Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: WDM

30 Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Spectrum Analyzer

Authors: Osama Terra, Hatem Hussein, Adriaan Van Brakel

Abstract:

Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology requires tight specification and therefore measurement of wavelength accuracy and stability of the telecommunication lasers. Thus, calibration of the used Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) that are used to measure wavelength is of a great importance. Proficiency testing must be performed on such measuring activity to insure the accuracy of the measurement results. In this paper, a new comparison scheme is introduced to test the performance of such calibrations. This comparison scheme is implemented between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the calibration of the wavelength scale of an OSA. Both institutes employ reference gas cell to calibrate OSA according to the standard IEC/ BS EN 62129 (2006). The result of this comparison is compiled in this paper.

Keywords: OSA calibration, HCN gas cell, DWDM technology, wavelength measurement.

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29 Channels Splitting Strategy for Optical Local Area Networks of Passive Star Topology

Authors: Peristera Baziana

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a network configuration for a WDM LANs of passive star topology that assume that the set of data WDM channels is split into two separate sets of channels, with different access rights over them. Especially, a synchronous transmission WDMA access algorithm is adopted in order to increase the probability of successful transmission over the data channels and consequently to reduce the probability of data packets transmission cancellation in order to avoid the data channels collisions. Thus, a control pre-transmission access scheme is followed over a separate control channel. An analytical Markovian model is studied and the average throughput is mathematically derived. The performance is studied for several numbers of data channels and various values of control phase duration.

Keywords: Access algorithm, channels division, collisions avoidance, wavelength division multiplexing.

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28 Improved Multi–Objective Firefly Algorithms to Find Optimal Golomb Ruler Sequences for Optimal Golomb Ruler Channel Allocation

Authors: Shonak Bansal, Prince Jain, Arun Kumar Singh, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

Recently nature–inspired algorithms have widespread use throughout the tough and time consuming multi–objective scientific and engineering design optimization problems. In this paper, we present extended forms of firefly algorithm to find optimal Golomb ruler (OGR) sequences. The OGRs have their one of the major application as unequally spaced channel–allocation algorithm in optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems in order to minimize the adverse four–wave mixing (FWM) crosstalk effect. The simulation results conclude that the proposed optimization algorithm has superior performance compared to the existing conventional computing and nature–inspired optimization algorithms to find OGRs in terms of ruler length, total optical channel bandwidth and computation time.

Keywords: Channel allocation, conventional computing, four–wave mixing, nature–inspired algorithm, optimal Golomb ruler, Lévy flight distribution, optimization, improved multi–objective Firefly algorithms, Pareto optimal.

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27 Comparative Performance Analysis of Fiber Delay Line Based Buffer Architectures for Contention Resolution in Optical WDM Networks

Authors: Manoj Kumar Dutta

Abstract:

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is the most promising technology for the proper utilization of huge raw bandwidth provided by an optical fiber. One of the key problems in implementing the all-optical WDM network is the packet contention. This problem can be solved by several different techniques. In time domain approach the packet contention can be reduced by incorporating Fiber Delay Lines (FDLs) as optical buffer in the switch architecture. Different types of buffering architectures are reported in literatures. In the present paper a comparative performance analysis of three most popular FDL architectures are presented in order to obtain the best contention resolution performance. The analysis is further extended to consider the effect of different fiber non-linearities on the network performance.

Keywords: WDM network, contention resolution, optical buffering, non-linearity, throughput.

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26 Soliton Interaction in Multi-Core Optical Fiber: Application to WDM System

Authors: S. Arun Prakash, V. Malathi, M. S. Mani Rajan

Abstract:

The analytical bright two soliton solution of the 3- coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients in birefringent optical fiber is obtained by Darboux transformation method. To the design of ultra-speed optical devices, Soliton interaction and control in birefringence fiber is investigated. Lax pair is constructed for N coupled NLS system through AKNS method. Using two-soliton solution, we demonstrate different interaction behaviors of solitons in birefringent fiber depending on the choice of control parameters. Our results shows that interactions of optical solitons have some specific applications such as construction of logic gates, optical computing, soliton switching, and soliton amplification in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system.

Keywords: Optical soliton, soliton interaction, soliton switching, WDM.

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25 A High Quality Factor Filter Based on Quasi-Periodic Photonic Structure

Authors: Hamed Alipour-Banaei, Farhad Mehdizadeh

Abstract:

We report the design and characterization of ultra high quality factor filter based on one-dimensional photonic-crystal Thue- Morse sequence structure. The behavior of aperiodic array of photonic crystal structure is numerically investigated and we show that by changing the angle of incident wave, desired wavelengths could be tuned and a tunable filter is realized. Also it is shown that high quality factor filter be achieved in the telecommunication window around 1550 nm, with a device based on Thue-Morse structure. Simulation results show that the proposed structure has a quality factor more than 100000 and it is suitable for DWDM communication applications.

Keywords: Thue-Morse, filter, quality factor.

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24 FWM Aware Fuzzy Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment in Transparent Optical Networks

Authors: Debajyoti Mishra, Urmila Bhanja

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel fuzzy approach is developed while solving the Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment (DRWA) problem in optical networks with Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). In this work, the effect of nonlinear and linear impairments such as Four Wave Mixing (FWM) and amplifier spontaneous emission (ASE) noise are incorporated respectively. The novel algorithm incorporates fuzzy logic controller (FLC) to reduce the effect of FWM noise and ASE noise on a requested lightpath referred in this work as FWM aware fuzzy dynamic routing and wavelength assignment algorithm. The FWM crosstalk products and the static FWM noise power per link are pre computed in order to reduce the set up time of a requested lightpath, and stored in an offline database. These are retrieved during the setting up of a lightpath and evaluated online taking the dynamic parameters like cost of the links into consideration.

Keywords: Amplifier spontaneous emission (ASE), Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment, Four wave mixing (FWM), Fuzzy rule based system (FRBS).

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23 Multiple-Channel Piezoelectric Actuated Tunable Optical Filter for WDM Application

Authors: Hailu Dessalegn, T. Srinivas

Abstract:

We propose new multiple-channel piezoelectric (PZT) actuated tunable optical filter based on racetrack multi-ring resonators for wavelength de-multiplexing network applications. We design tunable eight-channel wavelength de-multiplexer consisting of eight cascaded PZT actuated tunable multi-ring resonator filter with a channel spacing of 1.6nm. The filter for each channel is basically structured on a suspended beam, sandwiched with piezoelectric material and built in integrated ring resonators which are placed on the middle of the beam to gain uniform stress and linearly varying longitudinal strain. A reference single mode serially coupled multi stage racetrack ring resonator with the same radii and coupling length is designed with a line width of 0.8974nm with a flat top pass band at 1dB of 0.5205nm and free spectral range of about 14.9nm. In each channel, a small change in the perimeter of the rings is introduced to establish the shift in resonance wavelength as per the defined channel spacing. As a result, when a DC voltage is applied, the beams will elongate, which involves mechanical deformation of the ring resonators that induces a stress and a strain, which brings a change in refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the output spectrum shift providing the tunability of central wavelength in each channel. Simultaneous wave length shift as high as 45.54pm/

Keywords: Optical MEMS, piezoelectric (PZT) actuation, tunable optical filter, wavelength de-multiplexer.

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22 New Approach for Minimizing Wavelength Fragmentation in Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks

Authors: Sami Baraketi, Jean-Marie Garcia, Olivier Brun

Abstract:

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is the dominant transport technology used in numerous high capacity backbone networks, based on optical infrastructures. Given the importance of costs (CapEx and OpEx) associated to these networks, resource management is becoming increasingly important, especially how the optical circuits, called “lightpaths”, are routed throughout the network. This requires the use of efficient algorithms which provide routing strategies with the lowest cost. We focus on the lightpath routing and wavelength assignment problem, known as the RWA problem, while optimizing wavelength fragmentation over the network. Wavelength fragmentation poses a serious challenge for network operators since it leads to the misuse of the wavelength spectrum, and then to the refusal of new lightpath requests. In this paper, we first establish a new Integer Linear Program (ILP) for the problem based on a node-link formulation. This formulation is based on a multilayer approach where the original network is decomposed into several network layers, each corresponding to a wavelength. Furthermore, we propose an efficient heuristic for the problem based on a greedy algorithm followed by a post-treatment procedure. The obtained results show that the optimal solution is often reached. We also compare our results with those of other RWA heuristic methods

Keywords: WDM, lightpath, RWA, wavelength fragmentation, optimization, linear programming, heuristic

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21 An Approach to Flatten the Gain of Fiber Raman Amplifiers with Multi-Pumping

Authors: Surinder Singh, Adish Bindal

Abstract:

The effects of the pumping wavelength and their power on the gain flattening of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) are investigated. The multi-wavelength pumping scheme is utilized to achieve gain flatness in FRA. It is proposed that gain flatness becomes better with increase in number of pumping wavelengths applied. We have achieved flat gain with 0.27 dB fluctuation in a spectral range of 1475-1600 nm for a Raman fiber length of 10 km by using six pumps with wavelengths with in the 1385-1495 nm interval. The effect of multi-wavelength pumping scheme on gain saturation in FRA is also studied. It is proposed that gain saturation condition gets improved by using this scheme and this scheme is more useful for higher spans of Raman fiber length.

Keywords: FRA, gain, pumping, WDM.

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20 Performance Evaluation of an Efficient Asynchronous Protocol for WDM Ring MANs

Authors: Peristera A. Baziana

Abstract:

The idea of the asynchronous transmission in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) ring MANs is studied in this paper. Especially, we present an efficient access technique to coordinate the collisions-free transmission of the variable sizes of IP traffic in WDM ring core networks. Each node is equipped with a tunable transmitter and a tunable receiver. In this way, all the wavelengths are exploited for both transmission and reception. In order to evaluate the performance measures of average throughput, queuing delay and packet dropping probability at the buffers, a simulation model that assumes symmetric access rights among the nodes is developed based on Poisson statistics. Extensive numerical results show that the proposed protocol achieves apart from high bandwidth exploitation for a wide range of offered load, fairness of queuing delay and dropping events among the different packets size categories.

Keywords: Asynchronous transmission, collision avoidance, wavelength division multiplexing.

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19 The Impact of NICTBB in Facilitating the E-Services and M-Services in Tanzania

Authors: S. Pazi, C. Chatwin

Abstract:

ICT services are a key element of communications and important for socio-economic development. In recognition of the importance of this, the Tanzanian Government started to implement a National ICT Broadband Infrastructure Fibre Optic Backbone (NICTBB) in 2009; this development was planned to be implemented in four phases using an optical dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) network technology in collaboration with the Chinese Government through the Chinese International Telecommunications Construction Corporation (CITCC) under a bilateral agreement. This paper briefly explores the NICTBB network technologies implementation, operations and Internet bandwidth costs. It also provides an in depth assessment of the delivery of ICT services such as e-services and m-services in both urban and rural areas following commissioning of the NICTBB system. Following quantitative and qualitative approaches, the study shows that there have been significant improvements in utilization efficiency, effectiveness and the reliability of the ICT service such as e-services and m-services the NICTCBB was commissioned.

Keywords: NICTBB, DWDM, Optic Fibre, Internet, ICT services, e-services, m-services.

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18 Performance Enhancement of DWDM Systems Using HTE Configuration HTE Configuration for 1479-1555nm Wavelength Range

Authors: Inderpreet Kaur, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, the gain spectrum of EDFA has been broadened by implementing HTE configuration for S and C band. On using this configuration an amplification bandwidth of 76nm ranging from 1479nm to 1555nm with a peak gain of 26dB has been obtained.

Keywords: C band, DWDM system, EDFA, Gain, HTE, Hybrid Fiber Amplifier, S band.

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17 Silicon-based Low-Power Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ROADM)

Authors: Junfeng Song, Xianshu Luo, Qing Fang, Lianxi Jia, Xiaoguang Tu, Tsung-Yang Liow, Mingbin Yu, Guo-Qiang Lo

Abstract:

We demonstrate a 1×4 coarse wavelength division-multiplexing (CWDM) planar concave grating multiplexer/demultiplexer and its application in re-configurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM) system in silicon-on-insulator substrate. The wavelengths of the demonstrated concave grating multiplexer align well with the ITU-T standard. We demonstrate a prototype of ROADM comprising two such concave gratings and four wide-band thermo-optical MZI switches. Undercut technology which removes the underneath silicon substrate is adopted in optical switches in order to minimize the operation power. For all the thermal heaters, the operation voltage is smaller than 1.5 V, and the switch power is ~2.4 mW. High throughput pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) data transmission with up to 100 Gb/s is demonstrated, showing the high-performance ROADM functionality.

Keywords: ROADM, Optical switch, low power consumption, Integrated devices.

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16 A Novel Feedback-Based Integrated FiWi Networks Architecture by Centralized Interlink-ONU Communication

Authors: Noman Khan, B. S. Chowdhry, A.Q.K Rajput

Abstract:

Integrated fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks are a viable solution that can deliver the high profile quadruple play services. Passive optical networks (PON) networks integrated with wireless access networks provide ubiquitous characteristics for high bandwidth applications. Operation of PON improves by employing a variety of multiplexing techniques. One of it is time division/wavelength division multiplexed (TDM/WDM) architecture that improves the performance of optical-wireless access networks. This paper proposes a novel feedback-based TDM/WDM-PON architecture and introduces a model of integrated PON-FiWi networks. Feedback-based link architecture is an efficient solution to improves the performance of optical-line-terminal (OLT) and interlink optical-network-units (ONUs) communication. Furthermore, the feedback-based WDM/TDM-PON architecture is compared with existing architectures in terms of capacity of network throughput.

Keywords: Fiber-wireless (FiWi), Passive Optical Network (PON), TDM/WDM architecture

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15 WDM and OCDMA Systems under MAI Effects: A Comparison Analysis

Authors: Hilal A. Fadhil, Thanaa Hussein Abd, Hamza M. R. Al-Khafaji, S. A. Aljunid

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparison between Spectrum- Sliced Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SS-WDM) and Spectrum Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC Optical CDMA) systems for different light sources. The performance of the system is shown in the simulated results of the bit error rate (BER) and the eye diagram of both systems. The comparison results indicate that the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) effects have a significant impact on SS-WDM over SAC Optical CDMA systems. Finally, in terms of spectral efficiency at constant BER of 10-12, SSWDM offers higher spectral efficiency than optical CDMA since no bandwidth expansion in needed.

Keywords: WDM, OCDMA, BER, RD code

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14 Design of EDFA Gain Controller based on Disturbance Observer Technique

Authors: Seong-Ho Song, Ki-Seob Kim, Seon-Woo Lee, Seop-Hyeong Park

Abstract:

Based on a theoretical erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) model, we have proposed an application of disturbance observer(DOB) with proportional/integral/differential(PID) controller to EDFA for minimizing gain-transient time of wavelength -division-multiplexing (WDM) multi channels in optical amplifier in channel add/drop networks. We have dramatically reduced the gain-transient time to less than 30μsec by applying DOB with PID controller to the control of amplifier gain. The proposed DOB-based gain control algorithm for EDFA was implemented as a digital control system using TI's DSP(TMS320C28346) chip and experimental results of the system verify the excellent performance of the proposed gain control methodology.

Keywords: EDFA, Disturbance observer, gain control, WDM.

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13 Performance Evaluation of the OCDM/WDM Technique for Optical Packet Switches

Authors: V. Eramo, L. Piazzo, M. Listanti, A. Germoni, A Cianfrani

Abstract:

The performance of the Optical Code Division Multiplexing/ Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM/OCDM) technique for Optical Packet Switch is investigated. The impact on the performance of the impairment due to both Multiple Access Interference and Beat noise is studied. The Packet Loss Probability due to output packet contentions is evaluated as a function of the main switch and traffic parameters when Gold coherent optical codes are adopted. The Packet Loss Probability of the OCDM/WDM switch can reach 10-9 when M=16 wavelengths, Gold code of length L=511 and only 24 wavelength converters are used in the switch.

Keywords: Optical code division multiplexing, bufferless optical packet switch, performance evaluation.

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12 Monitoring and Fault-Recovery Capacity with Waveguide Grating-based Optical Switch over WDM/OCDMA-PON

Authors: Yao-Tang Chang, Chuen-Ching Wang, Shu-Han Hu

Abstract:

In order to implement flexibility as well as survivable capacities over passive optical network (PON), a new automatic random fault-recovery mechanism with array-waveguide-grating based (AWG-based) optical switch (OSW) is presented. Firstly, wavelength-division-multiplexing and optical code-division multiple-access (WDM/OCDMA) scheme are configured to meet the various geographical locations requirement between optical network unit (ONU) and optical line terminal (OLT). The AWG-base optical switch is designed and viewed as central star-mesh topology to prohibit/decrease the duplicated redundant elements such as fiber and transceiver as well. Hence, by simple monitoring and routing switch algorithm, random fault-recovery capacity is achieved over bi-directional (up/downstream) WDM/OCDMA scheme. When error of distribution fiber (DF) takes place or bit-error-rate (BER) is higher than 10-9 requirement, the primary/slave AWG-based OSW are adjusted and controlled dynamically to restore the affected ONU groups via the other working DFs immediately.

Keywords: Random fault recovery mechanism, Array-waveguide-grating based optical switch (AWG- based OSW), wavelength-division-multiplexing and optical code-divisionmultiple-access (WDM/ OCDMA)

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11 Fault Localization and Alarm Correlation in Optical WDM Networks

Authors: G. Ramesh, S. Sundara Vadivelu

Abstract:

For several high speed networks, providing resilience against failures is an essential requirement. The main feature for designing next generation optical networks is protecting and restoring high capacity WDM networks from the failures. Quick detection, identification and restoration make networks more strong and consistent even though the failures cannot be avoided. Hence, it is necessary to develop fast, efficient and dependable fault localization or detection mechanisms. In this paper we propose a new fault localization algorithm for WDM networks which can identify the location of a failure on a failed lightpath. Our algorithm detects the failed connection and then attempts to reroute data stream through an alternate path. In addition to this, we develop an algorithm to analyze the information of the alarms generated by the components of an optical network, in the presence of a fault. It uses the alarm correlation in order to reduce the list of suspected components shown to the network operators. By our simulation results, we show that our proposed algorithms achieve less blocking probability and delay while getting higher throughput.

Keywords: Alarm correlation, blocking probability, delay, fault localization, WDM networks.

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10 An Optical WDM Network Concept for Tanzania

Authors: S. Pazi, C. Chatwin, R. Young, P. Birch

Abstract:

Tanzania is a developing country, which significantly lags behind the rest of the world in information communications technology (ICT), especially for the Internet. Internet connectivity to the rest of the world is via expensive satellite links, thus leaving the majority of the population unable to access the Internet due to the high cost. This paper introduces the concept of an optical WDM network for Internet infrastructure in Tanzania, so as to reduce Internet connection costs, and provide Internet access to the majority of people who live in both urban and rural areas. We also present a proposed optical WDM network, which mitigates the effects of system impairments, and provide simulation results to show that the data is successfully transmitted over a longer distance using a WDM network.

Keywords: Internet infrastructure, Internet access, Internettraffic, WDM.

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9 Characteristic of Discrete Raman Amplifier at Different Pump Configurations

Authors: Parekhan M. Jaff

Abstract:

This paper describes the gain and noise performances of discrete Raman amplifier as a function of fiber lengths and the signal input powers for different pump configurations. Simulation has been done by using optisystem 7.0 software simulation at signal wavelength of 1550 nm and a pump wavelength of 1450nm. The results showed that the gain is higher in bidirectional pumping than in counter pumping, the gain changes with increasing the fiber length while the noise figure remain the same for short fiber lengths and the gain saturates differently for different pumping configuration at different fiber lengths and power levels of the signal.

Keywords: Optical Amplifier, Raman Amplifier DiscreteRaman Amplifier (DRA), Wavelength Division Multiplexing(WDM).

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8 Statistical Analysis of Different Configurations of Hybrid Doped Fiber Amplifiers

Authors: Inderpreet Kaur, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

Wavelength multiplexing (WDM) technology along with optical amplifiers is used for optical communication systems in S-band, C-band and L-band. To improve the overall system performance Hybrid amplifiers consisting of cascaded TDFA and EDFA with different gain bandwidths are preferred for long haul wavelength multiplexed optical communication systems. This paper deals with statistical analysis of different configuration of hybrid amplifier i.e. analysis of TDFA-EDFA configuration and EDFA – TDFA configuration. In this paper One-Way ANOVA method is used for statistical analysis.

Keywords: WDM, EDFA, TDFA, hybrid amplifier, One-wayANOVA.

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7 Routing Capability and Blocking Analysis of Dynamic ROADM Optical Networks (Category - II) for Dynamic Traffic

Authors: Indumathi T. S., T. Srinivas, B. Siva Kumar

Abstract:

Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs) can be classified into three categories based on their underlying switching technologies. Category I consists of a single large optical switch; category II is composed of a number of small optical switches aligned in parallel; and category III has a single optical switch and only one wavelength being added/dropped. In this paper, to evaluate the wavelength-routing capability of ROADMs of category-II in dynamic optical networks,the dynamic traffic models are designed based on Bernoulli, Poisson distributions for smooth and regular types of traffic. Through Analytical and Simulation results, the routing power of cat-II of ROADM networks for two traffic models are determined.

Keywords: Fully-Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers (FROADMs), Limited Tunability in Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop multiplexers (LROADM), Multiplexer/De- Multiplexer (MUX/DEMUX), Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs), Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM).

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6 Genetic Algorithm Based Wavelength Division Multiplexing Networks Planning

Authors: S.Baskar, P.S.Ramkumar, R.Kesavan

Abstract:

This paper presents a new heuristic algorithm useful for long-term planning of survivable WDM networks. A multi-period model is formulated that combines network topology design and capacity expansion. The ability to determine network expansion schedules of this type becomes increasingly important to the telecommunications industry and to its customers. The solution technique consists of a Genetic Algorithm that allows generating several network alternatives for each time period simultaneously and shortest-path techniques to deduce from these alternatives a least-cost network expansion plan over all time periods. The multi-period planning approach is illustrated on a realistic network example. Extensive simulations on a wide range of problem instances are carried out to assess the cost savings that can be expected by choosing a multi-period planning approach instead of an iterative network expansion design method.

Keywords: Wavelength Division Multiplexing, Genetic Algorithm, Network topology, Multi-period reliable network planning

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5 Analysis of FWM Penalties in DWDM Systems Based on G.652, G.653, and G.655 Optical Fibers

Authors: Paula B. Harboe, Edilson da Silva, José R. Souza

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation of the power penalties imposed by four-wave mixing (FWM) on G.652 (Single- Mode Fiber - SMF), G.653 (Dispersion-Shifted Fiber - DSF), and G.655 (Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber - NZDSF) compliant fibers, considering the DWDM grids suggested by the ITU-T Recommendations G.692, and G.694.1, with uniform channel spacing of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 GHz. The mathematical/numerical model assumes undepleted pumping, and shows very clearly the deleterious effect of FWM on the performance of DWDM systems, measured by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The results make it evident that non-uniform channel spacing is practically mandatory for WDM systems based on DSF fibers.

Keywords: DWDM systems, Four-Wave Mixing (FWM), G.652, G.653, G.655 compliant fibers, Signal-to-noise ratio.

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4 Analysis of a WDM System for Tanzania

Authors: Shaban Pazi, Chris Chatwin, Rupert Young, Philip Birch

Abstract:

Internet infrastructures in most places of the world have been supported by the advancement of optical fiber technology, most notably wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system. Optical technology by means of WDM system has revolutionized long distance data transport and has resulted in high data capacity, cost reductions, extremely low bit error rate, and operational simplification of the overall Internet infrastructure. This paper analyses and compares the system impairments, which occur at data transmission rates of 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s per wavelength channel in our proposed optical WDM system for Internet infrastructure in Tanzania. The results show that the data transmission rate of 2.5 Gb/s has minimum system impairments compared with a rate of 10 Gb/s per wavelength channel, and achieves a sufficient system performance to provide a good Internet access service.

Keywords: Internet infrastructure, WDM system, standard single mode fibers, system impairments.

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3 Statistical Evaluation of Nonlinear Distortion using the Multi-Canonical Monte Carlo Method and the Split Step Fourier Method

Authors: Ioannis Neokosmidis, Nikos Gkekas, Thomas Kamalakis, Thomas Sphicopoulos

Abstract:

In high powered dense wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems with low chromatic dispersion, four-wave mixing (FWM) can prove to be a major source of noise. The MultiCanonical Monte Carlo Method (MCMC) and the Split Step Fourier Method (SSFM) are combined to accurately evaluate the probability density function of the decision variable of a receiver, limited by FWM. The combination of the two methods leads to more accurate results, and offers the possibility of adding other optical noises such as the Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, Nonlinear optics, optical crosstalk, Wavelength-division Multiplexing (WDM).

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2 A Noble Flow Rate Control based on Leaky Bucket Method for Multi-Media OBS Networks

Authors: Kentaro Miyoko, Yoshihiko Mori, Yugo Ikeda, Yoshihiro Nishino, Yong-Bok Choi, Hiromi Okada

Abstract:

Optical burst switching (OBS) has been proposed to realize the next generation Internet based on the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network technologies. In the OBS, the burst contention is one of the major problems. The deflection routing has been designed for resolving the problem. However, the deflection routing becomes difficult to prevent from the burst contentions as the network load becomes high. In this paper, we introduce a flow rate control methods to reduce burst contentions. We propose new flow rate control methods based on the leaky bucket algorithm and deflection routing, i.e. separate leaky bucket deflection method, and dynamic leaky bucket deflection method. In proposed methods, edge nodes which generate data bursts carry out the flow rate control protocols. In order to verify the effectiveness of the flow rate control in OBS networks, we show that the proposed methods improve the network utilization and reduce the burst loss probability through computer simulations.

Keywords: Optical burst switching, OBS, flow rate control.

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1 WDM-Based Storage Area Network (SAN) for Disaster Recovery Operations

Authors: Sandeep P. Abhang, Girish V. Chowdhay

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology based Storage Area Network (SAN) for all type of Disaster recovery operation. It considers recovery when all paths failure in the network as well as the main SAN site failure also the all backup sites failure by the effect of natural disasters such as earthquakes, fires and floods, power outage, and terrorist attacks, as initially SAN were designed to work within distance limited environments[2]. Paper also presents a NEW PATH algorithm when path failure occurs. The simulation result and analysis is presented for the proposed architecture with performance consideration.

Keywords: SAN, WDM, FC, Ring, IP, network load, iSCSI, miles, disaster.

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