Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 373

Search results for: humanoid robot

373 Motion Capture Based Wizard of Oz Technique for Humanoid Robot

Authors: Rafal Stegierski, Krzysztof Dmitruk

Abstract:

The paper focus on robotic telepresence system build around humanoid robot operated with controller-less Wizard of Oz technique. Proposed solution gives possibility to quick start acting as a operator with short, if any, initial training.

Keywords: Robotics, Motion Capture, Wizard of Oz, Humanoid Robots, Human Robot Interaction.

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372 Aesthetics and Robotics: Which Form to give to the Human-Like Robot?

Authors: B. Tondu, N. Bardou

Abstract:

The recent development of humanoid robots has led robot designers to imagine a great variety of anthropomorphic forms for human-like machine. Which form is the best ? We try to answer this question from a double meaning of the anthropomorphism : a positive anthropomorphism corresponing to the realization of an effective anthropomorphic form object and a negative one corresponding to our natural tendency in certain circumstances to give human attributes to non-human beings. We postulate that any humanoid robot is concerned by both these two anthropomorphism kinds. We propose to use gestalt theory and Heider-s balance theory in order to analyze how negative anthropomorphism can influence our perception of human-like robots. From our theoretical approach we conclude that an “even shape" as defined by gestalt theory is not a sufficient condition for a good integration of future humanoid robots into a human community. Aesthetic perception of the robot cannot be splitted from a social perception : a humanoid robot, any how the efforts made for improving its appearance, could be rejected if it is devoted to a task with too high affective implications.

Keywords: Robot appearance, humanoid robot, uncanny valley, human-robot-interaction.

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371 Kinematics and Control System Design of Manipulators for a Humanoid Robot

Authors: S. Parasuraman

Abstract:

In this work, a new approach is proposed to control the manipulators for Humanoid robot. The kinematics of the manipulators in terms of joint positions, velocity, acceleration and torque of each joint is computed using the Denavit Hardenberg (D-H) notations. These variables are used to design the manipulator control system, which has been proposed in this work. In view of supporting the development of a controller, a simulation of the manipulator is designed for Humanoid robot. This simulation is developed through the use of the Virtual Reality Toolbox and Simulink in Matlab. The Virtual Reality Toolbox in Matlab provides the interfacing and controls to an environment which is developed based on the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). Chains of bones were used to represent the robot.

Keywords: Mobile robot, Robot Kinematics, Robot Navigation, MATLAB.

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370 Neuro-Fuzzy Algorithm for a Biped Robotic System

Authors: Hataitep Wongsuwarn, Djitt Laowattana

Abstract:

This paper summaries basic principles and concepts of intelligent controls, implemented in humanoid robotics as well as recent algorithms being devised for advanced control of humanoid robots. Secondly, this paper presents a new approach neuro-fuzzy system. We have included some simulating results from our computational intelligence technique that will be applied to our humanoid robot. Subsequently, we determine a relationship between joint trajectories and located forces on robot-s foot through a proposed neuro-fuzzy technique.

Keywords: Biped Robot, Computational Intelligence, Static and Dynamic Walking, Gait Synthesis, Neuro-Fuzzy System.

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369 Combined Model Predictive Controller Technique for Enhancing NAO Gait Stabilization

Authors: Brahim Brahmi, Mohammed Hamza Laraki, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Islam M. Rasedul, M. Assad Uz-Zaman

Abstract:

The humanoid robot, specifically the NAO robot must be able to provide a highly dynamic performance on the soccer field. Maintaining the balance of the humanoid robot during the required motion is considered as one of a challenging problems especially when the robot is subject to external disturbances, as contact with other robots. In this paper, a dynamic controller is proposed in order to ensure a robust walking (stabilization) and to improve the dynamic balance of the robot during its contact with the environment (external disturbances). The generation of the trajectory of the center of mass (CoM) is done by a model predictive controller (MPC) conjoined with zero moment point (ZMP) technique. Taking into account the properties of the rotational dynamics of the whole-body system, a modified previous control mixed with feedback control is employed to manage the angular momentum and the CoM’s acceleration, respectively. This latter is dedicated to provide a robust gait of the robot in the presence of the external disturbances. Simulation results are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed strategy.

Keywords: Preview control, walking, stabilization, humanoid robot.

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368 Implementation of Lower-Limb Rehabilitation System Using Attraction Motors with a Treadmill

Authors: Young-Lim Choi, Nak-Yun Choi, Jae-Yong Seo, Sang-Il Park, Jong-Wook Kim

Abstract:

This paper proposes a prototype of a lower-limb rehabilitation system for recovering and strengthening patients- injured lower limbs. The system is composed of traction motors for each leg position, a treadmill as a walking base, tension sensors, microcontrollers controlling motor functions and a main system with graphic user interface. For derivation of reference or normal velocity profiles of the body segment point, kinematic method is applied based on the humanoid robot model using the reference joint angle data of normal walking.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, lower limb, treadmill, humanoid robot.

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367 Affective Robots: Evaluation of Automatic Emotion Recognition Approaches on a Humanoid Robot towards Emotionally Intelligent Machines

Authors: Silvia Santano Guillén, Luigi Lo Iacono, Christian Meder

Abstract:

One of the main aims of current social robotic research is to improve the robots’ abilities to interact with humans. In order to achieve an interaction similar to that among humans, robots should be able to communicate in an intuitive and natural way and appropriately interpret human affects during social interactions. Similarly to how humans are able to recognize emotions in other humans, machines are capable of extracting information from the various ways humans convey emotions—including facial expression, speech, gesture or text—and using this information for improved human computer interaction. This can be described as Affective Computing, an interdisciplinary field that expands into otherwise unrelated fields like psychology and cognitive science and involves the research and development of systems that can recognize and interpret human affects. To leverage these emotional capabilities by embedding them in humanoid robots is the foundation of the concept Affective Robots, which has the objective of making robots capable of sensing the user’s current mood and personality traits and adapt their behavior in the most appropriate manner based on that. In this paper, the emotion recognition capabilities of the humanoid robot Pepper are experimentally explored, based on the facial expressions for the so-called basic emotions, as well as how it performs in contrast to other state-of-the-art approaches with both expression databases compiled in academic environments and real subjects showing posed expressions as well as spontaneous emotional reactions. The experiments’ results show that the detection accuracy amongst the evaluated approaches differs substantially. The introduced experiments offer a general structure and approach for conducting such experimental evaluations. The paper further suggests that the most meaningful results are obtained by conducting experiments with real subjects expressing the emotions as spontaneous reactions.

Keywords: Affective computing, emotion recognition, humanoid robot, Human-Robot-Interaction (HRI), social robots.

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366 An Empirical Study of the Effect of Robot Programming Education on the Computational Thinking of Young Children: The Role of Flowcharts

Authors: Wei Sun, Yan Dong

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in introducing computational thinking at an early age. Computational thinking, like mathematical thinking, engineering thinking, and scientific thinking, is a kind of analytical thinking. Learning computational thinking skills is not only to improve technological literacy, but also allows learners to equip with practicable skills such as problem-solving skills. As people realize the importance of computational thinking, the field of educational technology faces a problem: how to choose appropriate tools and activities to help students develop computational thinking skills. Robots are gradually becoming a popular teaching tool, as robots provide a tangible way for young children to access to technology, and controlling a robot through programming offers them opportunities to engage in developing computational thinking. This study explores whether the introduction of flowcharts into the robotics programming courses can help children convert natural language into a programming language more easily, and then to better cultivate their computational thinking skills. An experimental study was adopted with a sample of children ages six to seven (N = 16) participated, and a one-meter-tall humanoid robot was used as the teaching tool. Results show that children can master basic programming concepts through robotic courses. Children's computational thinking has been significantly improved. Besides, results suggest that flowcharts do have an impact on young children’s computational thinking skills development, but it only has a significant effect on the "sequencing" and "correspondence" skills. Overall, the study demonstrates that the humanoid robot and flowcharts have qualities that foster young children to learn programming and develop computational thinking skills.

Keywords: Robotics, computational thinking, programming, young children, flowcharts.

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365 ISME: Integrated Style Motion Editor for 3D Humanoid Character

Authors: Ismahafezi Ismail, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar

Abstract:

The motion of a realistic 3D humanoid character is very important especially for the industries developing computer animations and games. However, this type of motion is seen with a very complex dimensional data as well as body position, orientation, and joint rotation. Integrated Style Motion Editor (ISME), on the other hand, is a method used to alter the 3D humanoid motion capture data utilised in computer animation and games development. Therefore, this study was carried out with the purpose of demonstrating a method that is able to manipulate and deform different motion styles by integrating Key Pose Deformation Technique and Trajectory Control Technique. This motion editing method allows the user to generate new motions from the original motion capture data using a simple interface control. Unlike the previous method, our method produces a realistic humanoid motion style in real time.

Keywords: Computer animation, humanoid motion, motion capture, motion editing.

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364 The Development of Flying Type Moving Robot Using Image Processing

Authors: Suriyon Tansuriyavong, Yuuta Suzuki, Boonmee Choompol

Abstract:

Wheel-running type moving robot has the restriction on the moving range caused by obstacles or stairs. Solving this weakness, we studied the development of moving robot using airship. Our airship robot moves by recognizing arrow marks on the path. To have the airship robot recognize arrow marks, we used edge-based template matching. To control propeller units, we used PID and PD controller. The results of experiments demonstrated that the airship robot can move along the marks and can go up and down the stairs. It is shown the possibility that airship robot can become a robot which can move at wide range facilities.

Keywords: Template matching, moving robot, airship robot, PID control.

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363 The Framework of BeeBot: Binus Multi-Client of Intelligent Telepresence Robot

Authors: Widod Budiharto, Muhsin Shodiq, Bayu Kanigoro, Jurike V. Moniaga Hutomo

Abstract:

We present a BeeBot, Binus Multi-client Intelligent Telepresence Robot, a custom-build robot system specifically designed for teleconference with multiple person using omni directional actuator. The robot is controlled using a computer networks, so the manager/supervisor can direct the robot to the intended person to start a discussion/inspection. People tracking and autonomous navigation are intelligent features of this robot. We build a web application for controlling the multi-client telepresence robot and open-source teleconference system used. Experimental result presented and we evaluated its performance.

Keywords: Telepresence robot, robot vision, intelligent robot.

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362 A Simulator for Robot Navigation Algorithms

Authors: Michael A. Folcik, Bijan Karimi

Abstract:

A robot simulator was developed to measure and investigate the performance of a robot navigation system based on the relative position of the robot with respect to random obstacles in any two dimensional environment. The presented simulator focuses on investigating the ability of a fuzzy-neural system for object avoidance. A navigation algorithm is proposed and used to allow random navigation of a robot among obstacles when the robot faces an obstacle in the environment. The main features of this simulator can be used for evaluating the performance of any system that can provide the position of the robot with respect to obstacles in the environment. This allows a robot developer to investigate and analyze the performance of a robot without implementing the physical robot.

Keywords: Applications of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networksin Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Embedded Systems, MobileRobots, Robot Navigation, Robotics.

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361 From Research to Teaching: Integrating Social Robotics in Engineering Degrees

Authors: Yolanda Bolea, Antoni Grau, Alberto Sanfeliu

Abstract:

When industrial robotics subject is taught in a degree in robotics, social and humanoid robotics concepts are rarely mentioned because this field of robotics is not used in industry. In this paper, an educational project related with industrial robotics is presented which includes social and humanoid robotics. The main motivations to realize this research are: i) humanoid robotics will be appearing soon in industry, the experience, based on research projects, indicates their deployment sooner than expected; ii) its educational interest, technology is shared with industrial robotics; iii) it is very attractive, students are interested in this part of the subject and thus they are interested in the whole subject. As a pedagogical methodology, the use of the problem-based learning is considered. Those concepts are introduced in a seminar during the last part of the subject and developed as a set of practices in the laboratory.

Keywords: Higher education in robotics, humanoid robotics, problem-based learning, social robotics.

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360 Development of a Portable Welding Robot with EtherCAT Interface

Authors: Juyi Park, Sang-Bum Lee, Jin-Wook Kim, Ji-Yoon Kim, Jung-Min Kim, Hee-Hwan Park, Jae-Won Seo, Gye-Hyung Kang, Soo-Ho Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a portable robot that is to use for welding process in shipbuilding yard. It has six degree of freedom and 3kg payload capability. Its weight is 21.5kg so that human workers can carry it to the work place. Its body mainly made of magnesium alloy and aluminum alloy for few parts that require high strength. Since the distance between robot and controller should be 50m at most, the robot controller controls the robot through EtherCAT. RTX and KPA are used for real time EtherCAT control on Windows XP. The performance of the developed robot was satisfactory, in welding of U type cell in shipbuilding yard.

Keywords: Portable welding robot, Shipbuilding, EtherCAT

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359 Robot Cell Planning

Authors: Allan Tubaileh, Ibrahim Hammad, Loay Al Kafafi

Abstract:

A new approach to determine the machine layout in flexible manufacturing cell, and to find the feasible robot configuration of the robot to achieve minimum cycle time is presented in this paper. The location of the input/output location and the optimal robot configuration is obtained for all sequences of work tasks of the robot within a specified period of time. A more realistic approach has been presented to model the problem using the robot joint space. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem and solved using Sequential Quadratic Programming algorithm.

Keywords: Robotics, Layout.

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358 An Example of Open Robot Controller Architecture - For Power Distribution Line Maintenance Robot System -

Authors: Yingxin He, Kyouichi Tatsuno

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an architecture for easily constructing a robot controller. The architecture is a multi-agent system which has eight agents: the Man-machine interface, Task planner, Task teaching editor, Motion planner, Arm controller, Vehicle controller, Vision system and CG display. The controller has three databases: the Task knowledge database, the Robot database and the Environment database. Based on this controller architecture, we are constructing an experimental power distribution line maintenance robot system and are doing the experiment for the maintenance tasks, for example, “Bolt insertion task".

Keywords: Robot controller, Software library, Maintenance robot, Robot language, Agent system.

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357 Wireless Power Transfer Application in GSM Controlled Robot for Home Automation

Authors: Kaibalya Prasad Panda, Nirakar Behera, Kamal Lochan Biswal

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to combine the concept of wireless power transfer and GSM controlled robot for the application of home automation. The wireless power transfer concept can be well utilized to charge battery of the GSM controlled robot. When the robot has completed its task, it can come to the origin where it can charge itself. Robot can be charged wirelessly, when it is not performing any task. Combination of GSM controlled robot and wireless power transfer provides greater advantage such as; no wastage of charge stored in the battery when the robot is not doing any task. This provides greater reliability that at any instant, robot can do its work once it receives a message through GSM module. GSM module of the robot and user mobile phone must be interfaced properly, so that robot can do task when it receives message from same user mobile phone, not from any other phone. This paper approaches a robotic movement control through the smart phone and control of GSM robot is done by programming in Arduino environment. The commands used in controlling the robot movement are also explained.

Keywords: Arduino, automation, GSM controlled robot, GSM module, wireless power transfer.

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356 Vision Based Robot Experiment: Measurement of Path Related Characteristics

Authors: M. H. Korayem, K. Khoshhal, H. Aliakbarpour

Abstract:

In this paper, a vision based system has been used for controlling an industrial 3P Cartesian robot. The vision system will recognize the target and control the robot by obtaining images from environment and processing them. At the first stage, images from environment are changed to a grayscale mode then it can diverse and identify objects and noises by using a threshold objects which are stored in different frames and then the main object will be recognized. This will control the robot to achieve the target. A vision system can be an appropriate tool for measuring errors of a robot in a situation where the experimental test is conducted for a 3P robot. Finally, the international standard ANSI/RIA R15.05-2 is used for evaluating the path-related characteristics of the robot. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method experimental test is carried out.

Keywords: Robot, Vision, Experiment, Standard.

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355 A Stable Pose Estimation Method for the Biped Robot using Image Information

Authors: Sangbum Park, Youngjoon Han

Abstract:

This paper proposes a balance control scheme for a biped robot to trace an arbitrary path using image information. While moving, it estimates the zero moment point(ZMP) of the biped robot in the next step using a Kalman filter and renders an appropriate balanced pose of the robot. The ZMP can be calculated from the robot's pose, which is measured from the reference object image acquired by a CCD camera on the robot's head. For simplifying the kinematical model, the coordinates systems of individual joints of each leg are aligned and the robot motion is approximated as an inverted pendulum so that a simple linear dynamics, 3D-LIPM(3D-Linear Inverted Pendulum Mode) can be applied. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm has been proven by the experiments performed on unknown trajectory.

Keywords: Biped robot, Zero moment point, Balance control, Kalman filter.

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354 Application of Wireless Visual Sensor for Semi- Autonomous Mine Navigation System

Authors: Vinay Kumar Pilania, Debashish Chakravarty

Abstract:

The present paper represent the efforts undertaken for the development of an semi-automatic robot that may be used for various post-disaster rescue operation planning and their subsequent execution using one-way communication of video and data from the robot to the controller and controller to the robot respectively. Wireless communication has been used for the purpose so that the robot may access the unapproachable places easily without any difficulties. It is expected that the information obtained from the robot would be of definite help to the rescue team for better planning and execution of their operations.

Keywords: Mine environment, mine navigation, mine rescue robot, video data transmission.

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353 Development of a Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface for Interactive Robot Therapy: An Exploration of EEG and EMG Features during Hypnosis

Authors: Maryam Alimardani, Kazuo Hiraki

Abstract:

This study presents a framework for development of a new generation of therapy robots that can interact with users by monitoring their physiological and mental states. Here, we focused on one of the controversial methods of therapy, hypnotherapy. Hypnosis has shown to be useful in treatment of many clinical conditions. But, even for healthy people, it can be used as an effective technique for relaxation or enhancement of memory and concentration. Our aim is to develop a robot that collects information about user’s mental and physical states using electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) signals and performs costeffective hypnosis at the comfort of user’s house. The presented framework consists of three main steps: (1) Find the EEG-correlates of mind state before, during, and after hypnosis and establish a cognitive model for state changes, (2) Develop a system that can track the changes in EEG and EMG activities in real time and determines if the user is ready for suggestion, and (3) Implement our system in a humanoid robot that will talk and conduct hypnosis on users based on their mental states. This paper presents a pilot study in regard to the first stage, detection of EEG and EMG features during hypnosis.

Keywords: Hypnosis, EEG, robotherapy, brain-computer interface.

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352 Robot Task-Level Programming Language and Simulation

Authors: M. Samaka

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a software application for Off-line robot task programming and simulation. Such application is designed to assist in robot task planning and to direct manipulator motion on sensor based programmed motion. The concept of the designed programming application is to use the power of the knowledge base for task accumulation. In support of the programming means, an interactive graphical simulation for manipulator kinematics was also developed and integrated into the application as the complimentary factor to the robot programming media. The simulation provides the designer with useful, inexpensive, off-line tools for retain and testing robotics work cells and automated assembly lines for various industrial applications.

Keywords: Robot programming, task-level programming, robot languages, robot simulation, robotics software.

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351 Underneath Vehicle Inspection Using Fuzzy Logic, Subsumption and OpenCV Library

Authors: Hazim Abdulsada

Abstract:

The inspection of underneath vehicle system has been given significant attention by governments after the threat of terrorism become more prevalent. New technologies such as mobile robots and computer vision are led to have more secure environment. This paper proposed that a mobile robot like Aria robot can be used to search and inspect the bombs under parking a lot vehicle. This robot is using fuzzy logic and subsumption algorithms to control the robot that movies underneath the vehicle. An OpenCV library and laser Hokuyo are added to Aria robot to complete the experiment for under vehicle inspection. This experiment was conducted at the indoor environment to demonstrate the efficiency of our methods to search objects and control the robot movements under vehicle. We got excellent results not only by controlling the robot movement but also inspecting object by the robot camera at same time. This success allowed us to know the requirement to construct a new cost effective robot with more functionality.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Mobile robots, OpenCV, Subsumption, Under vehicle inspection.

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350 Design and Fabrication of a Column-Climber Robot (Koala Robot)

Authors: Maziar Sadeghi, Amir Moradi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a robot able to climb Columns. This robot is not dependent on the diameter and material of the columns. Some climbing robots have been designed up to now but Koala robot was designed and fabricated for climbing columns exclusively. Simple kinematics of climbing in the nature inspired us to design this robot. We used two linear mechanisms to grip the column. The gripper consists of a DC motor and a power screw mechanism with a linear bushing as a guide. This mechanism provides enough force to grip the column. In addition we needed an actuator for climbing the column; hence, two pneumatic jacks were used. All the mechanical parts were designed according to the exerted forces and operational condition. The prototype can be simply installed and controlled on the column by an inexperienced operator. This robot is intended for inspection and surveillance of pipes in oil industries and power poles in electric industries.

Keywords: Robot, Column-climber, Gripping mechanism, Koala.

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349 Tracked Robot with Blade Arms to Enhance Crawling Capability

Authors: Jhu-Wei Ji, Fa-Shian Chang, Lih-Tyng Hwang, Chih-Feng Liu, Jeng-Nan Lee, Shun-Min Wang, Kai-Yi Cho

Abstract:

This paper presents a tracked robot with blade arms powered to assist movement in difficult environments. As a result, the tracked robot is able to pass a ramp or climb stairs. The main feature is a pair of blade arms on both sides of the vehicle body working in collaboration with previously validated transformable track system. When the robot encounters an obstacle in a terrain, it enlists the blade arms with power to overcome the obstacle. In disaster areas, there usually will be terrains that are full of broken and complicated slopes, broken walls, rubbles, and ditches. Thereupon, a robot, which is instructed to pass through such disaster areas, needs to have a good off-road capability for such complicated terrains. The robot with crawling-assisting blade arms would overcome the obstacles along the terrains, and possibly become to be a rescue robot. A prototype has been developed and built; experiments were carried out to validate the enhanced crawling capability of the robot.

Keywords: Tracked robot, rescue robot, blade arm, crawling ability, control system.

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348 An Approach for Integration of Industrial Robot with Vision System and Simulation Software

Authors: Ahmed Sh. Khusheef, Ganesh Kothapalli, Majid Tolouei-Rad

Abstract:

Utilization of various sensors has made it possible to extend capabilities of industrial robots. Among these are vision sensors that are used for providing visual information to assist robot controllers. This paper presents a method of integrating a vision system and a simulation program with an industrial robot. The vision system is employed to detect a target object and compute its location in the robot environment. Then, the target object-s information is sent to the robot controller via parallel communication port. The robot controller uses the extracted object information and the simulation program to control the robot arm for approaching, grasping and relocating the object. This paper presents technical details of system components and describes the methodology used for this integration. It also provides a case study to prove the validity of the methodology developed.

Keywords: industrial robot, integration, simulation, vision system

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347 ZMP Based Reference Generation for Biped Walking Robots

Authors: Kemalettin Erbatur, Özer Koca, Evrim Taşkıran, Metin Yılmaz, Utku Seven

Abstract:

Recent fifteen years witnessed fast improvements in the field of humanoid robotics. The human-like robot structure is more suitable to human environment with its supreme obstacle avoidance properties when compared with wheeled service robots. However, the walking control for bipedal robots is a challenging task due to their complex dynamics. Stable reference generation plays a very important role in control. Linear Inverted Pendulum Model (LIPM) and the Zero Moment Point (ZMP) criterion are applied in a number of studies for stable walking reference generation of biped walking robots. This paper follows this main approach too. We propose a natural and continuous ZMP reference trajectory for a stable and human-like walk. The ZMP reference trajectories move forward under the sole of the support foot when the robot body is supported by a single leg. Robot center of mass trajectory is obtained from predefined ZMP reference trajectories by a Fourier series approximation method. The Gibbs phenomenon problem common with Fourier approximations of discontinuous functions is avoided by employing continuous ZMP references. Also, these ZMP reference trajectories possess pre-assigned single and double support phases, which are very useful in experimental tuning work. The ZMP based reference generation strategy is tested via threedimensional full-dynamics simulations of a 12-degrees-of-freedom biped robot model. Simulation results indicate that the proposed reference trajectory generation technique is successful.

Keywords: Biped robot, Linear Inverted Pendulum Model, Zero Moment Point, Fourier series approximation.

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346 Research and Development of a Biomorphic Robot Driven by Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Y.J. Lai, H.Y. Peng, M.W. Wu, J. Shaw

Abstract:

In this study, we used shape memory alloys as actuators to build a biomorphic robot which can imitate the motion of an earthworm. The robot can be used to explore in a narrow space. Therefore we chose shape memory alloys as actuators. Because of the small deformation of a wire shape memory alloy, spiral shape memory alloys are selected and installed both on the X axis and Y axis (each axis having two shape memory alloys) to enable the biomorphic robot to do reciprocating motion. By the mechanism we designed, the robot can increase the distance as it moves in a duty cycle. In addition, two shape memory alloys are added to the robot head for controlling right and left turns. By sending pulses through the I/O card from the controller, the signals are then amplified by a driver to heat the shape memory alloys in order to make the SMA shrink to pull the mechanism to move.

Keywords: Biomorphic Robot, Shape Memory Alloy.

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345 The Control of a Highly Nonlinear Two-wheels Balancing Robot: A Comparative Assessment between LQR and PID-PID Control Schemes

Authors: A. N. K. Nasir, M. A. Ahmad, R. M. T. Raja Ismail

Abstract:

The research on two-wheels balancing robot has gained momentum due to their functionality and reliability when completing certain tasks. This paper presents investigations into the performance comparison of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and PID-PID controllers for a highly nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot. The mathematical model of 2-wheels balancing robot that is highly nonlinear is derived. The final model is then represented in statespace form and the system suffers from mismatched condition. Two system responses namely the robot position and robot angular position are obtained. The performances of the LQR and PID-PID controllers are examined in terms of input tracking and disturbances rejection capability. Simulation results of the responses of the nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot are presented in time domain. A comparative assessment of both control schemes to the system performance is presented and discussed.

Keywords: PID, LQR, Two-wheels balancing robot.

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344 Sensor-Based Motion Planning for a Car-like Robot Based On Bug Family Algorithms

Authors: Dong-Hyung Kim, Ji Yeong Lee, Chang-Soo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a sensor-based motion planning algorithm for 3-DOF car-like robots with a nonholonomic constraint. Similar to the classic Bug family algorithms, the proposed algorithm enables the car-like robot to navigate in a completely unknown environment using only the range sensor information. The car-like robot uses the local range sensor view to determine the local path so that it moves towards the goal. To guarantee that the robot can approach the goal, the two modes of motion are repeated, termed motion-to-goal and wall-following. The motion-to-goal behavior lets the robot directly move toward the goal, and the wall-following behavior makes the robot circumnavigate the obstacle boundary until it meets the leaving condition. For each behavior, the nonholonomic motion for the car-like robot is planned in terms of the instantaneous turning radius. The proposed algorithm is implemented to the real robot and the experimental results show the performance of proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Motion planning, car-like robot, bug algorithm, autonomous motion planning, nonholonomic constraint.

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