Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: Distillation

65 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

Authors: Lívia B. Meirelles, Erika C. A. N. Chrisman, Flávia B. de Andrade, Lilian C. M. de Oliveira

Abstract:

True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).

Keywords: Distillation curve, petroleum distillation, simulation, true boiling point curve.

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64 Effect of Temperature on the Performance of Multi-Stage Distillation

Authors: A. Diaf, H. Aburideh, Z.Tigrine, D. Tassalit, F.Alaoui

Abstract:

The tray/multi-tray distillation process is a topic that has been investigated to great detail over the last decade by many teams such as Jubran et al. [1], Adhikari et al. [2], Mowla et al. [3], Shatat et al. [4] and Fath [5] to name a few. A significant amount of work and effort was spent focusing on modeling and/simulation of specific distillation hardware designs. In this work, we have focused our efforts on investigating and gathering experimental data on several engineering and design variables to quantify their influence on the yield of the multi-tray distillation process. Our goals are to generate experimental performance data to bridge some existing gaps in the design, engineering, optimization and theoretical modeling aspects of the multi-tray distillation process.

Keywords: Distillation, Desalination, Multi-Stage still, Solar Energy

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63 Reduction of Energy Consumption of Distillation Process by Recovering the Heat from Exit Streams

Authors: Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul, Thanapat Chaireongsirikul, Pawit Tangviroon

Abstract:

Distillation consumes enormous quantity of energy. This work proposed a process to recover the energy from exit streams during the distillation process of three consecutive columns. There are several novel techniques to recover the heat with the distillation system; however, a complex control system is required. This work proposed a simpler technique by exchanging the heat between streams without interrupting the internal distillation process that might cause a serious control problem. The proposed process is executed by using heat exchanger network with pinch analysis to maximize the process heat recovery. The test model is the distillation of butane, pentane, hexane, and heptanes, which is a common mixture in the petroleum refinery. This proposed process saved the energy consumption for hot and cold utilities of 29 and 27%, which is considered significant. Therefore, the recovery of heat from exit streams from distillation process is proved to be effective for energy saving.

Keywords: Distillation, Heat Exchanger, Network Pinch Analysis.

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62 Crude Distillation Process Simulation Using Unisim Design Simulator

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, M. Jamali

Abstract:

The paper deals with the simulation of the crude distillation process using the Unisim Design simulator. The necessity of simulating this process is argued both by considerations related to the design of the crude distillation column, but also by considerations related to the design of advanced control systems. In order to use the Unisim Design simulator to simulate the crude distillation process, the identification of the simulators used in Romania and an analysis of the PRO/II, HYSYS, and Aspen HYSYS simulators were carried out. Analysis of the simulators for the crude distillation process has allowed the authors to elaborate the conclusions of the success of the crude modelling. A first aspect developed by the authors is the implementation of specific problems of petroleum liquid-vapors equilibrium using Unisim Design simulator. The second major element of the article is the development of the methodology and the elaboration of the simulation program for the crude distillation process, using Unisim Design resources. The obtained results validate the proposed methodology and will allow dynamic simulation of the process.  

Keywords: Crude oil, distillation, simulation, Unisim Design, simulators.

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61 The Applicability of Distillation as an Alternative Nuclear Reprocessing Method

Authors: Dominik Böhm, Konrad Czerski

Abstract:

A customized two-stage model has been developed to simulate, analyse, and visualize distillation of actinides as a useful alternative low-pressure separation method in the nuclear recycling cases. Under the most optimal conditions of idealized thermodynamic equilibrium stages and under total reflux of distillate the investigated cases of chloride systems for the separation of such actinides are (A) UCl4-CsCl-PuCl3 and (B) ThCl4-NaCl-PuCl3. Simulatively, uranium tetrachloride in case A is successfully separated by distillation into a six-stage distillation column, and thorium tetrachloride from case B into an eight-stage distillation column. For this, a permissible mole fraction value of 1E-06 has been assumed for the residual impurification degree. With further separation effort of eleven to seventeen required separation stages, the monochlorides of plutonium trichloride from both systems A and B are simulatively shown to be separated as high pure distillation products.

Keywords: Conceptual design of a pyroprocessing unit, molten salt recovery, simulation of total-reflux distillation column, used nuclear fuel reprocessing.

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60 Assessment of the Effect of Feed Plate Location on Interactions for a Binary Distillation Column

Authors: A. Khelassi, R. Bendib

Abstract:

The paper considers the effect of feed plate location on the interactions in a seven plate binary distillation column. The mathematical model of the distillation column is deduced based on the equations of mass and energy balances for each stage, detailed model for both reboiler and condenser, and heat transfer equations. The Dynamic Relative Magnitude Criterion, DRMC is used to assess the interactions in different feed plate locations for a seven plate (Benzene-Toluene) binary distillation column ( the feed plate is originally at stage 4). The results show that whenever we go far from the optimum feed plate position, the level of interaction augments.

Keywords: Distillation column, assessment of interactions, feedplate location, DRMC.

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59 Recovery of Acetonitrile from Aqueous Solutions by Extractive Distillation–Effect of Entrainer

Authors: Aleksandra Yu. Sazonova, Valentina M. Raeva

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to apply extractive distillation for acetonitrile removal from water solutions, to validate thermodynamic criterion based on excess Gibbs energy to entrainer selection process for acetonitrile – water mixture separation and show its potential efficiency at isothermal conditions as well as at isobaric (conditions of real distillation process), to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process with chosen entrainers: optimize amount of trays and feeds, entrainer/original mixture and reflux ratios. Equimolar composition of the feed stream was chosen for the process, comparison of the energy consumptions was carried out. Glycerol was suggested as the most energetically and ecologically suitable entrainer.

Keywords: Acetonitrile, entrainer, extractive distillation, water.

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58 A Comparative Study of the Modeling and Quality Control of the Propylene-Propane Classical Distillation and Distillation Column with Heat Pump

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, Cao Minh Ahn

Abstract:

The paper presents the research evolution in the propylene – propane distillation process, especially for the distillation columns equipped with heat pump. The paper is structured in three parts: separation of the propylene-propane mixture, steady state process modeling, and quality control systems. The first part is dedicated to state of art of the two distillation processes. The second part continues the author’s researches of the steady state process modeling. There has been elaborated a software simulation instrument that may be used to dynamic simulation of the process and to design the quality control systems. The last part presents the research of the control systems, especially for quality control systems.

Keywords: Distillation, absorption, heat pump, Unisim Design.

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57 Performance Evaluation of Single Basin Solar Still

Authors: Prem Singh, Jagdeep Singh

Abstract:

In an attempt to investigate the performance of single basin solar still for climate conditions of Ludhiana a single basin solar still was designed, fabricated and tested. The energy balance equations for various parts of the still are solved by Gauss-Seidel iteration method. Computer model was made and experimentally validated. The validated computer model was used to estimate the annual distillation yield and performance ratio of the still for Ludhiana. The Theoretical and experimental distillation yield were 4318.79 ml and 3850 ml respectively for the typical day. The predicted distillation yield was 12.5% higher than the experimental yield. The annual distillation yield per square metre aperture area and annual performance ratio for single basin solar still is 1095 litres and 0.43 respectively. The payback period for micro-stepped solar still is 2.5 years.

Keywords: Solar distillation, solar still, single basin, still.

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56 Optimization of Energy Consumption in Sequential Distillation Column

Authors: M.E. Masoumi, S. Kadkhodaie

Abstract:

Distillation column is one of the most common operations in process industries and is while the most expensive unit of the amount of energy consumption. Many ideas have been presented in the related literature for optimizing energy consumption in distillation columns. This paper studies the different heat integration methods in a distillation column which separate Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, and C9+. Three schemes of heat integration including, indirect sequence (IQ), indirect sequence with forward energy integration (IQF), and indirect sequence with backward energy integration (IQB) has been studied in this paper. Using shortcut method these heat integration schemes were simulated with Aspen HYSYS software and compared with each other with regarding economic considerations. The result shows that the energy consumption has been reduced 33% in IQF and 28% in IQB in comparison with IQ scheme. Also the economic result shows that the total annual cost has been reduced 12% in IQF and 8% in IQB regarding with IQ scheme. Therefore, the IQF scheme is most economic than IQB and IQ scheme.

Keywords: Optimization, Distillation Column Sequence, Energy Savings

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55 Engineering Study and Equipment Design: Effects of Temperature and design variables on Yield of a Multi-Stage Distillator

Authors: A.Diaf, Z.Tigrine, H. Aburideh, D.Tassalit , F.Alaoui, B .Abbad

Abstract:

The distillation process in the general sense is a relatively simple technique from the standpoints of its principles. When dedicating distillation to water treatment and specifically producing fresh water from sea, ocean and/ briny waters it is interesting to notice that distillation has no limitations or domains of applicability regarding the nature or the type of the feedstock water. This is not the case however for other techniques that are technologically quite complex, necessitate bigger capital investments and are limited in their usability. In a previous paper we have explored some of the effects of temperature on yield. In this paper, we continue building onto that knowledge base and focus on the effects of several additional engineering and design variables on productivity.

Keywords: Distillation, Desalination, Multi-Stage still, Solar Energy

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54 The Assessment of Interactions in Ratios Control Schemes for a Binary Distillation Column

Authors: R. Bendib, A. Khelassi

Abstract:

In this paper we will consider the most known ratios control schemes ((L/D, V/B),(L/D,V/F), Ryskamp-s, and (D/(L+D),V/B)) for binary distillation column and we compare them in the basis of interactions and disturbance propagation. The models for these configurations are deuced using mathematical transformations taking the energy balance structure (LV) as a base model. The dynamic relative magnitude criterion (DRMC) is used to assess the interactions. The results show that the introduction of ratios in controlling the column tends to minimize the degree of interactions between the loops.

Keywords: Distillation, interaction, DRMC, configurations.

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53 Distillation Monitoring and Control using LabVIEW and SIMULINK Tools

Authors: J. Fernandez de Canete, P. Del Saz Orozco, S. Gonzalez-Perez

Abstract:

LabVIEW and SIMULINK are two most widely used graphical programming environments for designing digital signal processing and control systems. Unlike conventional text-based programming languages such as C, Cµ and MATLAB, graphical programming involves block-based code developments, allowing a more efficient mechanism to build and analyze control systems. In this paper a LabVIEW environment has been employed as a graphical user interface for monitoring the operation of a controlled distillation column, by visualizing both the closed loop performance and the user selected control conditions, while the column dynamics has been modeled under the SIMULINK environment. This tool has been applied to the PID based decoupled control of a binary distillation column. By means of such integrated environments the control designer is able to monitor and control the plant behavior and optimize the response when both, the quality improvement of distillation products and the operation efficiency tasks, are considered.

Keywords: Distillation control, software tools, SIMULINKLabVIEWinterface.

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52 Performance Enhancement of Membrane Distillation Process in Fruit Juice Concentration by Membrane Surface Modification

Authors: Samir K. Deshmukh, Mayur M. Tajane

Abstract:

In this work Membrane Distillation is applied to concentrate orange Juice. Clarified orange juice (11o Brix) obtained from fresh fruits and a sugar solution was subjected to membrane distillation. The experiments were performed on a flat sheet module using orange juice and sucrose solution as feeds. The concentration of a sucrose solution, used as a model fruit juice and also orange juice, was carried out in a direct contact membrane distillation using hydrophobic PTFE membrane of pore size 0.2 μm and porosity 70%. Surface modification of PTFE membrane has been carried out by treating membrane with alcohol and water solution to make it hydrophilic and then hydrophobicity was regained by drying. The influences of the feed temperature, feed concentration, flow rate, operating time on the permeate flux were studied for treated and non treated membrane. In this work treated and non treated membrane were compared in terms of water flux, Within the tested range, MD with surface modified membrane the water flux has been significantly improved by treating the membrane surface.

Keywords: Membrane Distillation, Surface Modification, Orange Juice. Polytetrafluoroethylene.

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51 Artificial Neural Networks for Identification and Control of a Lab-Scale Distillation Column Using LABVIEW

Authors: J. Fernandez de Canete, S. Gonzalez-Perez, P. del Saz-Orozco

Abstract:

LABVIEW is a graphical programming language that has its roots in automation control and data acquisition. In this paper we have utilized this platform to provide a powerful toolset for process identification and control of nonlinear systems based on artificial neural networks (ANN). This tool has been applied to the monitoring and control of a lab-scale distillation column DELTALAB DC-SP. The proposed control scheme offers high speed of response for changes in set points and null stationary error for dual composition control and shows robustness in presence of externally imposed disturbance.

Keywords: Distillation, neural networks, LABVIEW, monitoring, identification, control.

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50 Performance of Air Gap Membrane Distillation for Desalination of Ground Water and Seawater

Authors: Bhausaheb L. Pangarkar, M.G. Sane

Abstract:

Membrane distillation (MD) is a rising technology for seawater or brine desalination process. In this work, an air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) performance was investigated for aqueous NaCl solution along with natural ground water and seawater. In order to enhance the performance of the AGMD process in desalination, that is, to get more flux, it is necessary to study the effect of operating parameters on the yield of distillate water. The influence of operational parameters such as feed flow rate, feed temperature, feed salt concentration, coolant temperature and air gap thickness on the membrane distillation (MD) permeation flux have been investigated for low and high salt solution. the natural application of ground water and seawater over 90 h continuous operation, scale deposits observed on the membrane surface and reduction in flux represents 23% for ground water and 60% for seawater, in 90 h. This reduction was eliminated (less than 14 %) by acidification of feed water. Hence, promote the research attention in apply of AGMD for the ground water as well as seawater desalination over today-s conventional RO operation.

Keywords: MD, ground water, seawater, AGMD.

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49 Investigation of Heat Loss in Ethanol-Water Distillation Column with Direct Vapour Recompression Heat Pump

Authors: Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto

Abstract:

Vapour recompression system has been used to enhance reduction in energy consumption and improvement in energy effectiveness of distillation columns. However, the effects of certain parameters have not been taken into consideration. One of such parameters is the column heat loss which has either been assumed to be a certain percent of reboiler heat transfer or negligible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heat loss from an ethanol-water vapour recompression distillation column with pressure increase across the compressor (VRCAS) and compare the results obtained and its effect on some parameters in similar system (VRCCS) where the column heat loss has been assumed or neglected. Results show that the heat loss evaluated was higher when compared with that obtained for the column VRCCS. The results also showed that increase in heat loss could have significant effect on the total energy consumption, reboiler heat transfer, the number of trays and energy effectiveness of the column.

Keywords: Compressor, distillation column, heat loss, vapourrecompression.

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48 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi

Abstract:

Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: Vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity.

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47 Modelling and Simulation of the Freezing Systems and Heat Pumps Using Unisim® Design

Authors: C. Patrascioiu

Abstract:

The paper describes the modeling and simulation of the heat pumps domain processes. The main objective of the study is the use of the heat pump in propene–propane distillation processes. The modeling and simulation instrument is the Unisim® Design simulator. The paper is structured in three parts: An overview of the compressing gases, the modeling and simulation of the freezing systems, and the modeling and simulation of the heat pumps. For each of these systems, there are presented the Unisim® Design simulation diagrams, the input–output system structure and the numerical results. Future studies will consider modeling and simulation of the propene–propane distillation process with heat pump.

Keywords: Distillation, heat pump, simulation, Unisim Design.

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46 Simulation of Reactive Distillation: Comparison of Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Stage Models

Authors: Asfaw Gezae Daful

Abstract:

In the present study, two distinctly different approaches are followed for modeling of reactive distillation column, the equilibrium stage model and the nonequilibrium stage model. These models are simulated with a computer code developed in the present study using MATLAB programming. In the equilibrium stage models, the vapor and liquid phases are assumed to be in equilibrium and allowance is made for finite reaction rates, where as in the nonequilibrium stage models simultaneous mass transfer and reaction rates are considered. These simulated model results are validated from the experimental data reported in the literature. The simulated results of equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared for concentration, temperature and reaction rate profiles in a reactive distillation column for Methyl Tert Butyle Ether (MTBE) production. Both the models show similar trend for the concentration, temperature and reaction rate profiles but the nonequilibrium model predictions are higher and closer to the experimental values reported in the literature.

Keywords: Reactive Distillation, Equilibrium model, Nonequilibrium model, Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether

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45 Stand Alone Multiple Trough Solar Desalination with Heat Storage

Authors: Abderrahmane Diaf, Kamel Benabdellaziz

Abstract:

Remote arid areas of the vast expanses of the African deserts hold huge subterranean reserves of brackish water resources waiting for economic development. This work presents design guidelines as well as initial performance data of new autonomous solar desalination equipment which could help local communities produce their own fresh water using solar energy only and, why not, contribute to transforming desert lands into lush gardens. The output of solar distillation equipments are typically low and in the range of 3 l/m2/day on the average. This new design with an integrated, water based, environmentally-friendly solar heat storage system produced 5 l/m2/day in early spring weather. Equipment output during summer exceeded 9 liters per m2 per day.

Keywords: Multiple trough distillation, solar desalination, solar distillation with heat storage, water based heat storage system.

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44 Robust Steam Temperature Regulation for Distillation of Essential Oil Extraction Process using Hybrid Fuzzy-PD plus PID Controller

Authors: Nurhani Kasuan, Zakariah Yusuf, Mohd Nasir Taib, Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman, Nazurah Tajuddin, Mohd Azri Abdul Aziz

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy-PD plus PID (HFPP) controller and its application to steam distillation process for essential oil extraction system. Steam temperature is one of the most significant parameters that can influence the composition of essential oil yield. Due to parameter variations and changes in operation conditions during distillation, a robust steam temperature controller becomes nontrivial to avoid the degradation of essential oil quality. Initially, the PRBS input is triggered to the system and output of steam temperature is modeled using ARX model structure. The parameter estimation and tuning method is adopted by simulation using HFPP controller scheme. The effectiveness and robustness of proposed controller technique is validated by real time implementation to the system. The performance of HFPP using 25 and 49 fuzzy rules is compared. The experimental result demonstrates the proposed HFPP using 49 fuzzy rules achieves a better, consistent and robust controller compared to PID when considering the test on tracking the set point and the effects due to disturbance.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic controller, steam temperature, steam distillation, real time control.

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43 MarginDistillation: Distillation for Face Recognition Neural Networks with Margin-Based Softmax

Authors: Svitov David, Alyamkin Sergey

Abstract:

The usage of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in conjunction with the margin-based softmax approach demonstrates the state-of-the-art performance for the face recognition problem. Recently, lightweight neural network models trained with the margin-based softmax have been introduced for the face identification task for edge devices. In this paper, we propose a distillation method for lightweight neural network architectures that outperforms other known methods for the face recognition task on LFW, AgeDB-30 and Megaface datasets. The idea of the proposed method is to use class centers from the teacher network for the student network. Then the student network is trained to get the same angles between the class centers and face embeddings predicted by the teacher network.

Keywords: ArcFace, distillation, face recognition, margin-based softmax.

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42 Accelerated Microwave Extraction of Natural Product using the Cryogrinding

Authors: F. Benkaci-Ali, R. Mekaoui, G. Eppe, E. De Pau, J. F. Faucont

Abstract:

Team distillation assisted by microwave extraction (SDAM) considered as accelerated technique extraction is a combination of microwave heating and steam distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure. SDAM has been compared with the same technique coupled with the cryogrinding of seeds (SDAM -CG). Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage for the extraction of essential oil from Cuminum cyminum seeds. The essential oils extracted by these two methods for 5 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) no similar. These methods yield an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allow substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material. SDAM and SDAM-CG is a green technology and appears as a good alternative for the extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants.

Keywords: Steam distillation, microwave extraction, Cuminum cyminum, chromatography, mass spectrometry

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41 Analysis of Heat Exchanger Network of Distillation Unit of Shiraz Oil Refinery

Authors: J. Khorshidi, E. Zare, A.R. Khademi

Abstract:

The reduction of energy consumption through improvements in energy efficiency has become an important goal for all industries, in order to improve the efficiency of the economy, and to reduce the emissions of Co2 caused by power generation. The objective of this paper is to investigate opportunities to increase process energy efficiency at the distillation unit of Shiraz oil refinery in south of Iran. The main aim of the project is to locate energy savings by use of pinch technology and to assess them. At first all the required data of hot and cold streams in preheating section of distillation unit has been extracted from the available flow sheets and then pinch analysis has been conducted. The present case study is a threshold one which does not need any utilities. After running range, targeting several heat exchanger networks were designed with respect to operating conditions and different ΔTmin. The optimal value of ΔTmin was calculated to be 22.3 °C. Based on this optimal value, there will be 5% reduction in annual total cost of heat exchanger network.

Keywords: Pinch technology, heat exchanger network, operating cost.

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40 GC and GCxGC-MS Composition of Volatile Compounds from Carum carvi by Using Techniques Assisted by Microwaves

Authors: F. Benkaci-Ali, R. Mékaoui, G. Scholl, G. Eppe

Abstract:

The new methods as accelerated steam distillation assisted by microwave (ASDAM) is a combination of microwave heating and steam distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure at very short extraction time. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. (ASDAM) has been compared with (ASDAM) with cryogrinding of seeds (CG) and a conventional technique, hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM), hydro-distillation (HD) for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herb as caraway and cumin seeds. The essential oils extracted by (ASDAM) for 1 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) no similar to those obtained by ASDAM-CG (1 min) and HD (for 3 h). The accelerated microwave extraction with cryogrinding inhibits numerous enzymatic reactions as hydrolysis of oils. Microwave radiations constitute the adequate mean for the extraction operations from the yields and high content in major component majority point view, and allow to minimise considerably the energy consumption, but especially heating time too, which is one of essential parameters of artifacts formation. The ASDAM and ASDAM-CG are green techniques and yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds comparable to the biosynthesis compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material.

Keywords: Microwave, steam distillation, caraway, cumin, cryogrinding, GC-MS, GCxGC-MS.

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39 Efficiency of Membrane Distillation to Produce Fresh Water

Authors: Sabri Mrayed, David Maccioni, Greg Leslie

Abstract:

Seawater desalination has been accepted as one of the most effective solutions to the growing problem of a diminishing clean drinking water supply. Currently two desalination technologies dominate the market – the thermally driven multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) and the membrane based reverse osmosis (RO). However, in recent years membrane distillation (MD) has emerged as a potential alternative to the established means of desalination. This research project intended to determine the viability of MD as an alternative process to MSF and RO for seawater desalination. Specifically the project involves conducting thermodynamic analysis of the process based on the second law of thermodynamics to determine the efficiency of the MD. Data was obtained from experiments carried out on a laboratory rig. To determine exergy values required for the exergy analysis, two separate models were built in Engineering Equation Solver – the ’Minimum Separation Work Model’ and the ‘Stream Exergy Model’. The efficiency of MD process was found to be 17.3 % and the energy consumption was determined to be 4.5 kWh to produce one cubic meter of fresh water. The results indicate MD has potential as a technique for seawater desalination compared to RO and MSF. However it was shown that this was only the case if an alternate energy source such as green or waste energy was available to provide the thermal energy input to the process. If the process was required to power itself, it was shown to be highly inefficient and in no way thermodynamically viable as a commercial desalination process.

Keywords: Desalination, Exergy, Membrane distillation, Second law efficiency.

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38 Modeling the Effect of Spacer Orientation on Heat Transfer in Membrane Distillation

Authors: M. Shakaib, M. Ehtesham-ul Haq, I. Ahmed, R.M. Yunus

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations carried out in this paper show that spacer orientation has a major influence on temperature patterns and on the heat transfer rates. The local heat flux values significantly vary from high to very low values at each filament when spacer touches the membrane surface. The heat flux profile is more uniform when spacer filaments are not in contact with the membrane thus making this arrangement more beneficial. The temperature polarization is also found to be less in this case when compared to the empty channel.

Keywords: heat transfer, membrane distillation, spacer, temperature polarization.

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37 Bioethanol: Indonesian Macro-Algae as a Renewable Feedstock for Liquid Fuel

Authors: T. Poespowati, E. Marsyahyo, R. Kartika-Dewi

Abstract:

This experimental study aims at studying the conversion of macro-algae into bioethanol under several steps of procedure: preparation, pre-treatment, fermentation, and distillation. The main objective of this work was to investigate the role of buffer’s type as a stabiliser of pH level and fermentation time on the yield of ethanol. For this purpose, experiments were carried out on biomass macro-algae to de-couple the pre-treatment and fermentation processes from those associated with distillation process. β- glucosidase was used as cellulose decomposer during hydrolysis step and yeast was used during fermentation process. The species of macro-algae utilised as energy feedstock was Ulva lactuca and it was harvested from southern coast of Central of Java Island – Indonesia. Experiments were conducted in a simple fermenter over a different buffer: citrate buffer and acetic buffer, and over a range of fermentation times between 5 to 20 days. The ethanol production was found to be significantly affected by both variables. The optimum time of fermentation was 10 days with citrate buffer; result in 0.88458% of ethanol, and the ethanol content after distillation process was shown 0.985015%.

Keywords: Fermentation, ulva-lactuca, buffer, β-glucosidase, bioethanol.

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36 Software Tools for System Identification and Control using Neural Networks in Process Engineering

Authors: J. Fernandez de Canete, S. Gonzalez-Perez, P. del Saz-Orozco

Abstract:

Neural networks offer an alternative approach both for identification and control of nonlinear processes in process engineering. The lack of software tools for the design of controllers based on neural network models is particularly pronounced in this field. SIMULINK is properly a widely used graphical code development environment which allows system-level developers to perform rapid prototyping and testing. Such graphical based programming environment involves block-based code development and offers a more intuitive approach to modeling and control task in a great variety of engineering disciplines. In this paper a SIMULINK based Neural Tool has been developed for analysis and design of multivariable neural based control systems. This tool has been applied to the control of a high purity distillation column including non linear hydrodynamic effects. The proposed control scheme offers an optimal response for both theoretical and practical challenges posed in process control task, in particular when both, the quality improvement of distillation products and the operation efficiency in economical terms are considered.

Keywords: Distillation, neural networks, software tools, identification, control.

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