Search results for: Mammography
21 Nurse’s Role in Early Detection of Breast Cancer through Mammography and Genetic Screening and Its Impact on Patient's Outcome
Authors: Salwa Hagag Abdelaziz, Dorria Salem, Hoda Zaki, Suzan Atteya
Early detection of breast cancer saves many thousands of lives each year via application of mammography and genetic screening and many more lives could be saved if nurses are involved in breast care screening practices. So, the aim of the study was to identify nurse's role in early detection of breast cancer through mammography and genetic screening and its impact on patient's outcome. In order to achieve this aim, 400 women above 40 years, asymptomatic were recruited for mammography and genetic screening. In addition, 50 nurses and 6 technologists were involved in the study. A descriptive analytical design was used. Five tools were utilized: sociodemographic, mammographic examination and risk factors, women's before, during and after mammography, items relaying to technologists, and items related to nurses were also obtained. The study finding revealed that 3% of women detected for malignancy and 7.25% for fibroadenoma. Statistically significant differences were found between mammography results and age, family history, genetic screening, exposure to smoke, and using contraceptive pills. Nurses have insufficient knowledge about screening tests. Based on these findings the present study recommended involvement of nurses in breast care which is very important to in force population about screening practices.
Keywords: Early detection, Genetic Screening, Mammography.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4113
20 Optimizing Exposure Parameters in Digital Mammography: A Study in Morocco
Authors: Talbi Mohammed, Oustous Aziz, Ben Messaoud Mounir, Sebihi Rajaa, Khalis Mohammed
Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of death for women around the world. Screening mammography is the reference examination, due to its sensitivity for detecting small lesions and micro-calcifications. Therefore, it is essential to ensure quality mammographic examinations with the most optimal dose. These conditions depend on the choice of exposure parameters. Clinically, practices must be evaluated in order to determine the most appropriate exposure parameters. Material and Methods: We performed our measurements on a mobile mammography unit (PLANMED Sofie-classic.) in Morocco. A solid dosimeter (AGMS Radcal) and a MTM 100 phantom allow to quantify the delivered dose and the image quality. For image quality assessment, scores are defined by the rate of visible inserts (MTM 100 phantom), obtained and compared for each acquisition. Results: The results show that the parameters of the mammography unit on which we have made our measurements can be improved in order to offer a better compromise between image quality and breast dose. The last one can be reduced up from 13.27% to 22.16%, while preserving comparable image quality.
Keywords: Mammography, image quality, breast dose.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 608
19 Contrast Enhancement of Masses in Mammograms Using Multiscale Morphology
Authors: Amit Kamra, V. K. Jain, Pragya
Abstract:Mammography is widely used technique for breast cancer screening. There are various other techniques for breast cancer screening but mammography is the most reliable and effective technique. The images obtained through mammography are of low contrast which causes problem for the radiologists to interpret. Hence, a high quality image is mandatory for the processing of the image for extracting any kind of information from it. Many contrast enhancement algorithms have been developed over the years. In the present work, an efficient morphology based technique is proposed for contrast enhancement of masses in mammographic images. The proposed method is based on Multiscale Morphology and it takes into consideration the scale of the structuring element. The proposed method is compared with other stateof- the-art techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed method is better both qualitatively and quantitatively than the other standard contrast enhancement techniques.
Keywords: Enhancement, mammography, multi-scale, mathematical morphology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2128
18 Boundary Segmentation of Microcalcification using Parametric Active Contours
Authors: Abdul Kadir Jumaat, Siti Salmah Yasiran, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abd Rahman, Aminah Abdul Malek
A mammography image is composed of low contrast area where the breast tissues and the breast abnormalities such as microcalcification can hardly be differentiated by the medical practitioner. This paper presents the application of active contour models (Snakes) for the segmentation of microcalcification in mammography images. Comparison on the microcalcifiation areas segmented by the Balloon Snake, Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) Snake, and Distance Snake is done against the true value of the microcalcification area. The true area value is the average microcalcification area in the original mammography image traced by the expert radiologists. From fifty images tested, the result obtained shows that the accuracy of the Balloon Snake, GVF Snake, and Distance Snake in segmenting boundaries of microcalcification are 96.01%, 95.74%, and 95.70% accuracy respectively. This implies that the Balloon Snake is a better segmentation method to locate the exact boundary of a microcalcification region.
Keywords: Balloon Snake, GVF Snake, Distance Snake, Mammogram, Microcalcifications, SegmentationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1626
17 Thermalytix: An Advanced Artificial Intelligence Based Solution for Non-Contact Breast Screening
Authors: S. Sudhakar, Geetha Manjunath, Siva Teja Kakileti, Himanshu Madhu
Diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages has seen better clinical and survival outcomes. Survival rates in developing countries like India are very low due to accessibility and affordability issues of screening tests such as Mammography. In addition, Mammography is not much effective in younger women with dense breasts. This leaves a gap in current screening methods. Thermalytix is a new technique for detecting breast abnormality in a non-contact, non-invasive way. It is an AI-enabled computer-aided diagnosis solution that automates interpretation of high resolution thermal images and identifies potential malignant lesions. The solution is low cost, easy to use, portable and is effective in all age groups. This paper presents the results of a retrospective comparative analysis of Thermalytix over Mammography and Clinical Breast Examination for breast cancer screening. Thermalytix was found to have better sensitivity than both the tests, with good specificity as well. In addition, Thermalytix identified all malignant patients without palpable lumps.
Keywords: Breast Cancer Screening, Radiology, Thermalytix, Artificial Intelligence, Thermography.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2465
16 Factors Associated with Mammography Screening Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study of Egyptian Women
Authors: Salwa Hagag Abdelaziz, Naglaa Fathy Youssef, Nadia Abdel Latif Hassan, Rasha Wesam Abdel Rahman
Breast cancer is considered as a substantial health concern and practicing mammography screening [MS] is important in minimizing its related morbidity. So it is essential to have a better understanding of breast cancer screening behaviors of women and factors that influence utilization of them. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that are linked to MS behaviors among the Egyptian women. A cross-sectional descriptive design was carried out to provide a snapshot of the factors that are linked to MS behaviors. A convenience sample of 311 women was utilized and all eligible participants admitted to the Women Imaging Unit who are 40 years of age or above, coming for mammography assessment, not pregnant or breast feeding and who accepted to participate in the study were included. A structured questionnaire was developed by the researchers and contains three parts; Socio-demographic data; Motivating factors associated with MS; and association between MS and model of behavior change. The analyzed data indicated that most of the participated women (66.6%) belonged to the age group of 40- 49.A high proportion of participants (58.1%) of group having previous MS influenced by their neighbors to practice MS, whereas 32.7 % in group not having previous MS were influenced by family members which indicated significant differences (P <0.05). Doctors and media shown to be the least influence of others to practice MS. Women with intention to have a future mammogram had higher OR (1.404) for practicing MS compared with women with no intention. Further studies are needed to examine the relation between Transtheoretical Model [TTM] and practicing MS.
Keywords: Breast cancer, mammography, screening behaviors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1935
15 Automatic Detection of Mass Type Breast Cancer using Texture Analysis in Korean Digital Mammography
Authors: E. B. Jo, J. H. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. M. Kim
Abstract:In this study, we present an advanced detection technique for mass type breast cancer based on texture information of organs. The proposed method detects the cancer areas in three stages. In the first stage, the midpoints of mass area are determined based on AHE (Adaptive Histogram Equalization). In the second stage, we set the threshold coefficient of homogeneity by using MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) to compute the uniformity of texture. Finally, mass type cancer tissues are extracted from the original image. As a result, it was observed that the proposed method shows an improved detection performance on dense breast tissues of Korean women compared with the existing methods. It is expected that the proposed method may provide additional diagnostic information for detection of mass-type breast cancer.
Keywords: Mass Type Breast Cancer, Mammography, Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), Ranklets, SVMProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1869
14 Computer Aided Detection on Mammography
Authors: Giovanni Luca Masala
Abstract:A typical definition of the Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD), found in literature, can be: A diagnosis made by a radiologist using the output of a computerized scheme for automated image analysis as a diagnostic aid. Often it is possible to find the expression Computer Aided Detection (CAD or CADe): this definition emphasizes the intent of CAD to support rather than substitute the human observer in the analysis of radiographic images. In this article we will illustrate the application of CAD systems and the aim of these definitions. Commercially available CAD systems use computerized algorithms for identifying suspicious regions of interest. In this paper are described the general CAD systems as an expert system constituted of the following components: segmentation / detection, feature extraction, and classification / decision making. As example, in this work is shown the realization of a Computer- Aided Detection system that is able to assist the radiologist in identifying types of mammary tumor lesions. Furthermore this prototype of station uses a GRID configuration to work on a large distributed database of digitized mammographic images.
Keywords: Computer Aided Detection, Computer Aided Diagnosis, mammography, GRID.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1805
13 Basic Study of Mammographic Image Magnification System with Eye-Detector and Simple EEG Scanner
Authors: A. Umemuro, M. Sato, M. Narita, S. Hori, S. Sakurai, T. Nakayama, A. Nakazawa, T. Ogura
Mammography requires the detection of very small calcifications, and physicians search for microcalcifications by magnifying the images as they read them. The mouse is necessary to zoom in on the images, but this can be tiring and distracting when many images are read in a single day. Therefore, an image magnification system combining an eye-detector and a simple electroencephalograph (EEG) scanner was devised, and its operability was evaluated. Two experiments were conducted in this study: the measurement of eye-detection error using an eye-detector and the measurement of the time required for image magnification using a simple EEG scanner. Eye-detector validation showed that the mean distance of eye-detection error ranged from 0.64 cm to 2.17 cm, with an overall mean of 1.24 ± 0.81 cm for the observers. The results showed that the eye detection error was small enough for the magnified area of the mammographic image. The average time required for point magnification in the verification of the simple EEG scanner ranged from 5.85 to 16.73 seconds, and individual differences were observed. The reason for this may be that the size of the simple EEG scanner used was not adjustable, so it did not fit well for some subjects. The use of a simple EEG scanner with size adjustment would solve this problem. Therefore, the image magnification system using the eye-detector and the simple EEG scanner is useful.
Keywords: EEG scanner, eye-detector, mammography, observers.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 20
12 Detection of Breast Cancer in the JPEG2000 Domain
Authors: Fayez M. Idris, Nehal I. AlZubaidi
Abstract:Breast cancer detection techniques have been reported to aid radiologists in analyzing mammograms. We note that most techniques are performed on uncompressed digital mammograms. Mammogram images are huge in size necessitating the use of compression to reduce storage/transmission requirements. In this paper, we present an algorithm for the detection of microcalcifications in the JPEG2000 domain. The algorithm is based on the statistical properties of the wavelet transform that the JPEG2000 coder employs. Simulation results were carried out at different compression ratios. The sensitivity of this algorithm ranges from 92% with a false positive rate of 4.7 down to 66% with a false positive rate of 2.1 using lossless compression and lossy compression at a compression ratio of 100:1, respectively.
Keywords: Breast cancer, JPEG2000, mammography, microcalcifications.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1470
11 Calcification Classification in Mammograms Using Decision Trees
Authors: S. Usha, S. Arumugam
Cancer affects people globally with breast cancer being a leading killer. Breast cancer is due to the uncontrollable multiplication of cells resulting in a tumour or neoplasm. Tumours are called ‘benign’ when cancerous cells do not ravage other body tissues and ‘malignant’ if they do so. As mammography is an effective breast cancer detection tool at an early stage which is the most treatable stage it is the primary imaging modality for screening and diagnosis of this cancer type. This paper presents an automatic mammogram classification technique using wavelet and Gabor filter. Correlation feature selection is used to reduce the feature set and selected features are classified using different decision trees.
Keywords: Breast Cancer, Mammogram, Symlet Wavelets, Gabor Filters, Decision TreesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1485
10 Dual Pyramid of Agents for Image Segmentation
Authors: K. Idir, H. Merouani, Y. Tlili.
Abstract:An effective method for the early detection of breast cancer is the mammographic screening. One of the most important signs of early breast cancer is the presence of microcalcifications. For the detection of microcalcification in a mammography image, we propose to conceive a multiagent system based on a dual irregular pyramid. An initial segmentation is obtained by an incremental approach; the result represents level zero of the pyramid. The edge information obtained by application of the Canny filter is taken into account to affine the segmentation. The edge-agents and region-agents cooper level by level of the pyramid by exploiting its various characteristics to provide the segmentation process convergence.
Keywords: Dual Pyramid, Image Segmentation, Multi-agent System, Region/Edge Cooperation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1823
9 An Approach Based on Statistics and Multi-Resolution Representation to Classify Mammograms
Authors: Nebi Gedik
One of the significant and continual public health problems in the world is breast cancer. Early detection is very important to fight the disease, and mammography has been one of the most common and reliable methods to detect the disease in the early stages. However, it is a difficult task, and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are needed to assist radiologists in providing both accurate and uniform evaluation for mass in mammograms. In this study, a multiresolution statistical method to classify mammograms as normal and abnormal in digitized mammograms is used to construct a CAD system. The mammogram images are represented by wave atom transform, and this representation is made by certain groups of coefficients, independently. The CAD system is designed by calculating some statistical features using each group of coefficients. The classification is performed by using support vector machine (SVM).
Keywords: Wave atom transform, statistical features, multi-resolution representation, mammogram.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 773
8 An Adaptive Mammographic Image Enhancement in Orthogonal Polynomials Domain
Authors: R. Krishnamoorthy, N. Amudhavalli, M.K. Sivakkolunthu
Abstract:X-ray mammography is the most effective method for the early detection of breast diseases. However, the typical diagnostic signs such as microcalcifications and masses are difficult to detect because mammograms are of low-contrast and noisy. In this paper, a new algorithm for image denoising and enhancement in Orthogonal Polynomials Transformation (OPT) is proposed for radiologists to screen mammograms. In this method, a set of OPT edge coefficients are scaled to a new set by a scale factor called OPT scale factor. The new set of coefficients is then inverse transformed resulting in contrast improved image. Applications of the proposed method to mammograms with subtle lesions are shown. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare the results to those obtained by the Histogram Equalization (HE) and the Unsharp Masking (UM) methods. Our preliminary results strongly suggest that the proposed method offers considerably improved enhancement capability over the HE and UM methods.
Keywords: mammograms, image enhancement, orthogonalpolynomials, contrast improvementProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1807
7 An Automated Method to Segment and Classify Masses in Mammograms
Authors: Viet Dzung Nguyen, Duc Thuan Nguyen, Tien Dzung Nguyen, Van Thanh Pham
Abstract:Mammography is the most effective procedure for an early diagnosis of the breast cancer. Nowadays, people are trying to find a way or method to support as much as possible to the radiologists in diagnosis process. The most popular way is now being developed is using Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system to process the digital mammograms and prompt the suspicious region to radiologist. In this paper, an automated CAD system for detection and classification of massive lesions in mammographic images is presented. The system consists of three processing steps: Regions-Of- Interest detection, feature extraction and classification. Our CAD system was evaluated on Mini-MIAS database consisting 322 digitalized mammograms. The CAD system-s performance is evaluated using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) and Freeresponse ROC (FROC) curves. The archived results are 3.47 false positives per image (FPpI) and sensitivity of 85%.
Keywords: classification, computer-aided detection, featureextraction, mass detection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1542
6 Computer Aided Classification of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms Using Texture Features
Authors: Birmohan Singh, V. K. Jain
Abstract:Computer aided diagnosis systems provide vital opinion to radiologists in the detection of early signs of breast cancer from mammogram images. Architectural distortions, masses and microcalcifications are the major abnormalities. In this paper, a computer aided diagnosis system has been proposed for distinguishing abnormal mammograms with architectural distortion from normal mammogram. Four types of texture features GLCM texture, GLRLM texture, fractal texture and spectral texture features for the regions of suspicion are extracted. Support vector machine has been used as classifier in this study. The proposed system yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.47% and an accuracy of 96% for mammogram images collected from digital database for screening mammography database.
Keywords: Architecture Distortion, GLCM Texture features, GLRLM Texture Features, Mammograms, Support Vector Machine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2023
5 Automatic Detection and Classification of Microcalcification, Mass, Architectural Distortion and Bilateral Asymmetry in Digital Mammogram
Authors: S. Shanthi, V. Muralibhaskaran
Mammography has been one of the most reliable methods for early detection of breast cancer. There are different lesions which are breast cancer characteristic such as microcalcifications, masses, architectural distortions and bilateral asymmetry. One of the major challenges of analysing digital mammogram is how to extract efficient features from it for accurate cancer classification. In this paper we proposed a hybrid feature extraction method to detect and classify all four signs of breast cancer. The proposed method is based on multiscale surrounding region dependence method, Gabor filters, multi fractal analysis, directional and morphological analysis. The extracted features are input to self adaptive resource allocation network (SRAN) classifier for classification. The validity of our approach is extensively demonstrated using the two benchmark data sets Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) and Digital Database for Screening Mammograph (DDSM) and the results have been proved to be progressive.
Keywords: Feature extraction, fractal analysis, Gabor filters, multiscale surrounding region dependence method, SRAN.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2785
4 Least-Squares Support Vector Machine for Characterization of Clusters of Microcalcifications
Authors: Baljit Singh Khehra, Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha
Clusters of Microcalcifications (MCCs) are most frequent symptoms of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) recognized by mammography. Least-Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) is a variant of the standard SVM. In the paper, LS-SVM is proposed as a classifier for classifying MCCs as benign or malignant based on relevant extracted features from enhanced mammogram. To establish the credibility of LS-SVM classifier for classifying MCCs, a comparative evaluation of the relative performance of LS-SVM classifier for different kernel functions is made. For comparative evaluation, confusion matrix and ROC analysis are used. Experiments are performed on data extracted from mammogram images of DDSM database. A total of 380 suspicious areas are collected, which contain 235 malignant and 145 benign samples, from mammogram images of DDSM database. A set of 50 features is calculated for each suspicious area. After this, an optimal subset of 23 most suitable features is selected from 50 features by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of proposed study are quite promising.
Keywords: Clusters of Microcalcifications, Ductal Carcinoma in Situ, Least-Square Support Vector Machine, Particle Swarm Optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1700
3 Integration of Image and Patient Data, Software and International Coding Systems for Use in a Mammography Research Project
Authors: V. Balanica, W. I. D. Rae, M. Caramihai, S. Acho, C. P. Herbst
Abstract:Mammographic images and data analysis to facilitate modelling or computer aided diagnostic (CAD) software development should best be done using a common database that can handle various mammographic image file formats and relate these to other patient information. This would optimize the use of the data as both primary reporting and enhanced information extraction of research data could be performed from the single dataset. One desired improvement is the integration of DICOM file header information into the database, as an efficient and reliable source of supplementary patient information intrinsically available in the images. The purpose of this paper was to design a suitable database to link and integrate different types of image files and gather common information that can be further used for research purposes. An interface was developed for accessing, adding, updating, modifying and extracting data from the common database, enhancing the future possible application of the data in CAD processing. Technically, future developments envisaged include the creation of an advanced search function to selects image files based on descriptor combinations. Results can be further used for specific CAD processing and other research. Design of a user friendly configuration utility for importing of the required fields from the DICOM files must be done.
Keywords: Database Integration, Mammogram Classification, Tumour Classification, Computer Aided Diagnosis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1840
2 Pectoral Muscles Suppression in Digital Mammograms Using Hybridization of Soft Computing Methods
Authors: I. Laurence Aroquiaraj, K. Thangavel
Breast region segmentation is an essential prerequisite in computerized analysis of mammograms. It aims at separating the breast tissue from the background of the mammogram and it includes two independent segmentations. The first segments the background region which usually contains annotations, labels and frames from the whole breast region, while the second removes the pectoral muscle portion (present in Medio Lateral Oblique (MLO) views) from the rest of the breast tissue. In this paper we propose hybridization of Connected Component Labeling (CCL), Fuzzy, and Straight line methods. Our proposed methods worked good for separating pectoral region. After removal pectoral muscle from the mammogram, further processing is confined to the breast region alone. To demonstrate the validity of our segmentation algorithm, it is extensively tested using over 322 mammographic images from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database. The segmentation results were evaluated using a Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Hausdroff Distance (HD), Probabilistic Rand Index (PRI), Local Consistency Error (LCE) and Tanimoto Coefficient (TC). The hybridization of fuzzy with straight line method is given more than 96% of the curve segmentations to be adequate or better. In addition a comparison with similar approaches from the state of the art has been given, obtaining slightly improved results. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: X-ray Mammography, CCL, Fuzzy, Straight line.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1627
1 Beam Coding with Orthogonal Complementary Golay Codes for Signal to Noise Ratio Improvement in Ultrasound Mammography
Authors: Y. Kumru, K. Enhos, H. Köymen
In this paper, we report the experimental results on using complementary Golay coded signals at 7.5 MHz to detect breast microcalcifications of 50 µm size. Simulations using complementary Golay coded signals show perfect consistence with the experimental results, confirming the improved signal to noise ratio for complementary Golay coded signals. For improving the success on detecting the microcalcifications, orthogonal complementary Golay sequences having cross-correlation for minimum interference are used as coded signals and compared to tone burst pulse of equal energy in terms of resolution under weak signal conditions. The measurements are conducted using an experimental ultrasound research scanner, Digital Phased Array System (DiPhAS) having 256 channels, a phased array transducer with 7.5 MHz center frequency and the results obtained through experiments are validated by Field-II simulation software. In addition, to investigate the superiority of coded signals in terms of resolution, multipurpose tissue equivalent phantom containing series of monofilament nylon targets, 240 µm in diameter, and cyst-like objects with attenuation of 0.5 dB/[MHz x cm] is used in the experiments. We obtained ultrasound images of monofilament nylon targets for the evaluation of resolution. Simulation and experimental results show that it is possible to differentiate closely positioned small targets with increased success by using coded excitation in very weak signal conditions.
Keywords: Coded excitation, complementary Golay codes, DiPhAS, medical ultrasound.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 767