Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: anthropomorphic phantom

55 Characterization and Development of Anthropomorphic Phantoms Liver for Use in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Ferreira F. C. L., Souza D. N., Rodrigues T. M. A., Cunha C. J., Dullius M. A., Andrade J. E., Sousa A. H., Vieira J. P. C., Carvalho Júnior A. B., Santos L. P. B., Passos R. O.

Abstract:

The objective this study was to characterize and develop anthropomorphic liver phantoms in tomography hepatic procedures for quality control and improvement professionals in nuclear medicine. For the conformation of the anthropomorphic phantom was used in plaster and acrylic. We constructed three phantoms representing processes with liver cirrhosis. The phantoms were filled with 99mTc diluted with water to obtain the scintigraphic images. Tomography images were analyzed anterior and posterior phantom representing a body with a greater degree cirrhotic. It was noted that the phantoms allow the acquisition of images similar to real liver with cirrhosis. Simulations of hemangiomas may contribute to continued professional education of nuclear medicine, on the question of image acquisition, allowing of the study parameters such of the matrix, energy window and count statistics.

Keywords: Nuclear medicine, liver phantom, control quality

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54 Evolution of Cord Absorbed Dose during of Larynx Cancer Radiotherapy, with 3D Treatment Planning and Tissue Equivalent Phantom

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Amir Hossein Goodarzi, Majid Azarniush

Abstract:

Radiation doses to tissues and organs were measured using the anthropomorphic phantom as an equivalent to the human body. When high-energy X-rays are externally applied to treat laryngeal cancer, the absorbed dose at the laryngeal lumen is lower than given dose because of air space, which it should pass through, before reaching the lesion. Specially, in case of high-energy X-rays, the loss of dose is considerable. Three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions have been computed for high-energy photon radiation therapy of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers, using a coaxial pair of opposing lateral beams in fixed positions. Treatment plans obtained under various conditions of irradiation.

Keywords: 3D Treatment Planning, anthropomorphic phantom, larynx cancer, radiotherapy.

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53 Effective Dose and Size Specific Dose Estimation with and without Tube Current Modulation for Thoracic Computed Tomography Examinations: A Phantom Study

Authors: S. Gharbi, S. Labidi, M. Mars, M. Chelli, F. Ladeb

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to reduce radiation dose for chest CT examination by including Tube Current Modulation (TCM) to a standard CT protocol. A scan of an anthropomorphic male Alderson phantom was performed on a 128-slice scanner. The estimation of effective dose (ED) in both scans with and without mAs modulation was done via multiplication of Dose Length Product (DLP) to a conversion factor. Results were compared to those measured with a CT-Expo software. The size specific dose estimation (SSDE) values were obtained by multiplication of the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) with a conversion size factor related to the phantom’s effective diameter. Objective assessment of image quality was performed with Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) measurements in phantom. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results showed including CARE Dose 4D; ED was lowered by 48.35% and 51.51% using DLP and CT-expo, respectively. In addition, ED ranges between 7.01 mSv and 6.6 mSv in case of standard protocol, while it ranges between 3.62 mSv and 3.2 mSv with TCM. Similar results are found for SSDE; dose was higher without TCM of 16.25 mGy and was lower by 48.8% including TCM. The SNR values calculated were significantly different (p=0.03<0.05). The highest one is measured on images acquired with TCM and reconstructed with Filtered back projection (FBP). In conclusion, this study proves the potential of TCM technique in SSDE and ED reduction and in conserving image quality with high diagnostic reference level for thoracic CT examinations.

Keywords: Anthropomorphic phantom, computed tomography, CT-expo, radiation dose.

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52 Viscoelastic Modeling of Brain MRE Data Using FE Method

Authors: H. Ajabi Naeeni, M. Haghpanahi

Abstract:

Dynamic shear test on simulated phantom can be used to validate magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) measurements. Phantom gel has been usually utilized for the cell culture of cartilage and soft tissue and also been used for mechanical property characterization using imaging systems. The viscoelastic property of the phantom would be important for dynamic experiments and analyses. In this study, An axisymmetric FE model is presented for determining the dynamic shear behaviour of brain simulated phantom using ABAQUS. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of excitation frequencies and boundary conditions on shear modulus and shear viscosity in viscoelastic media.

Keywords: Viscoelastic, MR Elastography, Finite Element, Brain.

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51 Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic Cardiac Phantom for use in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Marcos A. Dullius, Ramon C. Fernandes, Divanízia N. Souza

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to develop a dynamic cardiac phantom for quality control in myocardial scintigraphy. The dynamic heart phantom constructed only contained the left ventricle, made of elastic material (latex), comprising two cavities: one internal and one external. The data showed a non-significant variation in the values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by varying the heart rate. It was also possible to evaluate the ejection fraction (LVEF) through different arrays of image acquisition and to perform an intercomparison of LVEF by two different scintillation cameras. The results of the quality control tests were satisfactory, showing that they can be used as parameters in future assessments. The new dynamic heart phantom was demonstrated to be effective for use in LVEF measurements. Therefore, the new heart simulator is useful for the quality control of scintigraphic cameras.

Keywords: sheart, nuclear medicine, phantom

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50 UTHM Hand: Mechanics Behind The Dexterous Anthropomorphic Hand

Authors: Amran Mohd Zaid, M. Atif Yaqub, Mohd Rizal Arshad, Md Saidin Wahab

Abstract:

A multi fingered dexterous anthropomorphic hand is being developed by the authors. The focus of the hand is the replacement of human operators in hazardous environments and also in environments where zero tolerance is observed for the human errors. The robotic hand will comprise of five fingers (four fingers and one thumb) each having four degrees of freedom (DOF) which can perform flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and also circumduction. For the actuation purpose pneumatic muscles and springs will be used. The paper exemplifies the mechanical design for the robotic hand. It also describes different mechanical designs that have been developed before date.

Keywords: Robotic hand, Multi-fingered hand, dextrous hand, anthropomorphic hand, pneumatic muscles.

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49 A Preliminary Study of Drug Perfusion Enhancement by Microstreaming Induced by an Oscillating Microbubble

Authors: Jin Sun Oh, Kyung Ho Lee, S ang Gug Chung, Kyehan Rhee

Abstract:

Microbubbbles incorporating ultrasound have been used to increase the efficacy of targeted drug delivery, because microstreaming induced by cavitating bubbles affects the drug perfusion into the target cells and tissues. In order to clarify the physical effects of microstreaming on drug perfusion into tissues, a preliminary experimental study of perfusion enhancement by a stably oscillating microbubble was performed. Microstreaming was induced by an oscillating bubble at 15 kHz, and perfusion of dye into an agar phantom was optically measured by histology on agar phantom. Surface color intensity and the penetration length of dye in the agar phantom were increased more than 70% and 30%, respectively, due to the microstreaming induced by an oscillating bubble. The mass of dye perfused into a tissue phantom for 30 s was increased about 80% in the phantom with an oscillating bubble. This preliminary experiment shows the physical effects of steady streaming by an oscillating bubble can enhance the drug perfusion into the tissues while minimizing the biological effects.

Keywords: Bubble, Mass Transfer, Microstreaming, Drug Delivery, Acoustic Wave.

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48 Anthropomorphism in Robotics Engineering for Disabled People

Authors: B. Tondu, N. Bardou

Abstract:

In its attempt to offer new ways into autonomy for a large population of disabled people, assistive technology has largely been inspired by robotics engineering. Recent human-like robots carry new hopes that it seems to us necessary to analyze by means of a specific theory of anthropomorphism. We propose to distinguish a functional anthropomorphism which is the one of actual wheelchairs from a structural anthropomorphism based on a mimicking of human physiological systems. If functional anthropomorphism offers the main advantage of eliminating the physiological systems interdependence issue, the highly link between the robot for disabled people and their human-built environment would lead to privilege in the future the anthropomorphic structural way. In this future framework, we highlight a general interdependence principle : any partial or local structural anthropomorphism generates new anthropomorphic needs due to the physiological systems interdependency, whose effects can be evaluated by means of specific anthropomorphic criterions derived from a set theory-based approach of physiological systems.

Keywords: Anthropomorphism, Human-like machines, Systemstheory, Disability.

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47 Thyroids Dose Evaluation and Calculation of Backscatter Factors for Co-60 Irradiations

Authors: D. Kısınma, A. B. Tugrul

Abstract:

The aim of the study is evaluation of absorbed doses for thyroids by using neck phantoms. For this purpose, it was arranged the irradiation set with different phantoms. Three different materials were used for phantom materials as, water, parafine and wood. The phantoms were three different dimensions for simulation of different ages and human race for each material. Co-60 gammao source was used for irradiation and the experimental procedure applied rigorously with narrow beam geometry.  As the results of the experiments the relative radiation doses are evaluated for therapic applications for thyroids and backscattering factors were calculated and shown that water, parafine and wood can appropriate for phantom material with the converge values of backscattering factors.

Keywords: Co-60, Dosimetry, phantom, thyroids.

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46 Stability Verification for Bilateral Teleoperation System with Variable Time Delay

Authors: M. Sallam, A. Ramadan, M. Fanni, M. Abdellatif

Abstract:

Time delay in bilateral teleoperation system was introduced as a sufficient reason to make the system unstable or certainly degrade the system performance. In this paper, simulations and experimental results of implementing p-like control scheme, under different ranges of variable time delay, will be presented to verify a certain criteria, which guarantee the system stability and position tracking. The system consists of two Phantom premium 1.5A devices. One of them acts as a master and the other acts as a slave. The study includes deriving the Phantom kinematic and dynamic model, establishing the link between the two Phantoms over Simulink in Matlab, and verifying the stability criteria with simulations and real experiments.

Keywords: bilateral teleoperation, Phantom premium 1.5, varying time delay

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45 Textronic System to Muscle Electrostimulation

Authors: M. Frydrysiak, J. Zięba, L. Tęsiorowski, M. Tokarska

Abstract:

In the paper the research of flat textile products for use as electrodes was presented. Material-s resistance measurements were carried out to determine the suitability of the textiles. Based on the received results of studies different types of textile electrodes were designed. Textile electrodes tests were carried out on human phantoms. The electro-conductive properties of human forearm phantom were also described. Based on this results special electroconductive hydrogels with electro-conductive particles were feasible. The hydrogel is an important element of the forearm-s phantom model of a survey of electrodes for muscle electrostimulation. The hydrogel is an equivalent human skin and tissue. The hydrogel should have a permanence and recurrence of the electro-conductive properties.

Keywords: Electro-conductive textiles, electrostimulation, forearm phantom, resistance measurement, textile electrodes.

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44 The Role of Velocity Map Quality in Estimation of Intravascular Pressure Distribution

Authors: Ali Pashaee, Parisa Shooshtari, Gholamreza Atae, Nasser Fatouraee

Abstract:

Phase-Contrast MR imaging methods are widely used for measurement of blood flow velocity components. Also there are some other tools such as CT and Ultrasound for velocity map detection in intravascular studies. These data are used in deriving flow characteristics. Some clinical applications are investigated which use pressure distribution in diagnosis of intravascular disorders such as vascular stenosis. In this paper an approach to the problem of measurement of intravascular pressure field by using velocity field obtained from flow images is proposed. The method presented in this paper uses an algorithm to calculate nonlinear equations of Navier- Stokes, assuming blood as an incompressible and Newtonian fluid. Flow images usually suffer the lack of spatial resolution. Our attempt is to consider the effect of spatial resolution on the pressure distribution estimated from this method. In order to achieve this aim, velocity map of a numerical phantom is derived at six different spatial resolutions. To determine the effects of vascular stenoses on pressure distribution, a stenotic phantom geometry is considered. A comparison between the pressure distribution obtained from the phantom and the pressure resulted from the algorithm is presented. In this regard we also compared the effects of collocated and staggered computational grids on the pressure distribution resulted from this algorithm.

Keywords: Flow imaging, pressure distribution estimation, phantom, resolution.

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43 Tele-Operated Anthropomorphic Arm and Hand Design

Authors: Namal A. Senanayake, Khoo B. How, Quah W. Wai

Abstract:

In this project, a tele-operated anthropomorphic robotic arm and hand is designed and built as a versatile robotic arm system. The robot has the ability to manipulate objects such as pick and place operations. It is also able to function by itself, in standalone mode. Firstly, the robotic arm is built in order to interface with a personal computer via a serial servo controller circuit board. The circuit board enables user to completely control the robotic arm and moreover, enables feedbacks from user. The control circuit board uses a powerful integrated microcontroller, a PIC (Programmable Interface Controller). The PIC is firstly programmed using BASIC (Beginner-s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) and it is used as the 'brain' of the robot. In addition a user friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed as the serial servo interface software using Microsoft-s Visual Basic 6. The second part of the project is to use speech recognition control on the robotic arm. A speech recognition circuit board is constructed with onboard components such as PIC and other integrated circuits. It replaces the computers- Graphical User Interface. The robotic arm is able to receive instructions as spoken commands through a microphone and perform operations with respect to the commands such as picking and placing operations.

Keywords: Tele-operated Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm and Hand, Robot Motion System, Serial Servo Controller, Speech Recognition Controller.

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42 A Study of the Hand-Hold Impact on the EM Interaction of a Cellular Handset and a Human

Authors: Salah I. Al-Mously, Marai M. Abousetta

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impact of the hand-hold positions on both antenna performance and the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in the user-s head. A cellular handset with external antenna operating at GSM-900 frequency is modeled and simulated using a finite difference time-domain (FDTD)-based platform SEMCAD-X. A specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) is adopted to simulate the user-s head, whereas a semirealistic CAD-model of three-tissues is designed to simulate the user-s hand. The results show that in case of the handset in hand close to head at different positions; the antenna total efficiency gets reduced to (14.5% - 5.9%) at cheek-position and to (27.5% to 11.8%) at tilt-position. The peak averaged SAR1g values in head close to handset without hand, are 4.67 W/Kg and 2.66 W/Kg at cheek and tilt-position, respectively. Due to the presence of hand, the SAR1g in head gets reduced to (3.67-3.31 W/Kg) at cheek-position and to (1.84-1.64 W/Kg) at tilt-position, depending on the hand-hold position.

Keywords: FDTD, phantom, specific absorption rate (SAR), cellular handset exposure.

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41 Metal Streak Analysis with different Acquisition Settings in Postoperative Spine Imaging: A Phantom Study

Authors: N. D. Osman, M. S. Salikin, M. I. Saripan

Abstract:

CT assessment of postoperative spine is challenging in the presence of metal streak artifacts that could deteriorate the quality of CT images. In this paper, we studied the influence of different acquisition parameters on the magnitude of metal streaking. A water-bath phantom was constructed with metal insertion similar with postoperative spine assessment. The phantom was scanned with different acquisition settings and acquired data were reconstructed using various reconstruction settings. Standardized ROIs were defined within streaking region for image analysis. The result shows increased kVp and mAs enhanced SNR values by reducing image noise. Sharper kernel enhanced image quality compared to smooth kernel, but produced more noise in the images with higher CT fluctuation. The noise between both kernels were significantly different (P <0.05) with increment of noise in the bone kernel images (mean difference = 54.78). The technical settings should be selected appropriately to attain the acceptable image quality with the best diagnostic value.

Keywords: Computed tomography, metal streak, noise, CT fluctuation.

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40 Aesthetics and Robotics: Which Form to give to the Human-Like Robot?

Authors: B. Tondu, N. Bardou

Abstract:

The recent development of humanoid robots has led robot designers to imagine a great variety of anthropomorphic forms for human-like machine. Which form is the best ? We try to answer this question from a double meaning of the anthropomorphism : a positive anthropomorphism corresponing to the realization of an effective anthropomorphic form object and a negative one corresponding to our natural tendency in certain circumstances to give human attributes to non-human beings. We postulate that any humanoid robot is concerned by both these two anthropomorphism kinds. We propose to use gestalt theory and Heider-s balance theory in order to analyze how negative anthropomorphism can influence our perception of human-like robots. From our theoretical approach we conclude that an “even shape" as defined by gestalt theory is not a sufficient condition for a good integration of future humanoid robots into a human community. Aesthetic perception of the robot cannot be splitted from a social perception : a humanoid robot, any how the efforts made for improving its appearance, could be rejected if it is devoted to a task with too high affective implications.

Keywords: Robot appearance, humanoid robot, uncanny valley, human-robot-interaction.

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39 Electro-Thermal Imaging of Breast Phantom: An Experimental Study

Authors: H. Feza Carlak, N. G. Gencer

Abstract:

To increase the temperature contrast in thermal images, the characteristics of the electrical conductivity and thermal imaging modalities can be combined. In this experimental study, it is objected to observe whether the temperature contrast created by the tumor tissue can be improved just due to the current application within medical safety limits. Various thermal breast phantoms are developed to simulate the female breast tissue. In vitro experiments are implemented using a thermal infrared camera in a controlled manner. Since experiments are implemented in vitro, there is no metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion. Only the effects and results of the electrical stimulation are investigated. Experimental study is implemented with two-dimensional models. Temperature contrasts due to the tumor tissues are obtained. Cancerous tissue is determined using the difference and ratio of healthy and tumor images. 1 cm diameter single tumor tissue causes almost 40 °mC temperature contrast on the thermal-breast phantom. Electrode artifacts are reduced by taking the difference and ratio of background (healthy) and tumor images. Ratio of healthy and tumor images show that temperature contrast is increased by the current application.

Keywords: Medical diagnostic imaging, breast phantom, active thermography, breast cancer detection.

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38 The OLOS® Way to Cultural Heritage: User Interface with Anthropomorphic Characteristics

Authors: Daniele Baldacci, Remo Pareschi

Abstract:

Augmented Reality and Augmented Intelligence are radically changing information technology. The path that starts from the keyboard and then, passing through milestones such as Siri, Alexa and other vocal avatars, reaches a more fluid and natural communication with computers, thus converting the dichotomy between man and machine into a harmonious interaction, now heads unequivocally towards a new IT paradigm, where holographic computing will play a key role. The OLOS® platform contributes substantially to this trend in that it infuses computers with human features, by transferring the gestures and expressions of persons of flesh and bones to anthropomorphic holographic interfaces which in turn will use them to interact with real-life humans. In fact, we could say, boldly but with a solid technological background to back the statement, that OLOS® gives reality to an altogether new entity, placed at the exact boundary between nature and technology, namely the holographic human being. Holographic humans qualify as the perfect carriers for the virtual reincarnation of characters handed down from history and tradition. Thus, they provide for an innovative and highly immersive way of experiencing our cultural heritage as something alive and pulsating in the present.

Keywords: Human-computer interfaces, holographic simulation, digital cinematography, interactive museum exhibits.

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37 Automatic 2D/2D Registration using Multiresolution Pyramid based Mutual Information in Image Guided Radiation Therapy

Authors: Jing Jia, Shanqing Huang, Fang Liu, Qiang Ren, Gui Li, Mengyun Cheng, Chufeng Jin, Yican Wu

Abstract:

Medical image registration is the key technology in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) systems. On the basis of the previous work on our IGRT prototype with a biorthogonal x-ray imaging system, we described a method focused on the 2D/2D rigid-body registration using multiresolution pyramid based mutual information in this paper. Three key steps were involved in the method : firstly, four 2D images were obtained including two x-ray projection images and two digital reconstructed radiographies(DRRs ) as the input for the registration ; Secondly, each pair of the corresponding x-ray image and DRR image were matched using multiresolution pyramid based mutual information under the ITK registration framework ; Thirdly, we got the final couch offset through a coordinate transformation by calculating the translations acquired from the two pairs of the images. A simulation example of a parotid gland tumor case and a clinical example of an anthropomorphic head phantom were employed in the verification tests. In addition, the influence of different CT slice thickness were tested. The simulation results showed that the positioning errors were 0.068±0.070, 0.072±0.098, 0.154±0.176mm along three axes which were lateral, longitudinal and vertical. The clinical test indicated that the positioning errors of the planned isocenter were 0.066, 0.07, 2.06mm on average with a CT slice thickness of 2.5mm. It can be concluded that our method with its verified accuracy and robustness can be effectively used in IGRT systems for patient setup.

Keywords: 2D/2D registration, image guided radiation therapy, multi resolution pyramid, mutual information.

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36 Ultrasonic System for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Development, Verification and Clinical Trials

Authors: Eun-Geun Kim, Won-Pil Park, Dae-Gon Woo, Chang-Yong Ko, Yong-Heum Lee, Dohyung Lim, Tae-Min Shin, Han-Sung Kim, Gyoun-Jung Lee

Abstract:

Functional gastrointestinal disorders affect millions of people spread all age regardless of race and sex. There are, however, rare diagnostic methods for the functional gastrointestinal disorders because functional disorders show no evidence of organic and physical causes. Our research group identified recently that the gastrointestinal tract well in the patients with the functional gastrointestinal disorders becomes more rigid than healthy people when palpating the abdominal regions overlaying the gastrointestinal tract. Aim of this study is, therefore, to develop a diagnostic system for the functional gastrointestinal disorders based on ultrasound technique, which can quantify the characteristic above related to the rigidity of the gastrointestinal tract well. Ultrasound system was designed. The system consisted of transmitter, ultrasonic transducer, receiver, TGC, and CPLD, and verified via a phantom test. For the phantom test, ten soft-tissue specimens were harvested from porcine. Five of them were then treated chemically to mimic a rigid condition of gastrointestinal tract well, which was induced by functional gastrointestinal disorders. Additionally, the specimens were tested mechanically to identify if the mimic was reasonable. The customized ultrasound system was finally verified through application to human subjects with/without functional gastrointestinal disorders (Normal and Patient Groups). It was identified from the mechanical test that the chemically treated specimens were more rigid than normal specimen. This finding was favorably compared with the result obtained from the phantom test. The phantom test also showed that ultrasound system well described the specimen geometric characteristics and detected an alteration in the specimens. The maximum amplitude of the ultrasonic reflective signal in the rigid specimens (0.2±0.1Vp-p) at the interface between the fat and muscle layers was explicitly higher than that in the normal specimens (0.1±0.0Vp-p). Clinical tests using our customized ultrasound system for human subject showed that the maximum amplitudes of the ultrasonic reflective signals near to the gastrointestinal tract well for the patient group (2.6±0.3Vp-p) were generally higher than those in normal group (0.1±0.2Vp-p). Here, maximum reflective signals was appeared at 20mm depth approximately from abdominal skin for all human subjects, corresponding to the location of the boundary layer close to gastrointestinal tract well. These results suggest that newly designed diagnostic system based on ultrasound technique may diagnose enough the functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Keywords: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, DiagnosticSystem, Phantom Test, Ultrasound System.

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35 A Study of Dose Distribution and Image Quality under an Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM) System for a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT Scanner Using a New Design of Phantom

Authors: S. Sookpeng, C. J. Martin, D. J. Gentle

Abstract:

Automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) systems are available for all CT manufacturers and are used for the majority of patients. Understanding how the systems work and their influence on patient dose and image quality is important for CT users, in order to gain the most effective use of the systems. In the present study, a new phantom was used for evaluating dose distribution and image quality under the ATCM operation for the Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner using different ATCM options and a fixed mAs technique. A routine chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) protocol was selected for study and Gafchromic film was used to measure entrance surface dose (ESD), peripheral dose and central axis dose in the phantom. The results show the dose reductions achievable with various ATCM options, in relation with the target noise. The doses and image noise distribution were more uniform when the ATCM system was implemented compared with the fixed mAs technique. The lower limit set for the tube current will affect the modulations especially for the lower dose option. This limit prevented the tube current being reduced further and therefore the lower dose ATCM setting resembled a fixed mAs technique. Selection of a lower tube current limit is likely to reduce doses for smaller patients in scans of chest and neck regions.

Keywords: Computed Tomography (CT), Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM), Automatic Exposure Control (AEC).

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34 Low Cost Technique for Measuring Luminance in Biological Systems

Authors: N. Chetty, K. Singh

Abstract:

In this work, the relationship between the melanin content in a tissue and subsequent absorption of light through that tissue was determined using a digital camera. This technique proved to be simple, cost effective, efficient and reliable. Tissue phantom samples were created using milk and soy sauce to simulate the optical properties of melanin content in human tissue. Increasing the concentration of soy sauce in the milk correlated to an increase in melanin content of an individual. Two methods were employed to measure the light transmitted through the sample. The first was direct measurement of the transmitted intensity using a conventional lux meter. The second method involved correctly calibrating an ordinary digital camera and using image analysis software to calculate the transmitted intensity through the phantom. The results from these methods were then graphically compared to the theoretical relationship between the intensity of transmitted light and the concentration of absorbers in the sample. Conclusions were then drawn about the effectiveness and efficiency of these low cost methods.

Keywords: Tissue phantoms, scattering coefficient, albedo, low-cost method.

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33 Optimizing Exposure Parameters in Digital Mammography: A Study in Morocco

Authors: Talbi Mohammed, Oustous Aziz, Ben Messaoud Mounir, Sebihi Rajaa, Khalis Mohammed

Abstract:

Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of death for women around the world. Screening mammography is the reference examination, due to its sensitivity for detecting small lesions and micro-calcifications. Therefore, it is essential to ensure quality mammographic examinations with the most optimal dose. These conditions depend on the choice of exposure parameters. Clinically, practices must be evaluated in order to determine the most appropriate exposure parameters. Material and Methods: We performed our measurements on a mobile mammography unit (PLANMED Sofie-classic.) in Morocco. A solid dosimeter (AGMS Radcal) and a MTM 100 phantom allow to quantify the delivered dose and the image quality. For image quality assessment, scores are defined by the rate of visible inserts (MTM 100 phantom), obtained and compared for each acquisition. Results: The results show that the parameters of the mammography unit on which we have made our measurements can be improved in order to offer a better compromise between image quality and breast dose. The last one can be reduced up from 13.27% to 22.16%, while preserving comparable image quality.

Keywords: Mammography, image quality, breast dose.

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32 Coded Transmission in Synthetic Transmit Aperture Ultrasound Imaging Method

Authors: Ihor Trots, Yuriy Tasinkevych, Andrzej Nowicki, Marcin Lewandowski

Abstract:

The paper presents the study of synthetic transmit aperture method applying the Golay coded transmission for medical ultrasound imaging. Longer coded excitation allows to increase the total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak pressure. Signal-to-noise ratio and penetration depth are improved maintaining high ultrasound image resolution. In the work the 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm inter-element spacing excited by one cycle and the 8 and 16-bit Golay coded sequences at nominal frequencies 4 MHz was used. Single element transmission aperture was used to generate a spherical wave covering the full image region and all the elements received the echo signals. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of the wire phantom as well as of the tissue mimicking phantom is presented to demonstrate the benefits of the coded transmission. The results were obtained using the synthetic aperture algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.

Keywords: Golay coded sequences, radiation pattern, synthetic aperture, ultrasound imaging.

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31 Energy Management System and Interactive Functions of Smart Plug for Smart Home

Authors: Win Thandar Soe, Innocent Mpawenimana, Mathieu Di Fazio, Cécile Belleudy, Aung Ze Ya

Abstract:

Intelligent electronic equipment and automation network is the brain of high-tech energy management systems in critical role of smart homes dominance. Smart home is a technology integration for greater comfort, autonomy, reduced cost, and energy saving as well. These services can be provided to home owners for managing their home appliances locally or remotely and consequently allow them to automate intelligently and responsibly their consumption by individual or collective control systems. In this study, three smart plugs are described and one of them tested on typical household appliances. This article proposes to collect the data from the wireless technology and to extract some smart data for energy management system. This smart data is to quantify for three kinds of load: intermittent load, phantom load and continuous load. Phantom load is a waste power that is one of unnoticed power of each appliance while connected or disconnected to the main. Intermittent load and continuous load take in to consideration the power and using time of home appliances. By analysing the classification of loads, this smart data will be provided to reduce the communication of wireless sensor network for energy management system.

Keywords: Energy management, load profile, smart plug, wireless sensor network.

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30 Tactile Sensory Digit Feedback for Cochlear Implant Electrode Insertion

Authors: Yusuf Bulale, Mark Prince, Geoff Tansley, Peter Brett

Abstract:

Cochlear Implantation (CI) which became a routine procedure for the last decades is an electronic device that provides a sense of sound for patients who are severely and profoundly deaf. The optimal success of this implantation depends on the electrode technology and deep insertion techniques. However, this manual insertion procedure may cause mechanical trauma which can lead to severe destruction of the delicate intracochlear structure. Accordingly, future improvement of the cochlear electrode implant insertion needs reduction of the excessive force application during the cochlear implantation which causes tissue damage and trauma. This study is examined tool-tissue interaction of large prototype scale digit embedded with distributive tactile sensor based upon cochlear electrode and large prototype scale cochlea phantom for simulating the human cochlear which could lead to small scale digit requirements. The digit, distributive tactile sensors embedded with silicon-substrate was inserted into the cochlea phantom to measure any digit/phantom interaction and position of the digit in order to minimize tissue and trauma damage during the electrode cochlear insertion. The digit have provided tactile information from the digitphantom insertion interaction such as contact status, tip penetration, obstacles, relative shape and location, contact orientation and multiple contacts. The tests demonstrated that even devices of such a relative simple design with low cost have potential to improve cochlear implant surgery and other lumen mapping applications by providing tactile sensory feedback information and thus controlling the insertion through sensing and control of the tip of the implant during the insertion. In that approach, the surgeon could minimize the tissue damage and potential damage to the delicate structures within the cochlear caused by current manual electrode insertion of the cochlear implantation. This approach also can be applied to other minimally invasive surgery applications as well as diagnosis and path navigation procedures.

Keywords: Cochlear electrode insertion, distributive tactile sensory feedback information, flexible digit, minimally invasive surgery, tool/tissue interaction.

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29 Profile Calculation in Water Phantom of Symmetric and Asymmetric Photon Beam

Authors: N. Chegeni, M. J. Tahmasebi Birgani

Abstract:

Nowadays, in most radiotherapy departments, the commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) used to calculate dose distributions needs to be verified; therefore, quick, easy-to-use and low cost dose distribution algorithms are desirable to test and verify the performance of the TPS. In this paper, we put forth an analytical method to calculate the phantom scatter contribution and depth dose on the central axis based on the equivalent square concept. Then, this method was generalized to calculate the profiles at any depth and for several field shapes regular or irregular fields under symmetry and asymmetry photon beam conditions. Varian 2100 C/D and Siemens Primus Plus Linacs with 6 and 18 MV photon beam were used for irradiations. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured for a large number of square fields for both energies, and for 45º wedges which were employed to obtain the profiles in any depth. To assess the accuracy of the calculated profiles, several profile measurements were carried out for some treatment fields. The calculated and measured profiles were compared by gamma-index calculation. All γ–index calculations were based on a 3% dose criterion and a 3 mm dose-to-agreement (DTA) acceptance criterion. The γ values were less than 1 at most points. However, the maximum γ observed was about 1.10 in the penumbra region in most fields and in the central area for the asymmetric fields. This analytical approach provides a generally quick and fairly accurate algorithm to calculate dose distribution for some treatment fields in conventional radiotherapy.

Keywords: Dose distribution, equivalent field, asymmetric field, irregular field.

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28 Improving 99mTc-tetrofosmin Myocardial Perfusion Images by Time Subtraction Technique

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Hayato Ishimura, Masao Miyagawa, Teruhito Mochizuki

Abstract:

Quantitative measurement of myocardium perfusion is possible with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using a semiconductor detector. However, accumulation of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in the liver may make it difficult to assess that accurately in the inferior myocardium. Our idea is to reduce the high accumulation in the liver by using dynamic SPECT imaging and a technique called time subtraction. We evaluated the performance of a new SPECT system with a cadmium-zinc-telluride solid-state semi- conductor detector (Discovery NM 530c; GE Healthcare). Our system acquired list-mode raw data over 10 minutes for a typical patient. From the data, ten SPECT images were reconstructed, one for every minute of acquired data. Reconstruction with the semiconductor detector was based on an implementation of a 3-D iterative Bayesian reconstruction algorithm. We studied 20 patients with coronary artery disease (mean age 75.4 ± 12.1 years; range 42-86; 16 males and 4 females). In each subject, 259 MBq of 99mTc-tetrofosmin was injected intravenously. We performed both a phantom and a clinical study using dynamic SPECT. An approximation to a liver-only image is obtained by reconstructing an image from the early projections during which time the liver accumulation dominates (0.5~2.5 minutes SPECT image-5~10 minutes SPECT image). The extracted liver-only image is then subtracted from a later SPECT image that shows both the liver and the myocardial uptake (5~10 minutes SPECT image-liver-only image). The time subtraction of liver was possible in both a phantom and the clinical study. The visualization of the inferior myocardium was improved. In past reports, higher accumulation in the myocardium due to the overlap of the liver is un-diagnosable. Using our time subtraction method, the image quality of the 99mTc-tetorofosmin myocardial SPECT image is considerably improved.

Keywords: 99mTc-tetrofosmin, dynamic SPECT, time subtraction, semiconductor detector.

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27 Experimental Studies of Position Control of Linkage based Robotic Finger

Authors: N. Z. Azlan, H. Yamaura

Abstract:

The experimental study of position control of a light weight and small size robotic finger during non-contact motion is presented in this paper. The finger possesses fingertip pinching and self adaptive grasping capabilities, and is made of a seven bar linkage mechanism with a slider in the middle phalanx. The control system is tested under the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control algorithm and Recursive Least Square (RLS) based Feedback Error Learning (FEL) control scheme to overcome the uncertainties present in the plant. The experiments conducted in Matlab Simulink and xPC Target environments show that the overall control strategy is efficient in controlling the finger movement.

Keywords: Anthropomorphic finger, position control, feedback error learning, experimental study

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26 Design Development, Fabrication, and Preliminary Specifications of Multi-Fingered Prosthetic Hand

Authors: Mogeeb A. El-Sheikh

Abstract:

The study has developed the previous design of an artificial anthropomorphic humanoid hand and accustomed it as a prosthetic hand. The main specifications of this design are determined. The development of our previous design involves the main artificial hand’s parts and subassemblies, palm, fingers, and thumb. In addition, the study presents an adaptable socket design for a transradial amputee. This hand has 3 fingers and thumb. It is more reliable, cosmetics, modularity, and ease of assembly. Its size and weight are almost as a natural hand. The socket cavity has the capability for different sizes of a transradial amputee. The study implements the developed design by using rapid prototype and specifies its main specifications by using a data glove and finite element method.

Keywords: Adaptable socket, prosthetic hand, transradial amputee.

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