Search results for: phase-induced intensity noise
1352 Assessment of Noise Pollution in the City of Biskra, Algeria
Authors: Tallal Abdel Karim Bouzir, Nourdinne Zemmouri, Djihed Berkouk
Abstract:In this research, a quantitative assessment of the urban sound environment of the city of Biskra, Algeria, was conducted. To determine the quality of the soundscape based on in-situ measurement, using a Landtek SL5868P sound level meter in 47 points, which have been identified to represent the whole city. The result shows that the urban noise level varies from 55.3 dB to 75.8 dB during the weekdays and from 51.7 dB to 74.3 dB during the weekend. On the other hand, we can also note that 70.20% of the results of the weekday measurements and 55.30% of the results of the weekend measurements have levels of sound intensity that exceed the levels allowed by Algerian law and the recommendations of the World Health Organization. These very high urban noise levels affect the quality of life, the acoustic comfort and may even pose multiple risks to people's health.
Keywords: Noise pollution, road traffic, sound intensity, public health, noise monitoring.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 918
1351 PIIN Suppression Using Random Diagonal Code for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA System
Authors: Hilal Adnan Fadhil, Syed Alwei, R. Badlishah Ahmad
Abstract:A new code for spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access system is proposed called Random diagonal (RD) code. This code is constructed using code segment and data segment. One of the important properties of this code is that the cross correlation at data segment is always zero, which means that Phase Intensity Induced Noise (PIIN) is reduced. For the performance analysis, the effects of phase-induced intensity noise, shot noise, and thermal noise are considered simultaneously. Bit-error rate (BER) performance is compared with Hadamard and Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) codes. It is shown that the system using this new code matrices not only suppress PIIN, but also allows larger number of active users compare with other codes. Simulation results shown that using point to point transmission with three encoded channels, RD code has better BER performance than other codes, also its found that at 0 dbm PIIN noise are 10-10 and 10-11 for RD and MFH respectively.
Keywords: OCDMA, MFH, PIIN, and BER.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1662
1350 Performance of Subcarrier- OCDMA System with Complementary Subtraction Detection Technique
Authors: R. K. Z. Sahbudin, M. K. Abdullah, M. Mokhtar, S. B. A. Anas, S. Hitam
Abstract:A subcarrier - spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access system using the Khazani-Syed code with Complementary subtraction detection technique is proposed. The proposed system has been analyzed by taking into account the effects of phase-induced intensity noise, shot noise, thermal noise and intermodulation distortion noise. The performance of the system has been compared with the spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access system using the Hadamard code and the Modified Quadratic Congruence code. The analysis shows that the proposed system can eliminate the multiple access interference using the Complementary subtraction detection technique, and hence improve the overall system performance.
Keywords: Complementary subtraction, Khazani-Syed code, multiple access interference, phase-induced intensity noiseProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1573
1349 Adaptive Weighted Averaging Filter Using the Appropriate Number of Consecutive Frames
Authors: Mahmoud Saeidi, Ali Nazemipour
Abstract:In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive spatiotemporal filter that utilizes image sequences in order to remove noise. The consecutive frames include: current, previous and next noisy frames. The filter proposed in this paper is based upon the weighted averaging pixels intensity and noise variance in image sequences. It utilizes the Appropriate Number of Consecutive Frames (ANCF) based on the noisy pixels intensity among the frames. The number of consecutive frames is adaptively calculated for each region in image and its value may change from one region to another region depending on the pixels intensity within the region. The weights are determined by a well-defined mathematical criterion, which is adaptive to the feature of spatiotemporal pixels of the consecutive frames. It is experimentally shown that the proposed filter can preserve image structures and edges under motion while suppressing noise, and thus can be effectively used in image sequences filtering. In addition, the AWA filter using ANCF is particularly well suited for filtering sequences that contain segments with abruptly changing scene content due to, for example, rapid zooming and changes in the view of the camera.
Keywords: Appropriate Number of Consecutive Frames, Adaptive Weighted Averaging, Motion Estimation, Noise Variance, Motion CompensationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1708
1348 Coexistence of Two Different Types of Intermittency near the Boundary of Phase Synchronization in the Presence of Noise
Authors: Olga I. Moskalenko, Maksim O. Zhuravlev, Alexey A. Koronovskii, Alexander E. Hramov
Abstract:Intermittent behavior near the boundary of phase synchronization in the presence of noise is studied. In certain range of the coupling parameter and noise intensity the intermittency of eyelet and ring intermittencies is shown to take place. Main results are illustrated using the example of two unidirectional coupled Rössler systems. Similar behavior is shown to take place in two hydrodynamical models of Pierce diode coupled unidirectional.
Keywords: Chaotic oscillators, phase synchronization, noise, intermittency of intermittencies, control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1508
1347 A Paradigm for Characterization and Checking of a Human Noise Behavior
Authors: Himanshu Dehra
This paper presents a paradigm for characterization and checking of human noise behavior. The definitions of ‘Noise’ and ‘Noise Behavior’ are devised. The concept of characterization and examining of Noise Behavior is obtained from the proposed paradigm of Psychoacoustics. The measurement of human noise behavior is discussed through definitions of noise sources and noise measurements. The noise sources, noise measurement equations and noise filters are further illustrated through examples. The theory and significance of solar energy acoustics is presented for life and its activities. Human comfort and health are correlated with human brain through physiological responses and noise protection. Examples of heat stress, intense heat, sweating and evaporation are also enumerated.
Keywords: Human brain, noise behavior, noise characterization, noise filters, physiological responses, psychoacoustics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 941
1346 Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Noise-Reduction Transformer
Authors: Toshiaki Yanada, Kazumi Ishikawa
The present paper deals with the analysis and development of noise-reduction transformer that has a filter function for conductive noise transmission. Two types of prototype noise-reduction transformers with two different output voltages are proposed. To determine an optimum design for the noise-reduction transformer, noise attenuation characteristics are discussed based on the experiments and the equivalent circuit analysis. The analysis gives a relation between the circuit parameters and the noise attenuation. High performance step-down noise-reduction transformer for direct power supply to electronics equipment is developed. The input voltage of the transformer is 100 V and the output voltage is 5 V. Frequency characteristics of noise attenuation are discussed, and prevention of pulse noise transmission is demonstrated. Normal mode noise attenuation of this transformer is –80 dB, and common mode exceeds –90 dB. The step-down noise-reduction transformer eliminates pulse noise efficiently.
Keywords: conductive noise, EMC, EMI, noise attenuation, transformer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1855
1345 Medical Image Segmentation Using Deformable Models and Local Fitting Binary
Authors: B. Bagheri Nakhjavanlo, T. J. Ellis, P. Raoofi, J. Dehmeshki
Abstract:This paper presents a customized deformable model for the segmentation of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in CTA datasets. An important challenge in reliably detecting aortic aneurysm is the need to overcome problems associated with intensity inhomogeneities and image noise. Level sets are part of an important class of methods that utilize partial differential equations (PDEs) and have been extensively applied in image segmentation. A Gaussian kernel function in the level set formulation, which extracts the local intensity information, aids the suppression of noise in the extracted regions of interest and then guides the motion of the evolving contour for the detection of weak boundaries. The speed of curve evolution has been significantly improved with a resulting decrease in segmentation time compared with previous implementations of level sets. The results indicate the method is more effective than other approaches in coping with intensity inhomogeneities.
Keywords: Abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms, intensityinhomogeneity, level sets, local fitting binary.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1701
1344 Power Transformer Noise, Noise Tests, and Example Test Results
Authors: E. Doğan, B. Kekezoğlu
Voltage level must be raised in order to deliver the produced energy to the consumption zones with less loss and less cost. Power transformers used to raise or lower voltage are important parts of the energy transmission system. Power transformers used in switchgear and power generation plants stay in human's intensive habitat zones as a result of expanding cities. Accordingly, noise levels produced by power transformers have begun more and more important and they have established itself as one of the research field. In this research, the noise cause on transformers has been investigated, it's causes has been examined and noise measurement techniques have been introduced. Examples of transformer noise test results are submitted and precautions to be taken were discussed for the purpose of decreasing of the noise which will occurred by transformers.
Keywords: Power transformer, noise measurement, core noise, load noise, fan-pump noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5346
1343 Noise Optimization Techniques for 1V 1GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifiers Design
Authors: M. Zamin Khan, Yanjie Wang, R. Raut
A 1V, 1GHz low noise amplifier (LNA) has been designed and simulated using Spectre simulator in a standard TSMC 0.18um CMOS technology.With low power and noise optimization techniques, the amplifier provides a gain of 24 dB, a noise figure of only 1.2 dB, power dissipation of 14 mW from a 1 V power supply.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2312
1342 The Improvement of Environmental Protection through Motor Vehicle Noise Abatement
Authors: Z. Jovanovic, Z. Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota
In this paper, a methodology for noise reduction of motor vehicles in use is presented. The methodology relies on synergic model of noise generation as a function of time. The arbitrary number of motor vehicle noise sources act in concert yielding the generation of the overall noise level of motor vehicle thereafter. The number of noise sources participating in the overall noise level of motor vehicle is subjected to the constraint of the calculation of the acoustic potential of each noise source under consideration. It is the prerequisite condition for the calculation of the acoustic potential of the whole vehicle. The recast form of pertinent set of equations describing the synergic model is laid down and solved by dint of Gauss method. The bunch of results emerged and some of them i.e. those ensuing from model application to MDD FAP Priboj motor vehicle in use are particularly elucidated.
Keywords: Noise abatement, MV noise sources, noise source identification, muffler.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1186
1341 A Methodological Approach for Detecting Burst Noise in the Time Domain
Authors: Liu Dan, Wang Xue, Wang Guiqin, Qian Zhihong
Abstract:The burst noise is a kind of noises that are destructive and frequently found in semiconductor devices and ICs, yet detecting and removing the noise has proved challenging for IC designers or users. According to the properties of burst noise, a methodological approach is presented (proposed) in the paper, by which the burst noise can be analysed and detected in time domain. In this paper, principles and properties of burst noise are expounded first, Afterwards, feasibility (viable) of burst noise detection by means of wavelet transform in the time domain is corroborated in the paper, and the multi-resolution characters of Gaussian noise, burst noise and blurred burst noise are discussed in details by computer emulation. Furthermore, the practical method to decide parameters of wavelet transform is acquired through a great deal of experiment and data statistics. The methodology may yield an expectation in a wide variety of applications.
Keywords: Burst noise, detection, wavelet transformProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1756
1340 Analysis of Filtering in Stochastic Systems on Continuous-Time Memory Observations in the Presence of Anomalous Noises
Authors: S. Rozhkova, O. Rozhkova, A. Harlova, V. Lasukov
For optimal unbiased filter as mean-square and in the case of functioning anomalous noises in the observation memory channel, we have proved insensitivity of filter to inaccurate knowledge of the anomalous noise intensity matrix and its equivalence to truncated filter plotted only by non anomalous components of an observation vector.
Keywords: Mathematical expectation, filtration, anomalous noise, memory.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1954
1339 Noise Level Investigation in Printing Industry in Novi Sad, Serbia
Authors: Grujić S., Mihailović A., Kiurski J., Adamović S., Adamović D
Abstract:The aim of this study was to determine noise level of six different types of machines in printing companies in Novi Sad. The A-weighted levels on Leq, Lmax and Lmin Sound Pressure Level (SPL) in dBA were measured. It was found that the folders, offset printing presses and binding machines are the predominant noise sources. The noise levels produced by 12 of 38 machines exceed the limiting threshold level of 85 dBA, tolerated by law. Since it was determined that the average noise level for folders (87.7 dB) exceeds the permitted value the octave analysis of noise was performed.
Keywords: noise levels, octave analysis, printing machines.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2956
1338 New Data Reuse Adaptive Filters with Noise Constraint
Authors: Young-Seok Choi
Abstract:We present a new framework of the data-reusing (DR) adaptive algorithms by incorporating a constraint on noise, referred to as a noise constraint. The motivation behind this work is that the use of the statistical knowledge of the channel noise can contribute toward improving the convergence performance of an adaptive filter in identifying a noisy linear finite impulse response (FIR) channel. By incorporating the noise constraint into the cost function of the DR adaptive algorithms, the noise constrained DR (NC-DR) adaptive algorithms are derived. Experimental results clearly indicate their superior performance over the conventional DR ones.
Keywords: Adaptive filter, data-reusing, least-mean square (LMS), affine projection (AP), noise constraint.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1246
1337 The Use of Real Measurements and GPS Data for Noise Mapping of Riyadh City
Authors: M. A. Foda, K. A. Alsaif, M. M. ElMadany, A.S. Aguib
Abstract:In this paper, the noise maps for the area encircled by the Second Ring Road in Riyadh city are developed based on real measured data. Sound level meters, GPS receivers to determine measurement position, a database program to manage the measured data, and a program to develop the maps are used. A baseline noise level has been established at each short-term site so subsequent monitoring may be conducted to describe changes in Riyadh-s noise environment. Short-term sites are used to show typical daytime and nighttime noise levels at specific locations by short duration grab sampling.
Keywords: Noise mapping, Noise measurements, GPS, noise level.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2001
1336 Active Control for Reduction of Noise Passing through Enclosure and Optimization of Microphone Position
Authors: Han-wool Lee, Chin-suk Hong, Weui-bong Jung
Abstract:In this study, noise characteristics of structure were analyzed in an effort to reduce noise passing through an opening of an enclosure surrounding the structure that generates noise. Enclosures are essential measure to protect noise propagation from operating machinery. Access openings of the enclosures are important path of noise leakage. First, noise characteristics of structure were analyzed and feed-forward noise control was performed using simulation in order to reduce noise passing through the opening of enclosure, which surrounds a structure generating noise. We then implemented a feed-forward controller to actively control the acoustic power through the opening. Finally, we conducted optimization of placement of the reference sensors for several cases of the number of sensors. Good control performances were achieved using the minimum number of microphones arranged an optimal placement.
Keywords: Active Noise Control, Feed-forward Control, Noise Attenuation, Position Optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1519
1335 Design of Low Noise Amplifiers for 10 GHz Application
Authors: Makesh Iyer, T. Shanmuganantham
This work deals with the designing of an efficient low noise amplifier for 10.00 GHz applications. The amplifier is designed using Gallium Arsenide High Electron Mobility Transistor (GaAs HEMT) ATF – 36077 with inductive source degeneration technique which is one of the techniques to improve the stability of the potentially unstable device and make it unconditionally stable. Also, different substrates are used for designing the LNA to identify the suitable substrate that gives optimum results. It is observed that the noise immunity is more in Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) designed using RT Duroid 5880 substrate. This design resulted in noise figure of 0.859 dB and power gain of 15.530 dB. The comparative analysis of the LNA design is discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Low noise amplifier, substrate, distributed components, gain, noise figure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 678
1334 The Anti-Noise System for Rail Brakes on Hump Yards
Authors: Brigita Altenbaher
Abstract:The friction between two metal surfaces results in a high frequency noise (squealing) which also occurs during the braking of wagons with rail brakes in the process of shunting at a marshalling yard with a hump. At that point the noise level may exceed 130dB, which is extremely unpleasant for workers and inhabitants. In our research we developed a new composite material which does not change braking properties, is capable of taking extremely high pressure loads, reduces noise and is environmentally friendly. The noise reduction results had been very good and had shown a decrease of the high frequency noise almost completely (by 99%) at its source. With our technology we had also reduced general noise by more than 30dBA.
Keywords: Composite heavily fluid compound, hump yard, noise reduction, rail brakes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2143
1333 Multi-stage Directional Median Filter
Abstract:Median filter is widely used to remove impulse noise without blurring sharp edges. However, when noise level increased, or with thin edges, median filter may work poorly. This paper proposes a new filter, which will detect edges along four possible directions, and then replace noise corrupted pixel with estimated noise-free edge median value. Simulations show that the proposed multi-stage directional median filter can provide excellent performance of suppressing impulse noise in all situations.
Keywords: Impulse noise, Median filter, Multi-stage, EdgepreservingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2201
1332 Denosing ECG using Translation Invariant Multiwavelet
Authors: Jeong Yup Han, Su Kyung Lee, Hong Bae Park
Abstract:In this paper, we propose a method to reduce the various kinds of noise while gathering and recording the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Because of the defects of former method in the noise elimination of ECG signal, we use translation invariant (TI) multiwavelet denoising method to the noise elimination. The advantage of the proposed method is that it may not only remain the geometrical characteristics of the original ECG signal and keep the amplitudes of various ECG waveforms efficiently, but also suppress impulsive noise to some extent. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method are better than former removing noise method in aspects of remaining geometrical characteristics of ECG signal and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
Keywords: ECG, TI multiwavelet, denoise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1637
1331 Investigation and Comparison of Energy Intensity in Iranian Transportation Industry (Case Study Road Transportation Sector)
Authors: A. Mojtaba Aghajani, B. Leila Shavakhi
Abstract:Energy intensity(energy consumption intensity) is a global index which computes the required energy for producing a specific value of goods and services in each country. It is computed in terms of initial energy supply or final energy consumption. In this study (research) Divisia method is used to decompose energy consumption and energy intensity. This method decomposes consumption and energy intensity to production effects, structural and net intensity and could be done as time series or two-periodical. This study analytically investigates consumption changes and energy intensity on economical sectors of Iran and more specific on road transportation(rail road and road).Our results show that the contribution of structural effect (change in economical activities combination) is very low and the effect of net energy consumption has the higher contribution in consumption changes and energy intensity. In other words, the high consumption of energy is due to Intensity of energy consumption and is not to structural effect of transportation sector.
Keywords: Divisia Method, Energy Intensity, Net IntensityEffect, Road Transportation , Structural Effect.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1429
1330 From Maskee to Audible Noise in Perceptual Speech Enhancement
Authors: Asmaa Amehraye, Dominique Pastor, Ahmed Tamtaoui, Driss Aboutajdine
Abstract:A new analysis of perceptual speech enhancement is presented. It focuses on the fact that if only noise above the masking threshold is filtered, then noise below the masking threshold, but above the absolute threshold of hearing, can become audible after the masker filtering. This particular drawback of some perceptual filters, hereafter called the maskee-to-audible-noise (MAN) phenomenon, favours the emergence of isolated tonals that increase musical noise. Two filtering techniques that avoid or correct the MAN phenomenon are proposed to effectively suppress background noise without introducing much distortion. Experimental results, including objective and subjective measurements, show that these techniques improve the enhanced speech quality and the gain they bring emphasizes the importance of the MAN phenomenon.
Keywords: Perceptual speech filtering, maskee to audible noise, distorsion, musical noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1374
1329 Design of an Ultra Low Power Low Phase Noise CMOS LC Oscillator
Authors: Mahdi Ebrahimzadeh
Abstract:In this paper we introduce an ultra low power CMOS LC oscillator and analyze a method to design a low power low phase noise complementary CMOS LC oscillator. A 1.8GHz oscillator is designed based on this analysis. The circuit has power supply equal to 1.1 V and dissipates 0.17 mW power. The oscillator is also optimized for low phase noise behavior. The oscillator phase noise is -126.2 dBc/Hz and -144.4 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz and 8 MHz offset respectively.
Keywords: LC oscillator, Low Power, Low Phase NoiseProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3620
1328 Pathway to Reduce Industrial Energy Intensity for Energy Conservation at Chinese Provincial Level
Authors: Shengman Zhao, Yang Yu, Shenghui Cui
Using logarithmic mean Divisia decomposition technique, this paper analyzes the change in industrial energy intensity of Fujian Province in China, based on data sets of added value and energy consumption for 35 selected industrial sub-sectors from 1999 to 2009. The change in industrial energy intensity is decomposed into intensity effect and structure effect. Results show that the industrial energy intensity of Fujian Province has achieved a reduction of 51% over the past ten years. The structural change, a shift in the mix of industrial sub-sectors, made overwhelming contribution to the reduction. The impact of energy efficiency’s improvement was relatively small. However, the aggregate industrial energy intensity was very sensitive to both the changes in energy intensity and in production share of energy-intensive sub-sectors, such as production and supply of electric power, steam and hot water. Pathway to reduce industrial energy intensity for energy conservation in Fujian Province is proposed in the end.
Keywords: Decomposition analysis, energy intensity, Fujian Province, industry.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1269
1327 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine
Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly
Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.
Keywords: Exhaust system, engine speed, expansion chamber.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 478
1326 Dynamic Variation in Nano-Scale CMOS SRAM Cells Due to LF/RTS Noise and Threshold Voltage
Authors: M. Fadlallah, G. Ghibaudo, C. G. Theodorou
The dynamic variation in memory devices such as the Static Random Access Memory can give errors in read or write operations. In this paper, the effect of low-frequency and random telegraph noise on the dynamic variation of one SRAM cell is detailed. The effect on circuit noise, speed, and length of time of processing is examined, using the Supply Read Retention Voltage and the Read Static Noise Margin. New test run methods are also developed. The obtained results simulation shows the importance of noise caused by dynamic variation, and the impact of Random Telegraph noise on SRAM variability is examined by evaluating the statistical distributions of Random Telegraph noise amplitude in the pull-up, pull-down. The threshold voltage mismatch between neighboring cell transistors due to intrinsic fluctuations typically contributes to larger reductions in static noise margin. Also the contribution of each of the SRAM transistor to total dynamic variation has been identified.
Keywords: Low-frequency noise, Random Telegraph Noise, Dynamic Variation, SRRV.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 558
1325 Segmentation of Breast Lesions in Ultrasound Images Using Spatial Fuzzy Clustering and Structure Tensors
Authors: Yan Xu, Toshihiro Nishimura
Segmentation in ultrasound images is challenging due to the interference from speckle noise and fuzziness of boundaries. In this paper, a segmentation scheme using fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering incorporating both intensity and texture information of images is proposed to extract breast lesions in ultrasound images. Firstly, the nonlinear structure tensor, which can facilitate to refine the edges detected by intensity, is used to extract speckle texture. And then, a spatial FCM clustering is applied on the image feature space for segmentation. In the experiments with simulated and clinical ultrasound images, the spatial FCM clustering with both intensity and texture information gets more accurate results than the conventional FCM or spatial FCM without texture information.
Keywords: fuzzy c-means, spatial information, structure tensor, ultrasound image segmentationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1659
1324 Predicting Automotive Interior Noise Including Wind Noise by Statistical Energy Analysis
Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa
The applications of soundproof materials for reduction of high frequency automobile interior noise have been researched. This paper presents a sound pressure prediction technique including wind noise by Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis (HSEA) in order to reduce weight of acoustic insulations. HSEA uses both analytical SEA and experimental SEA. As a result of chassis dynamo test and road test, the validity of SEA modeling was shown, and utility of the method was confirmed.
Keywords: Vibration, noise, car, statistical energy analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 962
1323 Traffic Noise under Stop and Go Conditions in Intersections – A Case Study
Authors: Nima Jahandar, Amin Hosseinpour, Mohammad Ali Sahraei
Abstract:Whit the increasing of traffic, noise emanated from motor vehicles increases as well, which subsequently causes adding to the stress of modern city. Thus, it is needed to look for most critical areas in terms of environmental and social impact of noise. There are several critical situations for noise emanated from motor vehicles such as stop and go situation which usually occurs near junctions or at-grade intersections. This study was conducted in two locations, most common types of intersections, crossroads and Tjunctions. The highest average noise levels are recorded during Go phase for T-junction, 64.4 dB, and Drive phase for crossroad, 64 dB. It implies that the existence of intersection caused the noise level to increase. The vehicles starting to move produce more sound than when they travel at a constant speed along the intersection. It is suggested that special considerations and priority of allocating funds should be given to these critical spots.
Keywords: Crossroad, T-junction, Traffic Noise, Stop and Go, Urban noiseProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1760