Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2980

Search results for: Flow pattern

2980 The Experimental Study of the Effect of Flow Pattern Geometry on Performance of Micro Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Tang Yuan Chen, Chang Hsin Chen, Chiun Hsun Chen

Abstract:

In this research, the flow pattern influence on performance of a micro PEMFC was investigated experimentally. The investigation focused on the impacts of bend angels and rib/channel dimensions of serpentine flow channel pattern on the performance and investigated how they improve the performance. The fuel cell employed for these experiments was a micro single PEMFC with a membrane of 1.44 cm2 Nafion NRE-212. The results show that 60° and 120° bend angles can provide the better performances at 20 and 40 sccm inlet flow rates comparing to that the conventional design. Additionally, wider channel with narrower rib spacing gives better performance. These results may be applied to develop universal heuristics for the design of flow pattern of micro PEMFC.

Keywords: Flow pattern, MEMS, PEMFC, Performance

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2979 CFD Simulation and Validation of Flow Pattern Transition Boundaries during Moderately Viscous Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow through Horizontal Pipeline

Authors: Anand B. Desamala, Anjali Dasari, Vinayak Vijayan, Bharath K. Goshika, Ashok K. Dasmahapatra, Tapas K. Mandal

Abstract:

In the present study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has been executed to investigate the transition boundaries of different flow patterns for moderately viscous oil-water (viscosity ratio 107, density ratio 0.89 and interfacial tension of 0.032 N/m.) two-phase flow through a horizontal pipeline with internal diameter and length of 0.025 m and 7.16 m respectively. Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach including effect of surface tension has been employed to predict the flow pattern. Geometry and meshing of the present problem has been drawn using GAMBIT and ANSYS FLUENT has been used for simulation. A total of 47037 quadrilateral elements are chosen for the geometry of horizontal pipeline. The computation has been performed by assuming unsteady flow, immiscible liquid pair, constant liquid properties, co-axial flow and a T-junction as entry section. The simulation correctly predicts the transition boundaries of wavy stratified to stratified mixed flow. Other transition boundaries are yet to be simulated. Simulated data has been validated with our own experimental results.

Keywords: CFD simulation, flow pattern transition, moderately viscous oil-water flow, prediction of flow transition boundary, VOF technique.

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2978 Effect of Non-Newtonian Behavior of Oil Phase on Oil-Water Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Channel

Authors: Satish Kumar Dewangan, Santosh Kumar Senapati

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the investigation of the effect of non-Newtonian behavior on the oil-water stratified flow in a horizontal channel using ANSYS Fluent. Coupled level set and volume of fluid (CLSVOF) has been used to capture the evolving interface assuming unsteady, coaxial flow with constant fluid properties. The diametric variation of oil volume fraction, mixture velocity, total pressure and pressure gradient has been studied. Non-Newtonian behavior of oil has been represented by the power law model in order to investigate the effect of flow behavior index. Stratified flow pattern tends to assume dispersed flow pattern with the change in the behavior of oil to non-Newtonian. The pressure gradient is found to be very much sensitive to the flow behavior index. The findings could be useful in designing the transportation pipe line in petroleum industries.

Keywords: Oil-water stratified flow, horizontal channel, CLSVOF, non–Newtonian behavior.

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2977 Automatic Discrimimation of the Modes of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood

Authors: Malika.D Kedir-Talha, Mohamed Mehenni

Abstract:

In order to be able to automatically differentiate between two modes of permanent flow of a liquid simulating blood, it was imperative to put together a data bank. Thus, the acquisition of the various amplitude spectra of the Doppler signal of this liquid in laminar flow and other spectra in turbulent flow enabled us to establish an automatic difference between the two modes. According to the number of parameters and their nature, a comparative study allowed us to choose the best classifier.

Keywords: Doppler spectrum, flow mode, pattern recognition, permanent flow.

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2976 Visual Study on Flow Patterns and Heat Transfer during Convective Boiling Inside Horizontal Smooth and Microfin Tubes

Authors: V.D. Hatamipour, M.A. Akhavan-Behabadi

Abstract:

Evaporator is an important and widely used heat exchanger in air conditioning and refrigeration industries. Different methods have been used by investigators to increase the heat transfer rates in evaporators. One of the passive techniques to enhance heat transfer coefficient is the application of microfin tubes. The mechanism of heat transfer augmentation in microfin tubes is dependent on the flow regime of two-phase flow. Therefore many investigations of the flow patterns for in-tube evaporation have been reported in literatures. The gravitational force, surface tension and the vapor-liquid interfacial shear stress are known as three dominant factors controlling the vapor and liquid distribution inside the tube. A review of the existing literature reveals that the previous investigations were concerned with the two-phase flow pattern for flow boiling in horizontal tubes [12], [9]. Therefore, the objective of the present investigation is to obtain information about the two-phase flow patterns for evaporation of R-134a inside horizontal smooth and microfin tubes. Also Investigation of heat transfer during flow boiling of R-134a inside horizontal microfin and smooth tube have been carried out experimentally The heat transfer coefficients for annular flow in the smooth tube is shown to agree well with Gungor and Winterton-s correlation [4]. All the flow patterns occurred in the test can be divided into three dominant regimes, i.e., stratified-wavy flow, wavy-annular flow and annular flow. Experimental data are plotted in two kinds of flow maps, i.e., Weber number for the vapor versus weber number for the liquid flow map and mass flux versus vapor quality flow map. The transition from wavy-annular flow to annular or stratified-wavy flow is identified in the flow maps.

Keywords: Flow boiling, Flow pattern, Heat transfer, Horizontal, Smooth tube, Microfin tube.

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2975 Three-dimensional Simulation of Flow Pattern at the Lateral Intake in Straight Path, using Finite-Volume Method

Authors: R.Goudarzizadeh, N.Hedayat, S.H.Mousavi Jahromi

Abstract:

Channel junctions can be analyzed in two ways of division (lateral intake) and combined flows (confluence). The present paper investigates 3D flow pattern at lateral intake using Navier-Stokes equation and κ -ε (RNG) turbulent model. The equations are solved by Finite-Volume Method (FVM) and results are compared with the experimental data of (Barkdoll, B.D., 1997) to test the validity of the findings. Comparison of the results with the experimental data indicated a close proximity between the two sets of data which suggest a very close simulation. Results further indicated an inverse relation between the effects of discharge ratio ( r Q ) on the length and width of the separation zone. In other words, as the discharge ration increases, the length and width of separation zone decreases.

Keywords: 900 junction, flow division, turbulent flow, numerical modeling, flow separation zone.

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2974 Modeling of Blood Flow Velocity into the Main Artery via Left Ventricle of Heart during Steady Condition

Authors: Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib, Nur Hazreen Mohd Hasni

Abstract:

A three-dimensional and pulsatile blood flow in the left ventricle of heart model has been studied numerically. The geometry was derived from a simple approximation of the left ventricle model and the numerical simulations were obtained using a formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, simulation was used to investigate the pattern of flow velocity in 3D model of heart with consider the left ventricle based on critical parameter of blood under steady condition. Our results demonstrate that flow velocity focused from mitral valve channel and continuous linearly to left ventricle wall but this skewness progresses into outside wall in atrium through aortic valve with random distribution that is irregular due to force subtract from ventricle wall during cardiac cycle. The findings are the prediction of the behavior of the blood flow velocity pattern in steady flow condition which can assist the medical practitioners in their decision on the patients- treatments.

Keywords: Mitral Valve, Aortic Valve, Cardiac Cycle, Leaflet, Biomechanics, Left Ventricle

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2973 Motion Detection Techniques Using Optical Flow

Authors: A. A. Shafie, Fadhlan Hafiz, M. H. Ali

Abstract:

Motion detection is very important in image processing. One way of detecting motion is using optical flow. Optical flow cannot be computed locally, since only one independent measurement is available from the image sequence at a point, while the flow velocity has two components. A second constraint is needed. The method used for finding the optical flow in this project is assuming that the apparent velocity of the brightness pattern varies smoothly almost everywhere in the image. This technique is later used in developing software for motion detection which has the capability to carry out four types of motion detection. The motion detection software presented in this project also can highlight motion region, count motion level as well as counting object numbers. Many objects such as vehicles and human from video streams can be recognized by applying optical flow technique.

Keywords: Background modeling, Motion detection, Optical flow, Velocity smoothness constant, motion trajectories.

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2972 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20o to +20o using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: Flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction.

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2971 CFD Modeling of Mixing Enhancement in a Pitted Micromixer by High Frequency Ultrasound Waves

Authors: Faezeh Mohammadi, Ebrahim Ebrahimi, Neda Azimi

Abstract:

Use of ultrasound waves is one of the techniques for increasing the mixing and mass transfer in the microdevices. Ultrasound propagation into liquid medium leads to stimulation of the fluid, creates turbulence and so increases the mixing performance. In this study, CFD modeling of two-phase flow in a pitted micromixer equipped with a piezoelectric with frequency of 1.7 MHz has been studied. CFD modeling of micromixer at different velocity of fluid flow in the absence of ultrasound waves and with ultrasound application has been performed. The hydrodynamic of fluid flow and mixing efficiency for using ultrasound has been compared with the layout of no ultrasound application. The result of CFD modeling shows well agreements with the experimental results. The results showed that the flow pattern inside the micromixer in the absence of ultrasound waves is parallel, while when ultrasound has been applied, it is not parallel. In fact, propagation of ultrasound energy into the fluid flow in the studied micromixer changed the hydrodynamic and the forms of the flow pattern and caused to mixing enhancement. In general, from the CFD modeling results, it can be concluded that the applying ultrasound energy into the liquid medium causes an increase in the turbulences and mixing and consequently, improves the mass transfer rate within the micromixer.

Keywords: CFD modeling, ultrasound, mixing, mass transfer.

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2970 Influence of Vortex Generator on Flow Behavior of Air Stream

Authors: Chakkapong Supasri, Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat, Atipoang Nuntaphan

Abstract:

 

This research studied the influence of delta wing and delta winglet vortex generators on air flow characteristic. Normally, the vortex generator has been used for enhancing the heat transfer performance by promote the helical flow of air stream. The vortex generator was setup in the wind tunnel and the flow pattern of air stream passing the vortex generator was observed by using smoke generator. The Reynolds number of air stream was between 30,000 and 80,000. It is found that the delta winglet having 20mm fin height and 30 degree of air stream contact angle generates the maximum helical flow of air stream.

Keywords: Vortex generator, Flow behavior, Visual study, Delta wing, Delta winglet, Smoke generator.

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2969 Comparison on Electrode and Ground Arrangements Effect on Heat Transfer under Electric Force in a Channel and a Cavity Flow

Authors: Suwimon Saneewong Na Ayuttaya, Chainarong Chaktranond, Phadungsak Rattanadecho

Abstract:

This study numerically investigates the effects of Electrohydrodynamic on flow patterns and heat transfer enhancement within a cavity which is on the lower wall of channel. In this simulation, effects of using ground wire and ground plate on the flow patterns are compared. Moreover, the positions of electrode wire respecting with ground are tested in the range of angles θ = 0 - 180o. High electrical voltage exposes to air is 20 kV. Bulk mean velocity and temperature of inlet air are controlled at 0.1 m/s and 60 OC, respectively. The result shows when electric field is applied, swirling flow is appeared in the channel. In addition, swirling flow patterns in the main flow of using ground plate are widely spreader than that of using ground wire. Moreover, direction of swirling flow also affects the flow pattern and heat transfer in a cavity. These cause the using ground wire to give the maximum temperature and heat transfer higher than using ground plate. Furthermore, when the angle is at θ = 60o, high shear flow effect is obtained. This results show high strength of swirling flow and effective heat transfer enhancement.

Keywords: Swirling Flow, Heat Transfer, Electrohydrodynamic, Numerical Analysis.

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2968 Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Hydraulic L-Shaped Check Ball Behavior

Authors: Shinji Kajiwara

Abstract:

The spring-driven ball-type check valve is one of the most important components of hydraulic systems: it controls the position of the ball and prevents backward flow. To simplify the structure, the spring must be eliminated, and to accomplish this, the flow pattern and the behavior of the check ball in L-shaped pipe must be determined. In this paper, we present a full-scale model of a check ball made of acrylic resin, and we determine the relationship between the initial position of the ball, the position and diameter of the inflow port. The check flow rate increases in a standard center inflow model, and it is possible to greatly decrease the check-flow rate by shifting the inflow from the center.

Keywords: Hydraulics, Pipe Flow, Numerical Simulation, Flow Visualization, Check ball, L-shaped Pipe.

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2967 Effect of Highly Pressurized Dispersion Arc Nozzle on Breakup of Oil Leakage in Offshore

Authors: N. M. M. Ammar, S. M. Mustaqim, N. M. Nadzir

Abstract:

The most important problem occurs on oil spills in sea water is to reduce the oil spills size. This study deals with the development of high pressurized nozzle using dispersion method for oil leakage in offshore. 3D numerical simulation results were obtained using ANSYS Fluent 13.0 code and correlate with the experimental data for validation. This paper studies the contribution of the process on flow speed and pressure of the flow from two different geometrical designs of nozzles and to generate a spray pattern suitable for dispersant application. Factor of size distribution of droplets generated by the nozzle is calculated using pressures ranging from 2 to 6 bars. Results obtain from both analyses shows a significant spray pattern and flow distribution as well as distance. Results also show a significant contribution on the effect of oil leakage in terms of the diameter of the oil spills break up.

Keywords: Arc Nozzle, CFD simulation, Droplets, Oil Spills.

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2966 Flow Characteristics of Pulp Liquid in Straight Ducts

Authors: M. Sumida

Abstract:

An experimental investigation was performed on pulp liquid flow in straight ducts with a square cross section. Fully developed steady flow was visualized and the fiber concentration was obtained using a light-section method developed by the author et al. The obtained results reveal quantitatively, in a definite form, the distribution of the fiber concentration. From the results and measurements of pressure loss, it is found that the flow characteristics of pulp liquid in ducts can be classified into five patterns. The relationships among the distributions of mean and fluctuation of fiber concentration, the pressure loss and the flow velocity are discussed, and then the features for each pattern are extracted. The degree of nonuniformity of the fiber concentration, which is indicated by the standard deviation of its distribution, is decreased from 0.3 to 0.05 with an increase in the velocity of the tested pulp liquid from 0.4 to 0.8%.

Keywords: Fiber Concentration, Flow Characteristic, Pulp Liquid, Straight Duct.

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2965 Movement of Location of Tip Vortex Cavitation along Blade Edge due to Reduction of Flow Rate in an Axial Pump

Authors: Mohammad T. Shervani-Tabar, Navid Shervani-Tabar

Abstract:

Tip vortex cavitation is one of well known patterns of cavitation phenomenon which occurs in axial pumps. This pattern of cavitation occurs due to pressure difference between the pressure and suction sides of blades of an axial pump. Since the pressure in the pressure side of the blade is higher than the pressure in its suction side, thus a very small portion of liquid flow flows back from pressure side to the suction side. This fact is cause of tip vortex cavitation and gap cavitation that may occur in axial pumps. In this paper the results of our experimental investigation about movement of tip vortex cavitation along blade edge due to reduction of pump flow rate in an axial pump is reported. Results show that reduction of pump flow rate in conjunction with increasing of outlet pressure causes movement of tip vortex cavitation along blade edge towards the blade tip. Results also show that by approaching tip vortex cavitation to the blade tip, vortex tip pattern of cavitation replaces with a cavitation phenomenon on the blade tip. Furthermore by further reduction of pump flow rate and increasing of outlet pressure, an unstable cavitation phenomenon occurs between each blade leading edge and the next blade trailing edge.

Keywords: Axial Flow Pump, Cavitation, Gap Cavitation, Tip Vortex Cavitation.

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2964 Reconstruction of the Most Energetic Modes in a Fully Developed Turbulent Channel Flow with Density Variation

Authors: Elteyeb Eljack, Takashi Ohta

Abstract:

Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to reconstruct spatio-temporal data of a fully developed turbulent channel flow with density variation at Reynolds number of 150, based on the friction velocity and the channel half-width, and Prandtl number of 0.71. To apply POD to the fully developed turbulent channel flow with density variation, the flow field (velocities, density, and temperature) is scaled by the corresponding root mean square values (rms) so that the flow field becomes dimensionless. A five-vector POD problem is solved numerically. The reconstructed second-order moments of velocity, temperature, and density from POD eigenfunctions compare favorably to the original Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, POD, Coherent Structures, Low dimensional modelling.

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2963 Neural Network Optimal Power Flow(NN-OPF) based on IPSO with Developed Load Cluster Method

Authors: Mat Syai'in, Adi Soeprijanto

Abstract:

An Optimal Power Flow based on Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (OPF-IPSO) with Generator Capability Curve Constraint is used by NN-OPF as a reference to get pattern of generator scheduling. There are three stages in Designing NN-OPF. The first stage is design of OPF-IPSO with generator capability curve constraint. The second stage is clustering load to specific range and calculating its index. The third stage is training NN-OPF using constructive back propagation method. In training process total load and load index used as input, and pattern of generator scheduling used as output. Data used in this paper is power system of Java-Bali. Software used in this simulation is MATLAB.

Keywords: Optimal Power Flow, Generator Capability Curve, Improved Particle Swarm Optimization, Neural Network

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2962 The Creation of Contemporary Apparel Inspired by the Structural Pattern Sofa Vimanmek Mansion

Authors: Chanoknart Mayusoh

Abstract:

In most of apparel creation, the designer usually uses standard pattern as a fundamental of pattern making. In the design of each kind of apparel, standard pattern is starting point of production. The importance of standard pattern is that it is able to have the apparel fits to general people. Therefore, standard pattern is standardized to be the same. Regardless which type of apparel, its standard pattern will have similar production. Anyhow, the author sees that the apparel design, regardless for which type of apparel, has to stick on the standard pattern as a fundamental of apparel design and this seems to be a limitation of apparel design without any designing alternative being developed. In the research on the creation of contemporary apparel Inspired by the sofa’s pattern structure in Vimanmek Mansion. The author has applied the pattern of the sofa and armchair to be the principle in the apparel design, instead of standard pattern, to create new form of structures and shapes making the contemporary apparel becomes more interesting and different than previous, can be used in daily life, as well as being a new alternative for apparel design. Those who are interesting in such idea can apply and develop it to be more variety further.

Keywords: Contemporary Apparel, Sofa’s Pattern, Armchair’s Pattern, Vimanmek Mansion.

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2961 Numerical Simulation of Flow Field in a Elliptic Bottom Stirred Tank with Bottom Baffles

Authors: Liu Xuedong , Liu Zhiyan

Abstract:

When the crisscross baffles and logarithmic spiral baffles are placed on the bottom of the stirred tank with elliptic bottom, using CFD software FLUENT simulates the velocity field of the stirred tank with elliptic bottom and bottom baffles. Compare the velocity field of stirred tank with bottom crisscross baffle to the velocity field of stirred tank without bottom baffle and analysis the flow pattern on the same axis-section and different cross-sections. The sizes of the axial and radial velocity are compared respectively when the stirred tank with bottom crisscross baffles, bottom logarithmic spiral baffles and without bottom baffle. At the same time, the numerical calculations of mixing power are compared when the stirred tank with bottom crisscross baffles and bottom logarithmic spiral baffles. Research shows that bottom crisscross baffles and logarithmic spiral baffles have a great impact on flow pattern within the reactor and improve the mixing effect better than without baffle. It also has shown that bottom logarithmic spiral baffles has lower power consumption than bottom crisscross baffles.

Keywords: Bottom baffle, Flow field, Numerical simulation, Stirred tank.

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2960 Simulation of 3D Flow using Numerical Model at Open-channel Confluences

Authors: R.Goudarzizadeh, S.H.Mousavi Jahromi, N.Hedayat

Abstract:

This paper analytically investigates the 3D flow pattern at the confluences of two rectangular channels having 900 angles using Navier-Stokes equations based on Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model (RSM). The equations are solved by the Finite- Volume Method (FVM) and the flow is analyzed in terms of steadystate (single-phased) conditions. The Shumate experimental findings were used to test the validity of data. Comparison of the simulation model with the experimental ones indicated a close proximity between the flow patterns of the two sets. Effects of the discharge ratio on separation zone dimensions created in the main-channel downstream of the confluence indicated an inverse relation, where a decrease in discharge ratio, will entail an increase in the length and width of the separation zone. The study also found the model as a powerful analytical tool in the feasibility study of hydraulic engineering projects.

Keywords: 900 confluence angle, flow separation zone, numerical modeling, turbulent flow.

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2959 CFD Analysis of Incompressible Turbulent Swirling Flow through Circle Grids Space Filling Plate

Authors: B. Manshoor, M. Jaat, Amir Khalid

Abstract:

Circle grid space filling plate is a flow conditioner with a fractal pattern and used to eliminate turbulence originating from pipe fittings in experimental fluid flow applications. In this paper, steady state, incompressible, swirling turbulent flow through circle grid space filling plate has been studied. The solution and the analysis were carried out using finite volume CFD solver FLUENT 6.2. Three turbulence models were used in the numerical investigation and their results were compared with the pressure drop correlation of BS EN ISO 5167-2:2003. The turbulence models investigated here are the standard k-ε, realizable k-ε, and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The results showed that the RSM model gave the best agreement with the ISO pressure drop correlation. The effects of circle grids space filling plate thickness and Reynolds number on the flow characteristics have been investigated as well.

Keywords: Flow conditioning, turbulent flow, turbulent modeling, CFD.

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2958 Investigation of Increasing the Heat Transfer from Flat Surfaces Using Boundary Layer Excitation

Authors: M.H.Ghaffari

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with effect of exciting boundary layer on increase in heat transfer from flat surfaces. As any increase in heat transfer between a fluid inside a face and another one outside of it can cause an increase in some equipment's efficiency, so at this present we have tried to increase the wall's heat transfer coefficient by exciting the fluid boundary layer. By a collision between flow and the placed block at the fluid way, the flow pattern and the boundary layer stability will change. The flow way inside the channel is simulated as a 2&3-dimensional channel by Gambit TM software. With studying the achieved results by this simulation for the flow way inside the channel with a block coordinating with Fluent TM software, it's determined that the figure and dimensions of the exciter are too important for exciting the boundary layer so that any increase in block dimensions in vertical side against the flow and any reduction in its dimensions at the flow side can increase the average heat transfer coefficient from flat surface and increase the flow pressure loss. Using 2&3-dimensional analysis on exciting the flow at the flow way inside a channel by cylindrical block at the same time with the external flow, we came to this conclusion that the heat flux transferred from the surface, is increased considerably in terms of the condition without excitation. Also, the k-e turbulence model is used.

Keywords: Cooling, Heat transfer, Turbulence, Excitingboundary layer.

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2957 Evaluation of Natural Drainage Flow Pattern, Necessary for Flood Control, Using Digitized Topographic Information: A Case Study of Bayelsa State Nigeria

Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke

Abstract:

The need to evaluate and understand the natural drainage pattern in a flood prone, and fast developing environment is of paramount importance. This information will go a long way to help the town planners to determine the drainage pattern, road networks and areas where prominent structures are to be located. This research work was carried out with the aim of studying the Bayelsa landscape topography using digitized topographic information, and to model the natural drainage flow pattern that will aid the understanding and constructions of workable drainages. To achieve this, digitize information of elevation and coordinate points were extracted from a global imagery map. The extracted information was modeled into 3D surfaces. The result revealed that the average elevation for Bayelsa State is 12 m above sea level. The highest elevation is 28 m, and the lowest elevation 0 m, along the coastline. In Yenagoa the capital city of Bayelsa were a detail survey was carried out showed that average elevation is 15 m, the highest elevation is 25 m and lowest is 3 m above the mean sea level. The regional elevation in Bayelsa, showed a gradation decrease from the North Eastern zone to the South Western Zone. Yenagoa showed an observed elevation lineament, were low depression is flanked by high elevation that runs from the North East to the South west. Hence, future drainages in Yenagoa should be directed from the high elevation, from South East toward the North West and from the North West toward South East, to the point of convergence which is at the center that flows from South East toward the North West. Bayelsa when considered on a regional Scale, the flow pattern is from the North East to the South West, and also North South. It is recommended that in the event of any large drainage construction at municipal scale, it should be directed from North East to the South West or from North to South. Secondly, detail survey should be carried out to ascertain the local topography and the drainage pattern before the design and construction of any drainage system in any part of Bayelsa.

Keywords: Bayelsa, Digitized Topographic Information, Drainage, Flood.

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2956 A Review on Hydraulic and Morphological Characteristics in River Channels Due to Spurs

Authors: M. Alauddin, M. M. Hossain, M. N. Uddin, M. E. Haque

Abstract:

An optimal design of a spur is the first requirement to make it sustainable and function properly. In view of that, a thorough understanding to the hydro- and morpho-dynamics due to spurs is essential. This paper presents a literature review on the effect of spurs to obtain the most recent design criteria. Perpendicular and upstream aligned impermeable spurs have large disturbances to flow and less stability because of strong vortices and associated scour. Downstream aligned spurs minimize scour holes, but there is a chance of strong return current which could be controlled allowing flow through them. A series arrangement of spurs is important to have the desired results with a special care for the first one. Several equations have been presented in the paper for predicting the scour depth. But, they have to be used carefully. Different flow environments developed by spurs are favorable for various aquatic species. However, it is important to maintain almost a stable flow condition providing stable spurs.

Keywords: Bed topography, flow pattern, scour, spur.

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2955 Effects of Urbanization on Land Use/Land Cover and Stream Flow of a Sub-Tropical River Basin of India

Authors: Satyavati Shukla, Lakhan V. Rathod, Mohan V. Khire

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization changes the land use/land cover pattern of a developing region. Due to these land surface changes, stream flow of the rivers also changes. It is important to investigate the factors affecting hydrological characteristics of the river basin for better river basin management planning. This study is aimed to understand the effect of Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) changes on stream flow of Upper Bhima River basin which is highly stressed in terms of water resources. In this study, Upper Bhima River basin is divided into two adjacent sub-watersheds: Mula-Mutha (urbanized) sub-watershed and Bhima (non-urbanized) sub-watershed. First of all, LU/LC changes were estimated over 1980, 2002, and 2009 for both Mula-Mutha and Bhima sub-watersheds. Further, stream flow simulations were done using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the streams draining both watersheds. Results revealed that stream flow was relatively higher for urbanized sub-watershed. Through Sensitivity Analysis it was observed that out of all the parameters used, base flow was the most sensitive parameter towards LU/LC changes.

Keywords: Land Use/Land Cover, remote sensing, stream flow, urbanization.

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2954 A Novel NIRS Index to Evaluate Brain Activity in Prefrontal Regions While Listening to First and Second Languages for Long Time Periods

Authors: Kensho Takahashi, Ko Watanabe, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara

Abstract:

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used as a non-invasive method to measure brain activity, but it is corrupted by baseline drift noise. Here we present a method to measure regional cerebral blood flow as a derivative of NIRS output. We investigate whether, when listening to languages, blood flow can reasonably localize and represent regional brain activity or not. The prefrontal blood flow distribution pattern when advanced second-language listeners listened to a second language (L2) was most similar to that when listening to their first language (L1) among the patterns of mean and standard deviation. In experiments with 25 healthy subjects, the maximum blood flow was localized to the left BA46 of advanced listeners. The blood flow presented is robust to baseline drift and stably localizes regional brain activity.

Keywords: NIRS, oxy-hemoglobin, baseline drift, blood flow, working memory, BA46, first language, second language.

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2953 Urban Management and China's Municipal Pattern

Authors: Ling Zheng, Yaping Wei, Kang Cao, Zheng Huang, Songpo Shi

Abstract:

Not only is municipal pattern the institution basement of urban management, but it also determines the forms of the management results. There-s a considerable possibility of bankruptcy for China-s current municipal pattern as it-s an overdraft of land deal in fact. Based on the analysis of China-s current municipal pattern, the passage proposed an assumption of a new pattern verified legitimacy by conceptual as well as econometric models. Conclusion is: the added supernumerary value of investment in public goods was not included in China-s current municipal pattern, but hidden in the rising housing prices; we should set housing tax or municipal tax to optimize the municipal pattern, to correct the behavior of local governments and to ensure the regular development of China-s urbanization.

Keywords: Urban management, China's municipal pattern, land financial institution, housing tax, Public goods.

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2952 Adaptive Gait Pattern Generation of Biped Robot based on Human's Gait Pattern Analysis

Authors: Seungsuk Ha, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method of adaptively generating a gait pattern of biped robot. The gait synthesis is based on human's gait pattern analysis. The proposed method can easily be applied to generate the natural and stable gait pattern of any biped robot. To analyze the human's gait pattern, sequential images of the human's gait on the sagittal plane are acquired from which the gait control values are extracted. The gait pattern of biped robot on the sagittal plane is adaptively generated by a genetic algorithm using the human's gait control values. However, gait trajectories of the biped robot on the sagittal plane are not enough to construct the complete gait pattern because the biped robot moves on 3-dimension space. Therefore, the gait pattern on the frontal plane, generated from Zero Moment Point (ZMP), is added to the gait one acquired on the sagittal plane. Consequently, the natural and stable walking pattern for the biped robot is obtained.

Keywords: Biped robot, gait pattern, genetic algorithm.

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2951 Analysis of Vortical Structures Generated by the Swirler of Combustion Chamber

Authors: Vladislav A. Nazukin, Valery G. Avgustinovich, Vakhtang V. Tsatiashvili

Abstract:

The most important part of modern lean low NOx combustors is a premixer where swirlers are often used for intensification of mixing processes and further formation of required flow pattern in combustor liner. Swirling flow leads to formation of complex eddy structures causing flow perturbations. It is able to cause combustion instability. Therefore, at design phase, it is necessary to pay great attention to aerodynamics of premixers. Analysis based on unsteady CFD modeling of swirling flow in production combustor swirler showed presence of large number of different eddy structures that can be conditionally divided into three types relative to its location of origin and a propagation path. Further, features of each eddy type were subsequently defined. Comparison of calculated and experimental pressure fluctuations spectrums verified correctness of computations.

Keywords: DES simulation, swirler, vortical structures.

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