Search results for: Smooth tube
439 Visual Study on Flow Patterns and Heat Transfer during Convective Boiling Inside Horizontal Smooth and Microfin Tubes
Authors: V.D. Hatamipour, M.A. Akhavan-Behabadi
Abstract:Evaporator is an important and widely used heat exchanger in air conditioning and refrigeration industries. Different methods have been used by investigators to increase the heat transfer rates in evaporators. One of the passive techniques to enhance heat transfer coefficient is the application of microfin tubes. The mechanism of heat transfer augmentation in microfin tubes is dependent on the flow regime of two-phase flow. Therefore many investigations of the flow patterns for in-tube evaporation have been reported in literatures. The gravitational force, surface tension and the vapor-liquid interfacial shear stress are known as three dominant factors controlling the vapor and liquid distribution inside the tube. A review of the existing literature reveals that the previous investigations were concerned with the two-phase flow pattern for flow boiling in horizontal tubes , . Therefore, the objective of the present investigation is to obtain information about the two-phase flow patterns for evaporation of R-134a inside horizontal smooth and microfin tubes. Also Investigation of heat transfer during flow boiling of R-134a inside horizontal microfin and smooth tube have been carried out experimentally The heat transfer coefficients for annular flow in the smooth tube is shown to agree well with Gungor and Winterton-s correlation . All the flow patterns occurred in the test can be divided into three dominant regimes, i.e., stratified-wavy flow, wavy-annular flow and annular flow. Experimental data are plotted in two kinds of flow maps, i.e., Weber number for the vapor versus weber number for the liquid flow map and mass flux versus vapor quality flow map. The transition from wavy-annular flow to annular or stratified-wavy flow is identified in the flow maps.
Keywords: Flow boiling, Flow pattern, Heat transfer, Horizontal, Smooth tube, Microfin tube.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2194
438 CFD Study for Normal and Rifled Tube with a Convergence Check
Authors: Sharfi Dirar, Shihab Elhaj, Ahmed El Fatih
Abstract:Computational fluid dynamics were used to simulate and study the heated water boiler tube for both normal and rifled tube with a refinement of the mesh to check the convergence. The operation condition was taken from GARRI power station and used in a boundary condition accordingly. The result indicates the rifled tube has higher heat transfer efficiency than the normal tube.
Keywords: Boiler tube, Convergence Check, Normal Tube, Rifled Tube.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1275
437 Numerical Study of Flow around Flat Tube between Parallel Walls
Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi
Flow around a flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube and it is varied in range of 100 to 300. Equations are solved by using finite volume method and results are presented in form of drag and lift coefficient. Results show that drag coefficient of flat tube is up to 66% lower than circular tube with equivalent diameter. In addition, by increasing l/D from 1 to 2, the drag coefficient of flat tube is decreased about 14-27%.
Keywords: Laminar flow, flat-tube, drag coefficient, cross-flow, heat exchanger.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1879
436 Numerical Investigation of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of a Flat Tube in Cross-Flow of Air
Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi
Heat transfer from flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube which is varied in range of 100 to 300. In these range of Reynolds number flow is considered to be laminar, unsteady, and incompressible. Equations are solved by using finite volume method. Results show that increasing l/D from 1 to 2 has insignificant effect on heat transfer and Nusselt number of flat tube is slightly lower than circular tube. However, thermal-hydraulic performance of flat tube is up to 2.7 times greater than circular tube.
Keywords: Laminar flow, flat tube, convective heat transfer, heat exchanger.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2572
435 Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Vertical Tube
Authors: Farhad Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, Farzad Hekmatipour
In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2´105 and 6.8´106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.
Keywords: Nanofluid, heat transfer oil, mixed convection, vertical tube, laminar flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 812
434 Study on Bending Characteristics of Square Tube Using Energy Absorption Part
Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Zefry Darmawan, Ken Kaminishi
In the square tube subjected to the bending load, the rigidity of the entire square tube is reduced when a collapse occurs due to local stress concentration. Therefore, in this research, the influence of bending load on the square tube with attached energy absorbing part was examined and reported. The analysis was conducted by using Finite Element Method (FEM) to produced bending deflection and buckling points. Energy absorption was compared from rigidity of attached part and square tube body. Buckling point was influenced by the rigidity of attached part and the thickness rate of square tube.
Keywords: Square tube, bending stress, energy absorption, finite element analysis, rigidity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 990
433 The Effect of Angle of Attack on Pressure Drag from a Cam Shaped Tube
Authors: Arash Mir Abdolah Lavasani
The pressure drag from a cam shaped tube in cross flows have been investigated experimentally using pressure distribution measurement. The range of angle of attack and Reynolds number based on an equivalent circular tube are within 0≤α≤360° and 2×104< Reeq < 3.4 ×104, respectively. It is found that the pressure drag coefficient is at its highest at α=90° and 270° over the whole range of Reynolds number. Results show that the pressure drag coefficient of the cam shaped tube is lower than that of circular tube with the same surface area for more of the angles of attack. Furthermore, effects of the diameter ratio and finite length of the cam shaped tube upon the pressure drag coefficient are discussed.
Keywords: Pressure Drag, Cam Shaped, Experimental.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2253
432 Effects of Catalyst Tubes Characteristics on a Steam Reforming Process in Ammonia
Abstract:The tubes in an Ammonia primary reformer furnace operate close to the limits of materials technology in terms of the stress induced as a result of very high temperatures, combined with large differential pressures across the tube wall. Operation at tube wall temperatures significantly above design can result in a rapid increase in the number of tube failures, since tube life is very sensitive to the absolute operating temperature of the tube. Clearly it is important to measure tube wall temperatures accurately in order to prevent premature tube failure by overheating.. In the present study, the catalyst tubes in an Ammonia primary reformer has been modeled taking into consideration heat, mass and momentum transfer as well as reformer characteristics.. The investigations concern the effects of tube characteristics and superficial tube wall temperatures on of the percentage of heat flux, unconverted methane and production of Hydrogen for various values of steam to carbon ratios. The results show the impact of catalyst tubes length and diameters on the performance of operating parameters in ammonia primary reformers.
Keywords: Catalyst, tubes, reformer, performanceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3227
431 Parametric Study of 3D Micro-Fin Tubes on Heat Transfer and Friction Factor
Authors: Shima Soleimani, Steven Eckels
One area of special importance for the surface-level study of heat exchangers is tubes with internal micro-fins (< 0.5 mm tall). Micro-finned surfaces are a kind of extended solid surface in which energy is exchanged with water that acts as the source or sink of energy. Significant performance gains are possible for either shell, tube, or double pipe heat exchangers if the best surfaces are identified. The parametric studies of micro-finned tubes that have appeared in the literature left some key parameters unexplored. Specifically, they ignored three-dimensional (3D) micro-fin configurations, conduction heat transfer in the fins, and conduction in the solid surface below the micro-fins. Thus, this study aimed at implementing a parametric study of 3D micro-finned tubes that considered micro-fine height and discontinuity features. A 3D conductive and convective heat-transfer simulation through coupled solid and periodic fluid domains is applied in a commercial package, ANSYS Fluent 19.1. The simulation is steady-state with turbulent water flow cooling the inner wall of a tube with micro-fins. The simulation utilizes a constant and uniform temperature on the tube outer wall. Performance is mapped for 18 different simulation cases, including a smooth tube using a realizable k-ε turbulence model at a Reynolds number of 48,928. Results compared the performance of 3D tubes with results for the similar two-dimensional (2D) one. Results showed that the micro-fine height has a greater impact on performance factors than discontinuity features in 3D micro-fin tubes. A transformed 3D micro-fin tube can enhance heat transfer, and pressure drops up to 21% and 56% compared to a 2D one, respectfully.
Keywords: Three-dimensional micro-fin tube, heat transfer, friction factor, heat exchanger.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 452
430 Simulation of Internal Flow Field of Pitot-Tube Jet Pump
Authors: Iqra Noor, Ihtzaz Qamar
Pitot-tube Jet pump, single-stage pump with low flow rate and high head, consists of a radial impeller that feeds water to rotating cavity. Water then enters stationary pitot-tube collector (diffuser), which discharges to the outside. By means of ANSYS Fluent 15.0, the internal flow characteristics for Pitot-tube Jet pump with standard pitot and curved pitot are studied. Under design condition, realizable k-e turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm are used to calculate 3D flow field inside both pumps. The simulation results reveal that energy is imparted to the flow by impeller and inside the rotor, forced vortex type flow is observed. Total pressure decreases inside pitot-tube whereas static pressure increases. Changing pitot-tube from standard to curved shape results in minimum flow circulation inside pitot-tube and leads to a higher pump performance.
Keywords: CFD, flow circulation, high pressure pump, impeller, internal flow, pickup tube pump, rectangle channels, rotating casing, turbulence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 535
429 Analysis of Vortex-Induced Vibration Characteristics for a Three-Dimensional Flexible Tube
Authors: Zhipeng Feng, Huanhuan Qi, Pingchuan Shen, Fenggang Zang, Yixiong Zhang
Numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibration of a three-dimensional flexible tube under uniform turbulent flow are calculated when Reynolds number is 1.35×104. In order to achieve the vortex-induced vibration, the three-dimensional unsteady, viscous, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and LES turbulence model are solved with the finite volume approach, the tube is discretized according to the finite element theory, and its dynamic equilibrium equations are solved by the Newmark method. The fluid-tube interaction is realized by utilizing the diffusion-based smooth dynamic mesh method. Considering the vortex-induced vibration system, the variety trends of lift coefficient, drag coefficient, displacement, vertex shedding frequency, phase difference angle of tube are analyzed under different frequency ratios. The nonlinear phenomena of locked-in, phase-switch are captured successfully. Meanwhile, the limit cycle and bifurcation of lift coefficient and displacement are analyzed by using trajectory, phase portrait, and Poincaré sections. The results reveal that: when drag coefficient reaches its minimum value, the transverse amplitude reaches its maximum, and the “lock-in” begins simultaneously. In the range of lock-in, amplitude decreases gradually with increasing of frequency ratio. When lift coefficient reaches its minimum value, the phase difference undergoes a suddenly change from the “out-of-phase” to the “in-phase” mode.
Keywords: Vortex induced vibration, limit cycle, CFD, FEM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1328
428 Numerical Studies on the Performance of Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger
Authors: Praveen Kumar S P, Bong-Su Sin, Kwon-Hee Lee
Finned-tube heat exchangers are predominantly used in space conditioning systems, as well as other applications requiring heat exchange between two fluids. The design of finned-tube heat exchangers requires the selection of over a dozen design parameters by the designer such as tube pitch, tube diameter, tube thickness, etc… Finned-tube heat exchangers are common devices; however, their performance characteristics are complicated. In this paper numerical studies have been carried out to analyze the performances of finned tube heat exchanger (without fins considered for experimental purpose) by predicting the characteristics of temperature difference and pressure drop. In this study, a design considering 5 design variables and also maximizing the temperature difference and pressure drop was suggested by applying DOE. During this process, L18 orthogonal array was adopted. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out using ANOVA to determine the relative importance of each variable with respect to the temperature difference and the pressure drop. Following the results, the final design was suggested by predicting the optimum design therefore confirming the optimized condition.
Keywords: Heat Exchanger, Fluid Analysis, Heat Transfer, Design of Experiment (DOE), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2478
427 Mannequin Evaluation of 3D-Printed Intermittent Oro-Esophageal Tube Guide for Dysphagia
Authors: Yujin Jeong, Youkyung Son, Myounghwan Choi, Sanghyub Lee, Sangyeol Lee, Changho Hwang, Kyo-in Koo
Dysphasia is difficulty in swallowing food because of oral cavity impairments induced by stroke, muscle damage, tumor. Intermittent oro-esophageal (IOE) tube feeding is one of the well-known feeding methods for the dysphasia patients. However, it is hard to insert at the proper position in esophagus. In this study, we design and fabricate the IOE tube guide using 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The printed IOE tube is tested in a mannequin (Airway Management Trainer, Co., Ltd., Copenhagen, Denmark) mimicking human’s esophagus. The gag reflex point is measured as the design point in the mannequin. To avoid the gag reflex, we design various shapes of IOE tube guide. One structure is separated into three parts; biting part, part through oral cavity, connecting part to oro-esophageal. We designed 6 types of IOE tube guide adjusting length and angle of these three parts. To evaluate the IOE tube guide, it is inserted in the mannequin, and through the inserted guide, an endoscopic camera successfully arrived at the oro-esophageal. We had planned to apply this mannequin-based design experience to patients in near future.
Keywords: Dysphagia, feeding method, IOE tube guide, 3-D printer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1397
426 Advanced Model for Calculation of the Neutral Axis Shifting and the Wall Thickness Distribution in Rotary Draw Bending Processes
Rotary draw bending is a method which is being used in tube forming. In the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness distribution changes for tube’s cross section. Thinning takes place in the outer arc of the tube (extrados) due to the stretching of the material, whereas thickening occurs in the inner arc of the tube (intrados) due to the comparison of the material. The calculations of the wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting, and strain distribution have not been accurate enough, so far. The previous model (the geometrical model) describes the neutral axis shifting and wall thickness distribution. The geometrical of the tube, bending radius and bending angle are considered in the geometrical model, while the influence of the material properties of the tube forming are ignored. The advanced model is a modification of the previous model using material properties that depends on the correction factor. The correction factor is a purely empirically determined factor. The advanced model was compared with the Finite element simulation (FE simulation) using a different bending factor (Bf =bending radius/ diameter of the tube), wall thickness (Wf = diameter of the tube/ wall thickness), and material properties (strain hardening exponent). Finite element model of rotary draw bending has been performed in PAM-TUBE program (version: 2012). Results from the advanced model resemble the FE simulation and the experimental test.
Keywords: Rotary draw bending, material properties, neutral axis shifting, wall thickness distribution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3753
425 Bubble Growth in a Two Phase Upward Flow in a Miniature Tube
Authors: R. S. Hassani, S. Chikh, L. Tadrist, S. Radev
A bubbly flow in a vertical miniature tube is analyzed theoretically. The liquid and gas phase are co-current flowing upward. The gas phase is injected via a nozzle whose inner diameter is 0.11mm and it is placed on the axis of the tube. A force balance is applied on the bubble at its detachment. The set of governing equations are solved by use of Mathematica software. The bubble diameter and the bubble generation frequency are determined for various inlet phase velocities represented by the inlet mass quality. The results show different behavior of bubble growth and detachment depending on the tube size.
Keywords: Two phase flow, bubble growth, minichannel, generation frequency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1682
424 Economic Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Nanofluid
Authors: Hassan Hajabdollahi
Economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) is presented in this paper. To increase the rate of heat transfer, copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticle is added into the tube side fluid and their optimum results are compared with the case of without additive nanoparticle. Total annual cost (TAC) is selected as fitness function and nine decision variables related to the heat exchanger parameters as well as concentration of nanoparticle are considered. Optimization results reveal the noticeable improvement in the TAC and in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid (8.9%). Comparison of the results between two studied cases also reveal that the lower tube diameter, tube number, and baffle spacing are needed in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid.
Keywords: Shell and tube heat exchanger, nanoparticles additive, total annual cost, particle volumetric concentration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 859
423 Non-Destructive Evaluation of Launch Tube Welds with Radiography
Authors: Tosapolporn Pornpibunsompop
Abstract:The non-destructive testing of launch tube weld with radiography was investigated and evaluated with AWS D1.1 standard. The paper started with preparation of launch tube and radiographic inspection. X-Ray inspection then was done and gotten the result. The judgment of inspection results were concluded by certified person and finally, the evaluation with AWS D1.1 standard was conducted as well. The result shown that weld position P1 was not conformed to AWS D1.1 which allowed size of incomplete penetration did not exceed 4 mm. The other welds were corresponded to as mentioned standard. Additionally, the corrective actions for incomplete penetration either provided for future actions.
Keywords: Non-destructive evaluation, Weld, Launch tube, RadiographyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1544
422 Determination of Agricultural Characteristics of Smooth Bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) Lines under Konya Regional Conditions
Authors: Abdullah Özköse, Ahmet Tamkoç
The present study was conducted to determine the yield and yield components of smooth bromegrass lines under the environmental conditions of the Konya region during the growing seasons between 2011 and 2013. The experiment was performed in the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. It was found that the selected lines had a statistically significant effect on all the investigated traits, except for the main stem length and the number of nodes in the main stem. According to the two-year average calculated for various parameters checked in the smooth bromegrass lines, the main stem length ranged from 71.6 cm to 79.1 cm, the main stem diameter from 2.12 mm from 2.70 mm, the number of nodes in the main stem from 3.2 to 3.7, the internode length from 11.6 cm to 18.9 cm, flag leaf length from 9.7 cm to 12.7 cm, flag leaf width from 3.58 cm to 6.04 mm, herbage yield from 221.3 kg da–1 to 354.7 kg da–1 and hay yield from 100.4 kg da–1 to 190.1 kg da–1. The study concluded that the smooth bromegrass lines differ in terms of yield and yield components. Therefore, it is very crucial to select suitable varieties of smooth bromegrass to obtain optimum yield.
Keywords: Semiarid region, smooth bromegrass, yield, yield components.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1021
421 Optimum Design of Tall Tube-Type Building: An Approach to Structural Height Premium
Authors: Ali Kheyroddin, Niloufar Mashhadiali, Frazaneh Kheyroddin
In last decades, tubular systems employed for tall buildings were efficient structural systems. However, increasing the height of a building leads to an increase in structural material corresponding to the loads imposed by lateral loads. Based on this approach, new structural systems are emerging to provide strength and stiffness with the minimum premium for height. In this research, selected tube-type structural systems such as framed tubes, braced tubes, diagrids and hexagrid systems were applied as a single tube, tubular structures combined with braced core and outrigger trusses on a set of 48, 72, and 96-story, respectively, to improve integrated structural systems. This paper investigated structural material consumption by model structures focusing on the premium for height. Compared analytical results indicated that as the height of the building increased, combination of the structural systems caused the framed tube, hexagrid and braced tube system to pay fewer premiums to material tonnage while in diagrid system, combining the structural system reduced insignificantly the steel material consumption.
Keywords: Braced tube, diagrid, framed tube, hexagrid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 795
420 Designing a Low Speed Wind Tunnel for Investigating Effects of Blockage Ratio on Heat Transfer of a Non-Circular Tube
Authors: Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Taher Maarefdoost
Effect of blockage ratio on heat transfer from non-circular tube is studied experimentally. For doing this experiment a suction type low speed wind tunnel with test section dimension of 14×14×40 and velocity in rage of 7-20 m/s was designed. The blockage ratios varied between 1.5 to 7 and Reynolds number based on equivalent diameter varies in range of 7.5×103 to 17.5×103. The results show that by increasing blockage ratio from 1.5 to 7, drag coefficient of the cam shaped tube decreased about 55 percent. By increasing Reynolds number, Nusselt number of the cam shaped tube increases about 40 to 48 percent in all ranges of blockage ratios.
Keywords: Wind tunnel, non-circular tube, blockage ratio, experimental heat transfer, cross-flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2488
419 A Numerical Study of Single-phase Forced Convective Heat Transfer in Tube in Tube Heat Exchangers
Authors: P. Mohajeri Khameneh, I. Mirzaie, N. Pourmahmoud, M. Rahimi, S. Majidyfar
Abstract:Three dimensional simulations in tube in tube heat exchangers are investigated numerically in this study. In these simulations forced convective heat transfer and laminar flow of single-phase water are considered. In order to measure heat transfer parameters in these heat exchangers, FLUENT CFD Solver is used in this numerical method. For the purpose of creating geometry and exert boundary and initial conditions in the present model, finite volume method in Computational Fluid Dynamics is used in this study. In the present study, at each Z-location, variation of local temperatures, heat flux and Nusselt number at the whole tube is investigated in detail. Thereafter, averaged computational Nusselt number in this model is calculated. In addition, conceivable pressure drops have been obtained at each Z-location in this model. Then, pressure drop values in the present model are explored. Finally, all the numerical results for this kind of heat exchanger will be discussed precisely.
Keywords: Heat exchanger, Laminar flow, CFD, Nusseltnumber, Tube in tube, pressure drop.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1907
418 To Be Smooth of The Interest and Output of Accepted Companies Stock at Negotiable Paper Exchange of Tehran
Authors: Mohammad Hadi Zohdi, Mohamad Reza Dalvand, Maryam Zohdi
Abstract:In this research relationship between to be smooth the interest and output of accepted companies stock at negotiable paper exchange of Tehran is studied. Static community capacity included 363 companies member of negotiable paper exchange of Tehran that 54 companies were, by considering research limitation, selected from 2004 to 2009. Needed data for model test in librarian method was chosen from RAH AVARDE NOVIN informative banks, TADBIR and collecting needed data was selected from Tehran negotiable paper exchange archive. Given results show that in spite of belief among people based on companies have more smooth interest have more output, but resulted outcomes of test-done reveals that there is no relation between smooth interest and stock output.
Keywords: Smooth interest, interest fluctuation, interest level, output average, cost capitalProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1139
417 Failure Analysis of a Fractured Control Pressure Tube from an Aircraft Engine
Authors: M. P. Valles-González, A. González Meije, A. Pastor Muro, M. García-Martínez, B. González Caballero
This paper studies a failure case of a fuel pressure supply tube from an aircraft engine. Multiple fracture cases of the fuel pressure control tube from aircraft engines have been reported. The studied set was composed by the mentioned tube, a welded connecting pipe, where the fracture has been produced, and a union nut. The fracture has been produced in one of the most critical zones of the tube, in a region next to the supporting body of the union nut to the connector. The tube material was X6CrNiTi18-10, an austenitic stainless steel. Chemical composition was determined using an X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and combustion equipment. Furthermore, the material was characterized mechanically, by a hardness test, and microstructurally using a stereo microscope and an optical microscope. The results confirmed that the material was within specifications. To determine the macrofractographic features, a visual examination and an observation using a stereo microscope of the tube fracture surface were carried out. The results revealed a tube plastic macrodeformation, surface damaged and signs of a possible corrosion process. Fracture surface was also inspected by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis system (EDX), to determine the microfractographic features in order to find out the failure mechanism involved in the fracture. Fatigue striations, which are typical from a progressive fracture by a fatigue mechanism, were observed. The origin of the fracture was placed in defects located on the outer wall of the tube, leading to a final overload fracture.
Keywords: Aircraft Engine, microstructure, fatigue, FE-SEM, fractography, fracture, fuel tube, stainless steel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 332
416 Numerical Investigation of the Thermal Separation in a Vortex Tube
Authors: N.Pourmahmoud, S.Akhesmeh
This work has been carried out in order to provide an understanding of the physical behaviors of the flow variation of pressure and temperature in a vortex tube. A computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the flow fields and the associated temperature separation within a Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. The CFD model is a steady axisymmetric model (with swirl) that utilizes the standard k-ε turbulence model. The second–order numerical schemes, was used to carry out all the computations. Vortex tube with a circumferential inlet stream and an axial (cold) outlet stream and a circumferential (hot) outlet stream was considered. Performance curves (temperature separation versus cold outlet mass fraction) were obtained for a specific vortex tube with a given inlet mass flow rate. Simulations have been carried out for varying amounts of cold outlet mass flow rates. The model results have a good agreement with experimental data.
Keywords: Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube, Temperature separation, k–ε model, cold mass fraction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2273
415 Study on Rupture of Tube Type Crash Energy Absorber using Finite Element Method
Authors: Won Mok. Choi, Tae Su. Kwon, Hyun Sung. Jung, Jin Sung. Kim
Abstract:The aim of this paper is to confirm the effect of key design parameters, the punch radius and punch angle, on rupture of the expansion tube using a finite element analysis with a ductile damage model. The results of the finite element analysis indicated that the expansion ratio of the tube was mainly affected by the radius of the punch. However, the rupture was more affected by the punch angle than the radius of the punch. The existence of a specific punch angle, at which rupture did not occur, even if the radius of the punch was increased, was found.
Keywords: Expansion tube, Ductile damage, Shear failure, Stress triaxiality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1578
414 A Study of the Replacement of Natural Coarse Aggregate by Spherically-Shaped and Crushed Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass in Concrete
Authors: N. N. M. Pauzi, M. R. Karim, M. Jamil, R. Hamid, M. F. M. Zain
The aim of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on the influence of complete replacement of natural coarse aggregate with spherically-shape and crushed waste cathode ray tube (CRT) glass to the aspect of workability, density, and compressive strength of the concrete. After characterizing the glass, a group of concrete mixes was prepared to contain a 40% spherical CRT glass and 60% crushed CRT glass as a complete (100%) replacement of natural coarse aggregates. From a total of 16 types of concrete mixes, the optimum proportion was selected based on its best performance. The test results showed that the use of spherical and crushed glass that possesses a smooth surface, rounded, irregular and elongated shape, and low water absorption affects the workability of concrete. Due to a higher specific gravity of crushed glass, concrete mixes containing CRT glass had a higher density compared to ordinary concrete. Despite the spherical and crushed CRT glass being stronger than gravel, the results revealed a reduction in compressive strength of the concrete. However, using a lower water to binder (w/b) ratio and a higher superplasticizer (SP) dosage, it is found to enhance the compressive strength of 60.97 MPa at 28 days that is lower by 13% than the control specimen. These findings indicate that waste CRT glass in the form of spherical and crushed could be used as an alternative of coarse aggregate that may pave the way for the disposal of hazardous e-waste.
Keywords: Cathode ray tube, glass, coarse aggregate, compressive strength.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1223
413 Thermomechanical Coupled Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Square Tube: A Finite Element Study
Authors: M. Ali, K. Alam, E. Ohioma
This paper presents a numerical investigation on the behavior of fiber reinforced polymer composite tubes (FRP) under thermomechanical coupled loading using finite element software ABAQUS and a special add-on subroutine, CZone. Three cases were explored; pure mechanical loading, pure thermal loading, and coupled thermomechanical loading. The failure index (Tsai-Wu) under all three loading cases was assessed for all plies in the tube walls. The simulation results under pure mechanical loading showed that composite tube failed at a tensile load of 3.1 kN. However, with the superposition of thermal load on mechanical load on the composite tube, the failure index of the previously failed plies in tube walls reduced significantly causing the tube to fail at 6 kN. This showed 93% improvement in the load carrying capacity of the composite tube in present study. The increase in load carrying capacity was attributed to the stress effects of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) on the laminate as well as the inter-lamina stresses induced due to the composite stack layup.
Keywords: Thermal, mechanical, composites, square tubes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1384
412 Experimental Study of Performance of a Counter Flow Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube with Inner Threaded Body
Authors: Gürol Önal, Kevser Dincer
In this experimental study, performance of a counter flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (RHVT) with threads cut on its inner surface was investigated experimentally (pitch is 1 and 2 mm). The inner diameter of the vortex tube used was D=9 mm and the ratio of the tube’s length to diameter was L/D=12. The experimental system was a thermodynamic open system. Flow was controlled by a valve on the hot outlet side, where the valve was changed from a nearly closed position to its nearly open position. Fraction of cold flow (ξ) = 0.1-0.9, was determined under 300 and 350 kPa pressurized air. All experimental data were compared with each other, the maximum heating performance of the RHVT system was found to be 38.2 oC and the maximum cooling performance of the RHVT in this study was found to be -30.9 oC at pitch 1 mm.
Keywords: Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube, heating, cooling, temperature separation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2740
411 Experimental Testing of Composite Tubes with Different Corrugation Profile Subjected to Lateral Compression Load
Authors: Elfetori F. Abdewi
Abstract:This paper presents the effect of corrugation profile geometry on the crushing behavior, energy absorption, failure mechanism, and failure mode of woven roving glass fibre/epoxy laminated composite tube. Experimental investigations were carried out on composite tubes with three different profile shapes: sinusoidal, triangular and trapezoidal. The tubes were subjected to lateral compressive loading. On the addition to a radial corrugated composite tube, cylindrical composite tube, were fabricated and tested under the same condition in order to know the effect of corrugation geometry. Typical histories of their deformation are presented. Behavior of tubes as regards the peak crushing load, energy absorbed and mode of crushing has been discussed. The results show that the behavior of the tube under lateral compression load is influenced by the geometry of the tube itself.
Keywords: Corrugated composite specimens, Energy absorption, Lateral crushing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2207
410 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Particulate Airflow in Shell and Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers
Authors: W. Witchayanuwat, S. Kheawhom
Abstract:In this work, we experimentally study heat transfer from exhaust particulate air of detergent spray drying tower to water by using coiled tube heat exchanger. Water flows in the coiled tubes, where air loaded with detergent particles of 43 micrometers in diameter flows within the shell. Four coiled tubes with different coil pitches are used in a counter-current flow configuration. We investigate heat transfer coefficients of inside and outside the heat transfer surfaces through 400 experiments. The correlations between Nusselt number and Reynolds number, Prandtl number, mass flow rate of particulates to mass flow rate of air ratio and coiled tube pitch parameter are proposed. The correlations procured can be used to predicted heat transfer between tube and shell of the heat exchanger.
Keywords: Shell and coiled tube heat exchanger, Spray drying tower, Heat transfer coefficients.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2273