Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 901

Search results for: anthropomorphic hand

901 UTHM Hand: Mechanics Behind The Dexterous Anthropomorphic Hand

Authors: Amran Mohd Zaid, M. Atif Yaqub, Mohd Rizal Arshad, Md Saidin Wahab

Abstract:

A multi fingered dexterous anthropomorphic hand is being developed by the authors. The focus of the hand is the replacement of human operators in hazardous environments and also in environments where zero tolerance is observed for the human errors. The robotic hand will comprise of five fingers (four fingers and one thumb) each having four degrees of freedom (DOF) which can perform flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and also circumduction. For the actuation purpose pneumatic muscles and springs will be used. The paper exemplifies the mechanical design for the robotic hand. It also describes different mechanical designs that have been developed before date.

Keywords: Robotic hand, Multi-fingered hand, dextrous hand, anthropomorphic hand, pneumatic muscles.

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900 Tele-Operated Anthropomorphic Arm and Hand Design

Authors: Namal A. Senanayake, Khoo B. How, Quah W. Wai

Abstract:

In this project, a tele-operated anthropomorphic robotic arm and hand is designed and built as a versatile robotic arm system. The robot has the ability to manipulate objects such as pick and place operations. It is also able to function by itself, in standalone mode. Firstly, the robotic arm is built in order to interface with a personal computer via a serial servo controller circuit board. The circuit board enables user to completely control the robotic arm and moreover, enables feedbacks from user. The control circuit board uses a powerful integrated microcontroller, a PIC (Programmable Interface Controller). The PIC is firstly programmed using BASIC (Beginner-s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) and it is used as the 'brain' of the robot. In addition a user friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed as the serial servo interface software using Microsoft-s Visual Basic 6. The second part of the project is to use speech recognition control on the robotic arm. A speech recognition circuit board is constructed with onboard components such as PIC and other integrated circuits. It replaces the computers- Graphical User Interface. The robotic arm is able to receive instructions as spoken commands through a microphone and perform operations with respect to the commands such as picking and placing operations.

Keywords: Tele-operated Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm and Hand, Robot Motion System, Serial Servo Controller, Speech Recognition Controller.

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899 Design Development, Fabrication, and Preliminary Specifications of Multi-Fingered Prosthetic Hand

Authors: Mogeeb A. El-Sheikh

Abstract:

The study has developed the previous design of an artificial anthropomorphic humanoid hand and accustomed it as a prosthetic hand. The main specifications of this design are determined. The development of our previous design involves the main artificial hand’s parts and subassemblies, palm, fingers, and thumb. In addition, the study presents an adaptable socket design for a transradial amputee. This hand has 3 fingers and thumb. It is more reliable, cosmetics, modularity, and ease of assembly. Its size and weight are almost as a natural hand. The socket cavity has the capability for different sizes of a transradial amputee. The study implements the developed design by using rapid prototype and specifies its main specifications by using a data glove and finite element method.

Keywords: Adaptable socket, prosthetic hand, transradial amputee.

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898 A Study of the Hand-Hold Impact on the EM Interaction of a Cellular Handset and a Human

Authors: Salah I. Al-Mously, Marai M. Abousetta

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impact of the hand-hold positions on both antenna performance and the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in the user-s head. A cellular handset with external antenna operating at GSM-900 frequency is modeled and simulated using a finite difference time-domain (FDTD)-based platform SEMCAD-X. A specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) is adopted to simulate the user-s head, whereas a semirealistic CAD-model of three-tissues is designed to simulate the user-s hand. The results show that in case of the handset in hand close to head at different positions; the antenna total efficiency gets reduced to (14.5% - 5.9%) at cheek-position and to (27.5% to 11.8%) at tilt-position. The peak averaged SAR1g values in head close to handset without hand, are 4.67 W/Kg and 2.66 W/Kg at cheek and tilt-position, respectively. Due to the presence of hand, the SAR1g in head gets reduced to (3.67-3.31 W/Kg) at cheek-position and to (1.84-1.64 W/Kg) at tilt-position, depending on the hand-hold position.

Keywords: FDTD, phantom, specific absorption rate (SAR), cellular handset exposure.

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897 Characterization and Development of Anthropomorphic Phantoms Liver for Use in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Ferreira F. C. L., Souza D. N., Rodrigues T. M. A., Cunha C. J., Dullius M. A., Andrade J. E., Sousa A. H., Vieira J. P. C., Carvalho Júnior A. B., Santos L. P. B., Passos R. O.

Abstract:

The objective this study was to characterize and develop anthropomorphic liver phantoms in tomography hepatic procedures for quality control and improvement professionals in nuclear medicine. For the conformation of the anthropomorphic phantom was used in plaster and acrylic. We constructed three phantoms representing processes with liver cirrhosis. The phantoms were filled with 99mTc diluted with water to obtain the scintigraphic images. Tomography images were analyzed anterior and posterior phantom representing a body with a greater degree cirrhotic. It was noted that the phantoms allow the acquisition of images similar to real liver with cirrhosis. Simulations of hemangiomas may contribute to continued professional education of nuclear medicine, on the question of image acquisition, allowing of the study parameters such of the matrix, energy window and count statistics.

Keywords: Nuclear medicine, liver phantom, control quality

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896 Anthropomorphism in Robotics Engineering for Disabled People

Authors: B. Tondu, N. Bardou

Abstract:

In its attempt to offer new ways into autonomy for a large population of disabled people, assistive technology has largely been inspired by robotics engineering. Recent human-like robots carry new hopes that it seems to us necessary to analyze by means of a specific theory of anthropomorphism. We propose to distinguish a functional anthropomorphism which is the one of actual wheelchairs from a structural anthropomorphism based on a mimicking of human physiological systems. If functional anthropomorphism offers the main advantage of eliminating the physiological systems interdependence issue, the highly link between the robot for disabled people and their human-built environment would lead to privilege in the future the anthropomorphic structural way. In this future framework, we highlight a general interdependence principle : any partial or local structural anthropomorphism generates new anthropomorphic needs due to the physiological systems interdependency, whose effects can be evaluated by means of specific anthropomorphic criterions derived from a set theory-based approach of physiological systems.

Keywords: Anthropomorphism, Human-like machines, Systemstheory, Disability.

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895 Control of an Asymmetrical Design of a Pneumatically Actuated Ambidextrous Robot Hand

Authors: Emre Akyürek, Anthony Huynh, Tatiana Kalganova

Abstract:

The Ambidextrous Robot Hand is a robotic device with the purpose to mimic either the gestures of a right or a left hand. The symmetrical behavior of its fingers allows them to bend in one way or another keeping a compliant and anthropomorphic shape. However, in addition to gestures they can reproduce on both sides, an asymmetrical mechanical design with a three tendons routing has been engineered to reduce the number of actuators. As a consequence, control algorithms must be adapted to drive efficiently the ambidextrous fingers from one position to another and to include grasping features. These movements are controlled by pneumatic muscles, which are nonlinear actuators. As their elasticity constantly varies when they are under actuation, the length of pneumatic muscles and the force they provide may differ for a same value of pressurized air. The control algorithms introduced in this paper take both the fingers asymmetrical design and the pneumatic muscles nonlinearity into account to permit an accurate control of the Ambidextrous Robot Hand. The finger motion is achieved by combining a classic PID controller with a phase plane switching control that turns the gain constants into dynamic values. The grasping ability is made possible because of a sliding mode control that makes the fingers adapt to the shape of an object before strengthening their positions.

Keywords: Ambidextrous hand, intelligent algorithms, nonlinear actuators, pneumatic muscles, robotics, sliding control.

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894 Evolution of Cord Absorbed Dose during of Larynx Cancer Radiotherapy, with 3D Treatment Planning and Tissue Equivalent Phantom

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Amir Hossein Goodarzi, Majid Azarniush

Abstract:

Radiation doses to tissues and organs were measured using the anthropomorphic phantom as an equivalent to the human body. When high-energy X-rays are externally applied to treat laryngeal cancer, the absorbed dose at the laryngeal lumen is lower than given dose because of air space, which it should pass through, before reaching the lesion. Specially, in case of high-energy X-rays, the loss of dose is considerable. Three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions have been computed for high-energy photon radiation therapy of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers, using a coaxial pair of opposing lateral beams in fixed positions. Treatment plans obtained under various conditions of irradiation.

Keywords: 3D Treatment Planning, anthropomorphic phantom, larynx cancer, radiotherapy.

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893 Users’ Preferences for Map Navigation Gestures

Authors: Y. Y. Pang, N. A. Ismail

Abstract:

Map is a powerful and convenient tool in helping us to navigate to different places, but the use of indirect devices often makes its usage cumbersome. This study intends to propose a new map navigation dialogue that uses hand gesture. A set of dialogue was developed from users’ perspective to provide users complete freedom for panning, zooming, rotate, tilt and find direction operations. A participatory design experiment was involved here where one hand gesture and two hand gesture dialogues had been analysed in the forms of hand gestures to develop a set of usable dialogues. The major finding was that users prefer one-hand gesture compared to two-hand gesture in map navigation.

Keywords: Hand gesture, map navigation, participatory design, intuitive interaction.

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892 Design and Development of a 3D Printed Myoelectric-Controlled Prosthesis Hand Using sEMG Sensor

Authors: Sher Shermin Azmiri Khan, Syeda Jannatul Ferdous, Sushmita Chakraborty

Abstract:

Over the last decades, biomedical engineering prosthetics become one of the most essential grounds. Prosthetic hands are rapidly evolving. Therefore, for designing prosthetic components, it is essential to improve quality such as make it affordable and improve patient comfort and mobility by making them lightweight and easy to wear. In this paper, we proposed a myoelectric controlled prosthesis hand. We can fabricate and manufacture customized cost-effective, small volumes of 3D printed hand which is interesting. The total weight of an adult hand is about 1000 gm including a battery. The prosthetic hand is built up with low-cost materials and techniques, the cost of manufacturing will be approximately US$145. The hand can grip objects of different shapes and sizes. The 3D printed hand can rotate its wrist like a human hand. The prosthetic hand is capable of showing some types of human gestures.

Keywords: Prosthetic Hand, sEMG, 3D printing, Arduino.

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891 Hand Vein Image Enhancement With Radon Like Features Descriptor

Authors: Randa Boukhris Trabelsi, Alima Damak Masmoudi, Dorra Sellami Masmoudi

Abstract:

Nowadays, hand vein recognition has attracted more attentions in identification biometrics systems. Generally, hand vein image is acquired with low contrast and irregular illumination. Accordingly, if you have a good preprocessing of hand vein image, we can easy extracted the feature extraction even with simple binarization. In this paper, a proposed approach is processed to improve the quality of hand vein image. First, a brief survey on existing methods of enhancement is investigated. Then a Radon Like features method is applied to preprocessing hand vein image. Finally, experiments results show that the proposed method give the better effective and reliable in improving hand vein images.

Keywords: Hand Vein, Enhancement, Contrast, RLF, SDME

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890 Aesthetics and Robotics: Which Form to give to the Human-Like Robot?

Authors: B. Tondu, N. Bardou

Abstract:

The recent development of humanoid robots has led robot designers to imagine a great variety of anthropomorphic forms for human-like machine. Which form is the best ? We try to answer this question from a double meaning of the anthropomorphism : a positive anthropomorphism corresponing to the realization of an effective anthropomorphic form object and a negative one corresponding to our natural tendency in certain circumstances to give human attributes to non-human beings. We postulate that any humanoid robot is concerned by both these two anthropomorphism kinds. We propose to use gestalt theory and Heider-s balance theory in order to analyze how negative anthropomorphism can influence our perception of human-like robots. From our theoretical approach we conclude that an “even shape" as defined by gestalt theory is not a sufficient condition for a good integration of future humanoid robots into a human community. Aesthetic perception of the robot cannot be splitted from a social perception : a humanoid robot, any how the efforts made for improving its appearance, could be rejected if it is devoted to a task with too high affective implications.

Keywords: Robot appearance, humanoid robot, uncanny valley, human-robot-interaction.

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889 Evaluation of Hand Grip Strength and EMG Signal on Visual Reaction

Authors: Sung-Wook Shin, Sung-Taek Chung

Abstract:

Hand grip strength has been utilized as an indicator to evaluate the motor ability of hands, responsible for performing multiple body functions. It is, however, difficult to evaluate other factors (other than hand muscular strength) utilizing the hand grip strength only. In this study, we analyzed the motor ability of hands using EMG and the hand grip strength, simultaneously in order to evaluate concentration, muscular strength reaction time, instantaneous muscular strength change, and agility in response to visual reaction. In results, the average time (and their standard deviations) of muscular strength reaction EMG signal and hand grip strength was found to be 209.6 ± 56.2 ms and 354.3 ± 54.6 ms, respectively. In addition, the onset time which represents acceleration time to reach 90% of maximum hand grip strength, was 382.9 ± 129.9 ms.

Keywords: Hand grip strength, EMG, visual reaction, endurance.

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888 The Robot Hand System that can Control Grasping Power by SEMG

Authors: Tsubasa Seto, Kentaro Nagata, Kazushige Magatani

Abstract:

SEMG (Surface Electromyogram) is one of the bio-signals and is generated from the muscle. And there are many research results that use forearm EMG to detect hand motions. In this paper, we will talk about our developed the robot hand system that can control grasping power by SEMG. In our system, we suppose that muscle power is proportional to the amplitude of SEMG. The power is estimated and the grip power of a robot hand is able to be controlled using estimated muscle power in our system. In addition, to perform a more precise control can be considered to build a closed loop feedback system as an object to a subject to pressure from the edge of hand. Our objectives of this study are the development of a method that makes perfect detection of the hand grip force possible using SEMG patterns, and applying this method to the man-machine interface.

Keywords: SEMG, multi electrode, robot hand, power control

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887 Measurement and Analysis of Human Hand Kinematics

Authors: Tamara Grujic, Mirjana Bonkovic

Abstract:

Measurements and quantitative analysis of kinematic parameters of human hand movements have an important role in different areas such as hand function rehabilitation, modeling of multi-digits robotic hands, and the development of machine-man interfaces. In this paper the assessment and evaluation of the reachto- grasp movement by using computerized and robot-assisted method is described. Experiment involved the measurements of hand positions of seven healthy subjects during grasping three objects of different shapes and sizes. Results showed that three dominant phases of reach-to-grasp movements could be clearly identified.

Keywords: Human hand, kinematics, reach-to-grasp movement.

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886 The OLOS® Way to Cultural Heritage: User Interface with Anthropomorphic Characteristics

Authors: Daniele Baldacci, Remo Pareschi

Abstract:

Augmented Reality and Augmented Intelligence are radically changing information technology. The path that starts from the keyboard and then, passing through milestones such as Siri, Alexa and other vocal avatars, reaches a more fluid and natural communication with computers, thus converting the dichotomy between man and machine into a harmonious interaction, now heads unequivocally towards a new IT paradigm, where holographic computing will play a key role. The OLOS® platform contributes substantially to this trend in that it infuses computers with human features, by transferring the gestures and expressions of persons of flesh and bones to anthropomorphic holographic interfaces which in turn will use them to interact with real-life humans. In fact, we could say, boldly but with a solid technological background to back the statement, that OLOS® gives reality to an altogether new entity, placed at the exact boundary between nature and technology, namely the holographic human being. Holographic humans qualify as the perfect carriers for the virtual reincarnation of characters handed down from history and tradition. Thus, they provide for an innovative and highly immersive way of experiencing our cultural heritage as something alive and pulsating in the present.

Keywords: Human-computer interfaces, holographic simulation, digital cinematography, interactive museum exhibits.

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885 Development of UiTM Robotic Prosthetic Hand

Authors: M. Amlie A. Kasim, Ahsana Aqilah, Ahmed Jaffar, Cheng Yee Low, Roseleena Jaafar, M. Saiful Bahari, Armansyah

Abstract:

The study of human hand morphology reveals that developing an artificial hand with the capabilities of human hand is an extremely challenging task. This paper presents the development of a robotic prosthetic hand focusing on the improvement of a tendon driven mechanism towards a biomimetic prosthetic hand. The design of this prosthesis hand is geared towards achieving high level of dexterity and anthropomorphism by means of a new hybrid mechanism that integrates a miniature motor driven actuation mechanism, a Shape Memory Alloy actuated mechanism and a passive mechanical linkage. The synergy of these actuators enables the flexion-extension movement at each of the finger joints within a limited size, shape and weight constraints. Tactile sensors are integrated on the finger tips and the finger phalanges area. This prosthesis hand is developed with an exact size ratio that mimics a biological hand. Its behavior resembles the human counterpart in terms of working envelope, speed and torque, and thus resembles both the key physical features and the grasping functionality of an adult hand.

Keywords: Prosthetic hand, Biomimetic actuation, Shape Memory Alloy, Tactile sensing.

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884 Biometric Authentication Using Fast Correlation of Near Infrared Hand Vein Patterns

Authors: Mohamed Shahin, Ahmed Badawi, Mohamed Kamel

Abstract:

This paper presents a hand vein authentication system using fast spatial correlation of hand vein patterns. In order to evaluate the system performance, a prototype was designed and a dataset of 50 persons of different ages above 16 and of different gender, each has 10 images per person was acquired at different intervals, 5 images for left hand and 5 images for right hand. In verification testing analysis, we used 3 images to represent the templates and 2 images for testing. Each of the 2 images is matched with the existing 3 templates. FAR of 0.02% and FRR of 3.00 % were reported at threshold 80. The system efficiency at this threshold was found to be 99.95%. The system can operate at a 97% genuine acceptance rate and 99.98 % genuine reject rate, at corresponding threshold of 80. The EER was reported as 0.25 % at threshold 77. We verified that no similarity exists between right and left hand vein patterns for the same person over the acquired dataset sample. Finally, this distinct 100 hand vein patterns dataset sample can be accessed by researchers and students upon request for testing other methods of hand veins matching.

Keywords: Biometrics, Verification, Hand Veins, PatternsSimilarity, Statistical Performance.

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883 Real-time ROI Acquisition for Unsupervised and Touch-less Palmprint

Authors: Yi Feng, Jingwen Li, Lei Huang, Changping Liu

Abstract:

In this paper we proposed a novel method to acquire the ROI (Region of interest) of unsupervised and touch-less palmprint captured from a web camera in real-time. We use Viola-Jones approach and skin model to get the target area in real time. Then an innovative course-to-fine approach to detect the key points on the hand is described. A new algorithm is used to find the candidate key points coarsely and quickly. In finely stage, we verify the hand key points with the shape context descriptor. To make the user much comfortable, it can process the hand image with different poses, even the hand is closed. Experiments show promising result by using the proposed method in various conditions.

Keywords: Palmprint recoginition, hand detection, touch-lesspalmprint, ROI localization.

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882 Augmented Reality Interaction System in 3D Environment

Authors: Sunhyoung Lee, Askar Akshabayev, Beisenbek Baisakov, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

It is important to give input information without other device in AR system. One solution is using hand for augmented reality application. Many researchers have proposed different solutions for hand interface in augmented reality. Analyze Histogram and connecting factor is can be example for that. Various Direction searching is one of robust way to recognition hand but it takes too much calculating time. And background should be distinguished with skin color. This paper proposes a hand tracking method to control the 3D object in augmented reality using depth device and skin color. Also in this work discussed relationship between several markers, which is based on relationship between camera and marker. One marker used for displaying virtual object and three markers for detecting hand gesture and manipulating the virtual object.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, depth map, hand recognition, kinect, marker, YCbCr color model.

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881 A Robust Method for Hand Tracking Using Mean-shift Algorithm and Kalman Filter in Stereo Color Image Sequences

Authors: Mahmoud Elmezain, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Robert Niese, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

Real-time hand tracking is a challenging task in many computer vision applications such as gesture recognition. This paper proposes a robust method for hand tracking in a complex environment using Mean-shift analysis and Kalman filter in conjunction with 3D depth map. The depth information solve the overlapping problem between hands and face, which is obtained by passive stereo measuring based on cross correlation and the known calibration data of the cameras. Mean-shift analysis uses the gradient of Bhattacharyya coefficient as a similarity function to derive the candidate of the hand that is most similar to a given hand target model. And then, Kalman filter is used to estimate the position of the hand target. The results of hand tracking, tested on various video sequences, are robust to changes in shape as well as partial occlusion.

Keywords: Computer Vision and Image Analysis, Object Tracking, Gesture Recognition.

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880 Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Christopher Spiewak, M. R. Islam, Mohammad Arifur Rahaman, Mohammad H. Rahman, Roger Smith, Maarouf Saad

Abstract:

For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.

Keywords: Biorobotics, rehabilitation, nonlinear control, robotic assistive device, exoskeleton.

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879 FSM-based Recognition of Dynamic Hand Gestures via Gesture Summarization Using Key Video Object Planes

Authors: M. K. Bhuyan

Abstract:

The use of human hand as a natural interface for humancomputer interaction (HCI) serves as the motivation for research in hand gesture recognition. Vision-based hand gesture recognition involves visual analysis of hand shape, position and/or movement. In this paper, we use the concept of object-based video abstraction for segmenting the frames into video object planes (VOPs), as used in MPEG-4, with each VOP corresponding to one semantically meaningful hand position. Next, the key VOPs are selected on the basis of the amount of change in hand shape – for a given key frame in the sequence the next key frame is the one in which the hand changes its shape significantly. Thus, an entire video clip is transformed into a small number of representative frames that are sufficient to represent a gesture sequence. Subsequently, we model a particular gesture as a sequence of key frames each bearing information about its duration. These constitute a finite state machine. For recognition, the states of the incoming gesture sequence are matched with the states of all different FSMs contained in the database of gesture vocabulary. The core idea of our proposed representation is that redundant frames of the gesture video sequence bear only the temporal information of a gesture and hence discarded for computational efficiency. Experimental results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme for key frame extraction, subsequent gesture summarization and finally gesture recognition.

Keywords: Hand gesture, MPEG-4, Hausdorff distance, finite state machine.

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878 Development of Underactuated Robot Hand Using Cross Section Deformation Spring

Authors: Naoki Saito, Daisuke Kon, Toshiyuki Sato

Abstract:

This paper describes an underactuated robot hand operated by low-power actuators. It can grasp objects of various shapes using easy operations. This hand is suitable for use as a lightweight prosthetic hand that can grasp various objects using few input channels. To realize operations using a low-power actuator, a cross section deformation spring is proposed. The design procedure of the underactuated robot finger is proposed to realize an adaptive grasping movement. The validity of this mechanism and design procedure are confirmed through an object grasping experiment. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of across section deformation spring in reducing the actuator power. Moreover, adaptive grasping movement is realized by an easy operation.

Keywords: Robot hand, Underactuated mechanism, Cross section deformation spring, Prosthetic hand.

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877 Real-Time Hand Tracking and Gesture Recognition System Using Neural Networks

Authors: Tin Hninn Hninn Maung

Abstract:

This paper introduces a hand gesture recognition system to recognize real time gesture in unstrained environments. Efforts should be made to adapt computers to our natural means of communication: Speech and body language. A simple and fast algorithm using orientation histograms will be developed. It will recognize a subset of MAL static hand gestures. A pattern recognition system will be using a transforrn that converts an image into a feature vector, which will be compared with the feature vectors of a training set of gestures. The final system will be Perceptron implementation in MATLAB. This paper includes experiments of 33 hand postures and discusses the results. Experiments shows that the system can achieve a 90% recognition average rate and is suitable for real time applications.

Keywords: Hand gesture recognition, Orientation Histogram, Myanmar Alphabet Language, Perceptronnetwork, MATLAB.

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876 Effective Dose and Size Specific Dose Estimation with and without Tube Current Modulation for Thoracic Computed Tomography Examinations: A Phantom Study

Authors: S. Gharbi, S. Labidi, M. Mars, M. Chelli, F. Ladeb

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to reduce radiation dose for chest CT examination by including Tube Current Modulation (TCM) to a standard CT protocol. A scan of an anthropomorphic male Alderson phantom was performed on a 128-slice scanner. The estimation of effective dose (ED) in both scans with and without mAs modulation was done via multiplication of Dose Length Product (DLP) to a conversion factor. Results were compared to those measured with a CT-Expo software. The size specific dose estimation (SSDE) values were obtained by multiplication of the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) with a conversion size factor related to the phantom’s effective diameter. Objective assessment of image quality was performed with Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) measurements in phantom. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results showed including CARE Dose 4D; ED was lowered by 48.35% and 51.51% using DLP and CT-expo, respectively. In addition, ED ranges between 7.01 mSv and 6.6 mSv in case of standard protocol, while it ranges between 3.62 mSv and 3.2 mSv with TCM. Similar results are found for SSDE; dose was higher without TCM of 16.25 mGy and was lower by 48.8% including TCM. The SNR values calculated were significantly different (p=0.03<0.05). The highest one is measured on images acquired with TCM and reconstructed with Filtered back projection (FBP). In conclusion, this study proves the potential of TCM technique in SSDE and ED reduction and in conserving image quality with high diagnostic reference level for thoracic CT examinations.

Keywords: Anthropomorphic phantom, computed tomography, CT-expo, radiation dose.

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875 Clay Palm Press: A Technique of Hand Building in Ceramics for Developing Conceptual Forms

Authors: Okewu E. Jonathan

Abstract:

There are several techniques of production in the field of ceramics. These different techniques overtime have been categorised under three methods of production which includes; casting, throwing and hand building. Hand building method of production is further broken down into other techniques and they include coiling, slabbing and pinching. Ceramic artists find the different hand building techniques to be very interesting, practicable and rewarding. This has encouraged ceramic artist in their various studios at different levels to experiment for further hand building techniques that could be unique and unusual. The art of “Clay Palm Press” is a development from studio experiment in a quest for uniqueness in conceptual ceramic practise. Clay palm press is a technique that requires no formal tutelage but at the same time, it is not easily comprehensible when viewed. It is a practice of putting semi-solid clay in the palm and inserting a closed fist pressure so as to take the imprint of the human palm. This clay production from the palm when dried, fired and explored into an art, work reveals an absolute awesomeness of what the palm imprint could result in.

Keywords: Ceramics, clay palm press, conceptual forms, hand building, technique.

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874 Study of Features for Hand-printed Recognition

Authors: Satish Kumar

Abstract:

The feature extraction method(s) used to recognize hand-printed characters play an important role in ICR applications. In order to achieve high recognition rate for a recognition system, the choice of a feature that suits for the given script is certainly an important task. Even if a new feature required to be designed for a given script, it is essential to know the recognition ability of the existing features for that script. Devanagari script is being used in various Indian languages besides Hindi the mother tongue of majority of Indians. This research examines a variety of feature extraction approaches, which have been used in various ICR/OCR applications, in context to Devanagari hand-printed script. The study is conducted theoretically and experimentally on more that 10 feature extraction methods. The various feature extraction methods have been evaluated on Devanagari hand-printed database comprising more than 25000 characters belonging to 43 alphabets. The recognition ability of the features have been evaluated using three classifiers i.e. k-NN, MLP and SVM.

Keywords: Features, Hand-printed, Devanagari, Classifier, Database

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873 A Motion Dictionary to Real-Time Recognition of Sign Language Alphabet Using Dynamic Time Warping and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Marcio Leal, Marta Villamil

Abstract:

Computacional recognition of sign languages aims to allow a greater social and digital inclusion of deaf people through interpretation of their language by computer. This article presents a model of recognition of two of global parameters from sign languages; hand configurations and hand movements. Hand motion is captured through an infrared technology and its joints are built into a virtual three-dimensional space. A Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP) was used to classify hand configurations and Dynamic Time Warping (DWT) recognizes hand motion. Beyond of the method of sign recognition, we provide a dataset of hand configurations and motion capture built with help of fluent professionals in sign languages. Despite this technology can be used to translate any sign from any signs dictionary, Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) was used as case study. Finally, the model presented in this paper achieved a recognition rate of 80.4%.

Keywords: Sign language recognition, computer vision, infrared, artificial neural network, dynamic time warping.

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872 Vision Based Hand Gesture Recognition

Authors: Pragati Garg, Naveen Aggarwal, Sanjeev Sofat

Abstract:

With the development of ubiquitous computing, current user interaction approaches with keyboard, mouse and pen are not sufficient. Due to the limitation of these devices the useable command set is also limited. Direct use of hands as an input device is an attractive method for providing natural Human Computer Interaction which has evolved from text-based interfaces through 2D graphical-based interfaces, multimedia-supported interfaces, to fully fledged multi-participant Virtual Environment (VE) systems. Imagine the human-computer interaction of the future: A 3Dapplication where you can move and rotate objects simply by moving and rotating your hand - all without touching any input device. In this paper a review of vision based hand gesture recognition is presented. The existing approaches are categorized into 3D model based approaches and appearance based approaches, highlighting their advantages and shortcomings and identifying the open issues.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Hand Gesture, Hand Posture, Human Computer Interface.

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