distances of fiber with minimum BER as compared to OR and AND subtraction techniques. The received optical power is also measured at various levels of BER to analyze the effect of attenuation.

Keywords: Cross correlation, three-dimensional optical code division multiple access, spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access, multiple access interference, phase induced intensity noise, three-dimensional modified quadratic congruence/modified prime code.

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3233 Medical Image Segmentation Using Deformable Models and Local Fitting Binary

Authors: B. Bagheri Nakhjavanlo, T. J. Ellis, P. Raoofi, J. Dehmeshki

Abstract:

This paper presents a customized deformable model for the segmentation of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in CTA datasets. An important challenge in reliably detecting aortic aneurysm is the need to overcome problems associated with intensity inhomogeneities and image noise. Level sets are part of an important class of methods that utilize partial differential equations (PDEs) and have been extensively applied in image segmentation. A Gaussian kernel function in the level set formulation, which extracts the local intensity information, aids the suppression of noise in the extracted regions of interest and then guides the motion of the evolving contour for the detection of weak boundaries. The speed of curve evolution has been significantly improved with a resulting decrease in segmentation time compared with previous implementations of level sets. The results indicate the method is more effective than other approaches in coping with intensity inhomogeneities.

Keywords: Abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms, intensityinhomogeneity, level sets, local fitting binary.

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3232 Power Transformer Noise, Noise Tests, and Example Test Results

Authors: E. Doğan, B. Kekezoğlu

Abstract:

Voltage level must be raised in order to deliver the produced energy to the consumption zones with less loss and less cost. Power transformers used to raise or lower voltage are important parts of the energy transmission system. Power transformers used in switchgear and power generation plants stay in human's intensive habitat zones as a result of expanding cities. Accordingly, noise levels produced by power transformers have begun more and more important and they have established itself as one of the research field. In this research, the noise cause on transformers has been investigated, it's causes has been examined and noise measurement techniques have been introduced. Examples of transformer noise test results are submitted and precautions to be taken were discussed for the purpose of decreasing of the noise which will occurred by transformers.

Keywords: Power transformer, noise measurement, core noise, load noise, fan-pump noise.

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3231 Optimization of a Four-Lobed Swirl Pipe for Clean-In-Place Procedures

Authors: Guozhen Li, Philip Hall, Nick Miles, Tao Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation of two horizontally mounted four-lobed swirl pipes in terms of swirl induction effectiveness into flows passing through them. The swirl flows induced by the two swirl pipes have the potential to improve the efficiency of Clean-In-Place procedures in a closed processing system by local intensification of hydrodynamic impact on the internal pipe surface. Pressure losses, swirl development within the two swirl pipe, swirl induction effectiveness, swirl decay and wall shear stress variation downstream of two swirl pipes are analyzed and compared. It was found that a shorter length of swirl inducing pipe used in joint with transition pipes is more effective in swirl induction than when a longer one is used, in that it has a less constraint to the induced swirl and results in slightly higher swirl intensity just downstream of it with the expense of a smaller pressure loss. The wall shear stress downstream of the shorter swirl pipe is also slightly larger than that downstream of the longer swirl pipe due to the slightly higher swirl intensity induced by the shorter swirl pipe. The advantage of the shorter swirl pipe in terms of swirl induction is more significant in flows with a larger Reynolds Number.

Keywords: Swirl pipe, swirl effectiveness, CFD, wall shear stress, swirl intensity.

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3230 The Effect of Damping Treatment for Noise Control on Offshore Platforms Using Statistical Energy Analysis

Authors: Ji Xi, Cheng Song Chin, Ehsan Mesbahi

Abstract:

Structure-borne noise is an important aspect of offshore platform sound field. It can be generated either directly by vibrating machineries induced mechanical force, indirectly by the excitation of structure or excitation by incident airborne noise. Therefore, limiting of the transmission of vibration energy throughout the offshore platform is the key to control the structureborne noise. This is usually done by introducing damping treatment to the steel structures. Two types of damping treatment using onboard are presented. By conducting a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) simulation on a jack-up rig, the noise level in the source room, the neighboring rooms, and remote living quarter cabins are compared before and after the damping treatments been applied. The results demonstrated that, in the source neighboring room and living quarter area, there is a significant noise reduction with the damping treatment applied, whereas in the source room where air-borne sound predominates that of structure-borne sound, the impact is not obvious. The conclusion on effective damping treatment in the offshore platform is made which enable acoustic professionals to implement noise control during the design stage for offshore crews’ hearing protection and habitant comfortability.

Keywords: Statistical energy analysis, damping treatment, noise control, offshore platform.

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3229 Noise Optimization Techniques for 1V 1GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifiers Design

Authors: M. Zamin Khan, Yanjie Wang, R. Raut

Abstract:

A 1V, 1GHz low noise amplifier (LNA) has been designed and simulated using Spectre simulator in a standard TSMC 0.18um CMOS technology.With low power and noise optimization techniques, the amplifier provides a gain of 24 dB, a noise figure of only 1.2 dB, power dissipation of 14 mW from a 1 V power supply.

Keywords:

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