Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1898

Search results for: three-dimensional modified quadratic congruence/modified prime code.

1898 Design and Performance Improvement of Three-Dimensional Optical Code Division Multiple Access Networks with NAND Detection Technique

Authors: Satyasen Panda, Urmila Bhanja

Abstract:

In this paper, we have presented and analyzed three-dimensional (3-D) matrices of wavelength/time/space code for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks with NAND subtraction detection technique. The 3-D codes are constructed by integrating a two-dimensional modified quadratic congruence (MQC) code with one-dimensional modified prime (MP) code. The respective encoders and decoders were designed using fiber Bragg gratings and optical delay lines to minimize the bit error rate (BER). The performance analysis of the 3D-OCDMA system is based on measurement of signal to noise ratio (SNR), BER and eye diagram for a different number of simultaneous users. Also, in the analysis, various types of noises and multiple access interference (MAI) effects were considered. The results obtained with NAND detection technique were compared with those obtained with OR and AND subtraction techniques. The comparison results proved that the NAND detection technique with 3-D MQC\MP code can accommodate more number of simultaneous users for longer distances of fiber with minimum BER as compared to OR and AND subtraction techniques. The received optical power is also measured at various levels of BER to analyze the effect of attenuation.

Keywords: Cross correlation, three-dimensional optical code division multiple access, spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access, multiple access interference, phase induced intensity noise, three-dimensional modified quadratic congruence/modified prime code.

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1897 Modified Diffie-Hellman Protocol By Extend The Theory of The Congruence

Authors: Rand Alfaris, Mohamed Rushdan MD Said, Mohamed Othman, Fudziah Ismail

Abstract:

This paper is introduced a modification to Diffie- Hellman protocol to be applicable on the decimal numbers, which they are the numbers between zero and one. For this purpose we extend the theory of the congruence. The new congruence is over the set of the real numbers and it is called the “real congruence" or the “real modulus". We will refer to the existing congruence by the “integer congruence" or the “integer modulus". This extension will define new terms and redefine the existing terms. As the properties and the theorems of the integer modulus are extended as well. Modified Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol is produced a sharing, secure and decimal secret key for the the cryptosystems that depend on decimal numbers.

Keywords: Extended theory of the congruence, modified Diffie- Hellman protocol.

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1896 Positive Definite Quadratic Forms, Elliptic Curves and Cubic Congruences

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan

Abstract:

Let F(x, y) = ax2 + bxy + cy2 be a positive definite binary quadratic form with discriminant Δ whose base points lie on the line x = -1/m for an integer m ≥ 2, let p be a prime number and let Fp be a finite field. Let EF : y2 = ax3 + bx2 + cx be an elliptic curve over Fp and let CF : ax3 + bx2 + cx ≡ 0(mod p) be the cubic congruence corresponding to F. In this work we consider some properties of positive definite quadratic forms, elliptic curves and cubic congruences.

Keywords: Binary quadratic form, elliptic curves, cubic congruence.

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1895 Performance of Subcarrier- OCDMA System with Complementary Subtraction Detection Technique

Authors: R. K. Z. Sahbudin, M. K. Abdullah, M. Mokhtar, S. B. A. Anas, S. Hitam

Abstract:

A subcarrier - spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access system using the Khazani-Syed code with Complementary subtraction detection technique is proposed. The proposed system has been analyzed by taking into account the effects of phase-induced intensity noise, shot noise, thermal noise and intermodulation distortion noise. The performance of the system has been compared with the spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access system using the Hadamard code and the Modified Quadratic Congruence code. The analysis shows that the proposed system can eliminate the multiple access interference using the Complementary subtraction detection technique, and hence improve the overall system performance.

Keywords: Complementary subtraction, Khazani-Syed code, multiple access interference, phase-induced intensity noise

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1894 Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA: Performance Analysis of PIIN Reduction Using VC Code Family

Authors: Hassan Yousif Ahmed, Ibrahima Faye, N.M.Saad, S.A. Aljined

Abstract:

Multi-user interference (MUI) is the main reason of system deterioration in the Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) system. MUI increases with the number of simultaneous users, resulting into higher probability bit rate and limits the maximum number of simultaneous users. On the other hand, Phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) problem which is originated from spontaneous emission of broad band source from MUI severely limits the system performance should be addressed as well. Since the MUI is caused by the interference of simultaneous users, reducing the MUI value as small as possible is desirable. In this paper, an extensive study for the system performance specified by MUI and PIIN reducing is examined. Vectors Combinatorial (VC) codes families are adopted as a signature sequence for the performance analysis and a comparison with reported codes is performed. The results show that, when the received power increases, the PIIN noise for all the codes increases linearly. The results also show that the effect of PIIN can be minimized by increasing the code weight leads to preserve adequate signal to noise ratio over bit error probability. A comparison study between the proposed code and the existing codes such as Modified frequency hopping (MFH), Modified Quadratic- Congruence (MQC) has been carried out.

Keywords: FBG, MUI, PIIN, SAC-OCDMA, VCC.

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1893 Reduction of Multiple User Interference for Optical CDMA Systems Using Successive Interference Cancellation Scheme

Authors: Tawfig Eltaif, Hesham A. Bakarman, N. Alsowaidi, M. R. Mokhtar, Malek Harbawi

Abstract:

Multiple User Interference (MUI) considers the primary problem in Optical Code-Division Multiple Access (OCDMA), which resulting from the overlapping among the users. In this article we aim to mitigate this problem by studying an interference cancellation scheme called successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme. This scheme will be tested on two different detection schemes, spectral amplitude coding (SAC) and direct detection systems (DS), using partial modified prime (PMP) as the signature codes. It was found that SIC scheme based on both SAC and DS methods had a potential to suppress the intensity noise, that is to say it can mitigate MUI noise. Furthermore, SIC/DS scheme showed much lower bit error rate (BER) performance relative to SIC/SAC scheme for different magnitude of effective power. Hence, many more users can be supported by SIC/DS receiver system.

Keywords: Multiple User Interference (MUI), Optical Code-Division Multiple Access (OCDMA), Partial Modified Prime Code (PMP), Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC), Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC).

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1892 Optimal Power Allocation for the Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code for 3G Systems

Authors: K. Ramasamy, B. Balamuralithara, Mohammad Umar Siddiqi

Abstract:

We proposed a new class of asymmetric turbo encoder for 3G systems that performs well in both “water fall" and “error floor" regions in [7]. In this paper, a modified (optimal) power allocation scheme for the different bits of new class of asymmetric turbo encoder has been investigated to enhance the performance. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified Unequal Power Allocation (UPA) scheme for the frame length, N=400, code rate, r=1/3 with Log-MAP decoder over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are obtained and compared with the system with typical UPA and without UPA. The performance tests are extended over AWGN channel for different frame size to verify the possibility of implementation of the modified UPA scheme for the proposed asymmetric turbo code. From the performance results, it is observed that the proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified UPA performs better than the system without UPA and with typical UPA and it provides a coding gain of 0.4 to 0.52dB.

Keywords: Asymmetric turbo code, Generator polynomial, Interleaver, UPA, WCDMA, cdma2000.

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1891 System Reduction Using Modified Pole Clustering and Modified Cauer Continued Fraction

Authors: Jay Singh, C. B. Vishwakarma, Kalyan Chatterjee

Abstract:

A mixed method by combining modified pole clustering technique and modified cauer continued fraction is proposed for reducing the order of the large-scale dynamic systems. The denominator polynomial of the reduced order model is obtained by using modified pole clustering technique while the coefficients of the numerator are obtained by modified cauer continued fraction. This method generated 'k' number of reduced order models for kth order reduction. The superiority of the proposed method has been elaborated through numerical example taken from the literature and compared with few existing order reduction methods.

Keywords: Modified Pole Clustering, Modified Cauer Continued Fraction, Order Reduction, Stability, Transfer Function.

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1890 Classification of the Bachet Elliptic Curves y2 = x3 + a3 in Fp, where p ≡ 1 (mod 6) is Prime

Authors: Nazli Yildiz İkikardes, Gokhan Soydan, Musa Demirci, Ismail Naci Cangul

Abstract:

In this work, we first give in what fields Fp, the cubic root of unity lies in F*p, in Qp and in K*p where Qp and K*p denote the sets of quadratic and non-zero cubic residues modulo p. Then we use these to obtain some results on the classification of the Bachet elliptic curves y2 ≡ x3 +a3 modulo p, for p ≡ 1 (mod 6) is prime.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, quadratic residue, cubic residue.

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1889 The Number of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves y2 = x3 + a3 on Finite Fields

Authors: Musa Demirci, Nazlı Yıldız İkikardeş, Gökhan Soydan, İsmail Naci Cangül

Abstract:

In this work, we consider the rational points on elliptic curves over finite fields Fp. We give results concerning the number of points Np,a on the elliptic curve y2 ≡ x3 +a3(mod p) according to whether a and x are quadratic residues or non-residues. We use two lemmas to prove the main results first of which gives the list of primes for which -1 is a quadratic residue, and the second is a result from [1]. We get the results in the case where p is a prime congruent to 5 modulo 6, while when p is a prime congruent to 1 modulo 6, there seems to be no regularity for Np,a.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, rational points, quadratic residue.

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1888 Hydrodynamics of Bubbly Flow in a Modified Reactor

Authors: M. Sivaiah, R. Parmar, S. K. Majumder

Abstract:

This article reports on hydrodynamic, mass transfer performances of fine bubble in a modified reactor. The quality of mixing in the modified reactor is discussed in the paper. Mass transfer efficiency based on quality of mixing is enunciated. To interpret the gas phase volume fraction and the quality of mixing is the empirical models for the modified system are developed.

Keywords: Downflow, bubble, hydrodynamics, gas-liquid, mixing, mass transfer, gas holdup

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1887 Performance Evaluation of One and Two Dimensional Prime Codes for Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension, i.e. time slots, whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research, we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system on a single platform. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes, but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa.

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1886 Comparative Study of Eva and Waste Polymer Modified Bitumen

Authors: Mohammed Sadeque, K. A. Patil

Abstract:

Polymer-modified bitumen is used to combat different pavement distresses and to increase the life span of pavement. Unmodified bitumen cannot perform better with the range extreme minimum and maximum pavement temperatures. The polymers commonly used to modify the bitumen are ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) styrene butadiene styrene (SBS). The aim this study to compare the performance of EVA modified bitumen with the bitumen modified by waste low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) obtained from waste carry bags and waste tyre rubber (CR) to encourage the use of waste polymer whose disposal is big problem today, in place of costly virgin polymer. From the experimental study, it was found that waste polymers are also effective in improving the properties bitumen as that of virgin polymer.

Keywords: Waste plastic, LDPE, PP, Modified bitumen, EVA.

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1885 On Symmetry Analysis and Exact Wave Solutions of New Modified Novikov Equation

Authors: Anupma Bansal, R. K. Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, we study a new modified Novikov equation for its classical and nonclassical symmetries and use the symmetries to reduce it to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE). With the aid of solutions of the nonlinear ODE by using the modified (G/G)-expansion method proposed recently, multiple exact traveling wave solutions are obtained and the traveling wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions and rational functions.

Keywords: New Modified Novikov Equation, Lie Classical Method, Nonclassical Method, Modified (G'/G)-Expansion Method, Traveling Wave Solutions.

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1884 Performance of Random Diagonal Codes for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA Systems

Authors: Hilal A. Fadhil, Syed A. Aljunid, R. Badlishah Ahmed

Abstract:

In this paper we study the use of a new code called Random Diagonal (RD) code for Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) networks, using Fiber Bragg-Grating (FBG), FBG consists of a fiber segment whose index of reflection varies periodically along its length. RD code is constructed using code level and data level, one of the important properties of this code is that the cross correlation at data level is always zero, which means that Phase intensity Induced Phase (PIIN) is reduced. We find that the performance of the RD code will be better than Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) and Hadamard code It has been observed through experimental and theoretical simulation that BER for RD code perform significantly better than other codes. Proof –of-principle simulations of encoding with 3 channels, and 10 Gbps data transmission have been successfully demonstrated together with FBG decoding scheme for canceling the code level from SAC-signal.

Keywords: FBG, MFH, OCDMA, PIIN, BER.

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1883 Design of High-speed Modified Booth Multipliers Operating at GHz Ranges

Authors: Soojin Kim, Kyeongsoon Cho

Abstract:

This paper describes the pipeline architecture of high-speed modified Booth multipliers. The proposed multiplier circuits are based on the modified Booth algorithm and the pipeline technique which are the most widely used to accelerate the multiplication speed. In order to implement the optimally pipelined multipliers, many kinds of experiments have been conducted. The speed of the multipliers is greatly improved by properly deciding the number of pipeline stages and the positions for the pipeline registers to be inserted. We described the proposed modified Booth multiplier circuits in Verilog HDL and synthesized the gate-level circuits using 0.13um standard cell library. The resultant multiplier circuits show better performance than others. Since the proposed multipliers operate at GHz ranges, they can be used in the systems requiring very high performance.

Keywords: multiplier, pipeline, high-speed, modified Boothalgorithm.

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1882 L1-Convergence of Modified Trigonometric Sums

Authors: Sandeep Kaur Chouhan, Jatinderdeep Kaur, S. S. Bhatia

Abstract:

The existence of sine and cosine series as a Fourier series, their L1-convergence seems to be one of the difficult question in theory of convergence of trigonometric series in L1-metric norm. In the literature so far available, various authors have studied the L1-convergence of cosine and sine trigonometric series with special coefficients. In this paper, we present a modified cosine and sine sums and criterion for L1-convergence of these modified sums is obtained. Also, a necessary and sufficient condition for the L1-convergence of the cosine and sine series is deduced as corollaries.

Keywords: Conjugate Dirichlet kernel, Dirichlet kernel, L1-convergence, modified sums.

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1881 Quadratic Irrationals, Quadratic Ideals and Indefinite Quadratic Forms II

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan, Arzu Özkoç

Abstract:

Let D = 1 be a positive non-square integer and let δ = √D or 1+√D 2 be a real quadratic irrational with trace t =δ + δ and norm n = δδ. Let γ = P+δ Q be a quadratic irrational for positive integers P and Q. Given a quadratic irrational γ, there exist a quadratic ideal Iγ = [Q, δ + P] and an indefinite quadratic form Fγ(x, y) = Q(x−γy)(x−γy) of discriminant Δ = t 2−4n. In the first section, we give some preliminaries form binary quadratic forms, quadratic irrationals and quadratic ideals. In the second section, we obtain some results on γ, Iγ and Fγ for some specific values of Q and P.

Keywords: Quadratic irrationals, quadratic ideals, indefinite quadratic forms, extended modular group.

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1880 A Modified Maximum Urgency First Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Tasks

Authors: Vahid Salmani, Saman Taghavi Zargar, Mahmoud Naghibzadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents a modified version of the maximum urgency first scheduling algorithm. The maximum urgency algorithm combines the advantages of fixed and dynamic scheduling to provide the dynamically changing systems with flexible scheduling. This algorithm, however, has a major shortcoming due to its scheduling mechanism which may cause a critical task to fail. The modified maximum urgency first scheduling algorithm resolves the mentioned problem. In this paper, we propose two possible implementations for this algorithm by using either earliest deadline first or modified least laxity first algorithms for calculating the dynamic priorities. These two approaches are compared together by simulating the two algorithms. The earliest deadline first algorithm as the preferred implementation is then recommended. Afterwards, we make a comparison between our proposed algorithm and maximum urgency first algorithm using simulation and results are presented. It is shown that modified maximum urgency first is superior to maximum urgency first, since it usually has less task preemption and hence, less related overhead. It also leads to less failed non-critical tasks in overloaded situations.

Keywords: Modified maximum urgency first, maximum urgency first, real-time systems, scheduling.

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1879 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş

Abstract:

Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: Magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR.

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1878 Three-Dimensional Off-Line Path Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Lana Dalawr Jalal

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of offline path planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in complex threedimensional environment with obstacles, which is modelled by 3D Cartesian grid system. Path planning for UAVs require the computational intelligence methods to move aerial vehicles along the flight path effectively to target while avoiding obstacles. In this paper Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) algorithm is applied to generate the optimal collision free 3D flight path for UAV. The simulations results clearly demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in guiding UAV to the final destination by providing optimal feasible path quickly and effectively.

Keywords: Obstacle Avoidance, Particle Swarm Optimization, Three-Dimensional Path Planning Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

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1877 Evaluate Aging Effect of SBS Modified Bitumen

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei

Abstract:

One of the important factors of cracks on the asphalt pavements is bitumen aging that associated with the loss of volatile components and oxidation of asphalt binder. This paper is about effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) polymer on asphalt aging In order to decrease asphalt aging effects. For this purpose samples of base bitumen and SBS modified bitumen aged according to the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT) and pressure aging vessel (PAV), respectively. Properties of each sample were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, n-heptane precipitation, viscosity test, softening point test and penetration test. FT-IR Analysis, showed lower oxidation of SBS modified bitumen than base bitumen, after aging.

Keywords: SBS, Asphalt aging, modified bitumen.

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1876 PIIN Suppression Using Random Diagonal Code for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA System

Authors: Hilal Adnan Fadhil, Syed Alwei, R. Badlishah Ahmad

Abstract:

A new code for spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access system is proposed called Random diagonal (RD) code. This code is constructed using code segment and data segment. One of the important properties of this code is that the cross correlation at data segment is always zero, which means that Phase Intensity Induced Noise (PIIN) is reduced. For the performance analysis, the effects of phase-induced intensity noise, shot noise, and thermal noise are considered simultaneously. Bit-error rate (BER) performance is compared with Hadamard and Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) codes. It is shown that the system using this new code matrices not only suppress PIIN, but also allows larger number of active users compare with other codes. Simulation results shown that using point to point transmission with three encoded channels, RD code has better BER performance than other codes, also its found that at 0 dbm PIIN noise are 10-10 and 10-11 for RD and MFH respectively.

Keywords: OCDMA, MFH, PIIN, and BER.

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1875 Modified Fuzzy ARTMAP and Supervised Fuzzy ART: Comparative Study with Multispectral Classification

Authors: F.Alilat, S.Loumi, H.Merrad, B.Sansal

Abstract:

In this article a modification of the algorithm of the fuzzy ART network, aiming at returning it supervised is carried out. It consists of the search for the comparison, training and vigilance parameters giving the minimum quadratic distances between the output of the training base and those obtained by the network. The same process is applied for the determination of the parameters of the fuzzy ARTMAP giving the most powerful network. The modification consist in making learn the fuzzy ARTMAP a base of examples not only once as it is of use, but as many time as its architecture is in evolution or than the objective error is not reached . In this way, we don-t worry about the values to impose on the eight (08) parameters of the network. To evaluate each one of these three networks modified, a comparison of their performances is carried out. As application we carried out a classification of the image of Algiers-s bay taken by SPOT XS. We use as criterion of evaluation the training duration, the mean square error (MSE) in step control and the rate of good classification per class. The results of this study presented as curves, tables and images show that modified fuzzy ARTMAP presents the best compromise quality/computing time.

Keywords: Neural Networks, fuzzy ART, fuzzy ARTMAP, Remote sensing, multispectral Classification.

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1874 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Modified CaCO3 /PP Nanocomposites

Authors: A. Buasri, N. Chaiyut, K. Borvornchettanuwat, N. Chantanachai, K. Thonglor

Abstract:

Inorganic nanoparticles filled polymer composites have extended their multiple functionalities to various applications, including mechanical reinforcement, gas barrier, dimensional stability, heat distortion temperature, flame-retardant, and thermal conductivity. Sodium stearate-modified calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles were prepared using surface modification method. The results showed that sodium stearate attached to the surface of CaCO3 nanoparticles with the chemical bond. The effect of modified CaCO3 nanoparticles on thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that CaCO3 significantly affected the crystallization temperature and crystallization degree of PP. Effect of the modified CaCO3 content on mechanical properties of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites was also studied. The results showed that the modified CaCO3 can effectively improve the mechanical properties of PP. In comparison with PP, the impact strength of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites increased by about 65% and the hardness increased by about 5%.

Keywords: Polypropylene Nanocomposites, Modified Calcium Carbonate, Sodium Stearate, Surface Treatment

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1873 (R, S)-Modules and (1, k)-Jointly Prime (R, S)-Submodules

Authors: Thawatchai Khumprapussorn

Abstract:

We introduced the notions of (1, k)-prime ideal and (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)-submodule as a generalization of prime ideal and jointly prime (R, S)-submodule, respectively. We provide a relationship between (1, k)-prime ideal and (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)-submodule. Characterizations of (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)- submodules are also given.

Keywords: R, S)-module, (1, k)-prime ideal, (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)-submodule.

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1872 Properties of MWCNTs/PAN Nanofiber Sheet Prepared from Chemically Modified MWCNTs

Authors: M. Seneewong-Na-Ayuttaya, T. Pongprayoon

Abstract:

The nanofiber sheet of Multiwall Cabon Nanotube (MWCNTs)/Polyacylonitile (PAN) composites was fabricated from electrospun nanofiber. Firstly the surface of MWCNTs was chemically modified, comparing two different techniques consisting of admicellar polymerization and functionalization to improve the dispersion and prevent the aggregation in the PAN matrix. The modified MWCNTs were characterized by the dispersion in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent, Laser particle size, and FTRaman. Lastly, DSC, SEM and mechanical properties of the nanofiber sheet were examined. The results show that the mechanical properties of the nanofiber sheet prepared from admicellar polymerization-modified MWCNTs were higher than those of the others.

Keywords: Multiwall carbon nanotube, admicellar polymerization, functionalization, nanofiber sheet.

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1871 Recycled Waste Glass Powder as a Partial Cement Replacement in Polymer-Modified Mortars

Authors: Nikol Žižková

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to observe the behavior of polymer-modified cement mortars with regard to the use of a pozzolanic admixture. Polymer-modified mortars (PMMs) containing various types of waste glass (waste packing glass and fluorescent tube glass) were produced always with 20% of cement substituted with a pozzolanic-active material. Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) was used for polymeric modification. The findings confirm the possibility of using the waste glass examined herein as a partial substitute for cement in the production of PMM, which contributes to the preservation of non-renewable raw material resources and to the efficiency of waste glass material reuse.

Keywords: Recycled waste glass, polymer-modified mortars, pozzolanic admixture.

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1870 Bootstrap and MLS Methods-based Individual Bioequivalence Assessment

Authors: Kongsheng Zhang, Li Ge

Abstract:

It is a one-sided hypothesis testing process for assessing bioequivalence. Bootstrap and modified large-sample(MLS) methods are considered to study individual bioequivalence(IBE), type I error and power of hypothesis tests are simulated and compared with FDA(2001). The results show that modified large-sample method is equivalent to the method of FDA(2001) .

Keywords: Individual bioequivalence, bootstrap, Bayesian bootstrap, modified large-sample.

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1869 Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian, A. Mohammad-Razdari

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.

Keywords: Ag nanoparticles, modified atmosphere, polyethylene film, tomato.

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