Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 92

Search results for: Walking

92 The Application of Rhizophora Wood to Design: A Walking Stick for Elderly

Authors: Noppadon Sangwalpetch

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to use Rhizophora wood to design a walking stick for elderly. The research was conducted by studying the behavior and the type of walking sticks used by 70 elderly aged between 60-80 years in Pragnamdaeng Sub-District, Samudsongkram Province. Questionnaires were used to collect data which were calculated to find percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results are as follows: 1) most elderly use walking sticks due to the Osteoarthritis of the knees. 2) Most elderly need to use walking sticks because the walking sticks help to balance their positioning and prevent from stumble. 3) Most elderly agree that Rhizophora wood is suitable to make a walking stick because of its strength and toughness. 4) The design of the walking stick should be fine and practical with comfortable handle and the tip of the stick must not be slippery.

Keywords: Elderly, Product design, Rhizophora wood, Walking Stick.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1631
91 Walking and Sustainable Urban Transportation

Authors: Khashayar Kashani Jou

Abstract:

Walking as a type of non-motorized transportation has various social, economical and environmental privileges. Also, today different aspects of sustainable development have been emphasized and promotion of sustainable transportation modes has been considered according to this approach. Therefore, the objective of this research is exploring the circumstance of relationship between walking and sustainable urban transportation.For writing this article, the most important resources related to the traits of walking have been surveyed via a documentary method and after explaining the concept of sustainable transportation and its indicators, benefiting from the viewpoints of transportation experts of Tehran, as the capital and greatest city of Iran, different modes of urban transportation have been compared in proportion to each criterion and to each other and have been analyzed according to AHP method. The results of this study indicate that walking is the most sustainable mode of inner city transportation.

Keywords: Walking, Non-motorized transportation, Sustainable transportation, AHP

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1735
90 Human Walking Vertical Force and Vertical Vibration of Pedestrian Bridge Induced by Its Higher Components

Authors: M. Yoneda

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify human walking vertical force by using FFT power spectrum density from the experimental acceleration data of the human body. An experiment on human walking is carried out on a stationary floor especially paying attention to higher components of dynamic vertical walking force. Based on measured acceleration data of the human lumbar part, not only in-phase component with frequency of 2fw, 3fw, but also in-opposite-phase component with frequency of 0.5 fw, 1.5 fw, 2.5 fw where fw is the walking rate is observed. The vertical vibration of pedestrian bridge induced by higher components of human walking vertical force is also discussed in this paper. A full scale measurement for the existing pedestrian bridge with center span length of 33 m is carried out focusing on the resonance phenomenon due to higher components of human walking vertical force. Dynamic response characteristics excited by these vertical higher components of human walking are revealed from the dynamic design viewpoint of pedestrian bridge.

Keywords: Simplified method, Human walking vertical force, Higher component, Pedestrian bridge vibration.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1330
89 Design and Trajectory Planning of Bipedal Walking Robot with Minimum Sufficient Actuation System

Authors: H. Siswoyo Jo, N. Mir-Nasiri, E. Jayamani

Abstract:

This paper presents a new type of mechanism and trajectory planning strategy for bipedal walking robot. The newly designed mechanism is able to improve the performance of bipedal walking robot in terms of energy efficiency and weight reduction by utilizing minimum number of actuators. The usage of parallelogram mechanism eliminates the needs of having an extra actuator at the knee joint. This mechanism works together with the joint space trajectory planning in order to realize straight legged walking which cannot be achieved by conventional inverse kinematics trajectory planning due to the singularity. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is confirmed by computer simulation results.

Keywords: Bipedal robot, Energy efficiency, Straight legged walking, Trajectory planning.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1598
88 Target Trajectory Design of Parametrically Excited Inverted Pendulum for Efficient Bipedal Walking

Authors: Toyoyuki Honjo, Takeshi Hayashi, Akinori Nagano, Zhi-Wei Luo

Abstract:

For stable bipedal gait generation on the level floor, efficient restoring of mechanical energy lost by heel collision at the ground is necessary. Parametric excitation principle is one of the solutions. We dealt with the robot-s total center of mass as an inverted pendulum to consider the total dynamics of the robot. Parametrically excited walking requires the use of continuous target trajectory that is close to discontinuous optimal trajectory. In this paper, we proposed the new target trajectory based on a position in the walking direction. We surveyed relations between walking performance and the parameters that form the target trajectory via numerical simulations. As a result, it was found that our target trajectory has the similar characteristics of a parametrically excited inverted pendulum.

Keywords: Dynamic Bipedal Walking, Parametric Excitation, Target Trajectory Design.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1369
87 Reactive Neural Control for Phototaxis and Obstacle Avoidance Behavior of Walking Machines

Authors: Poramate Manoonpong, Frank Pasemann, Florentin Wörgötter

Abstract:

This paper describes reactive neural control used to generate phototaxis and obstacle avoidance behavior of walking machines. It utilizes discrete-time neurodynamics and consists of two main neural modules: neural preprocessing and modular neural control. The neural preprocessing network acts as a sensory fusion unit. It filters sensory noise and shapes sensory data to drive the corresponding reactive behavior. On the other hand, modular neural control based on a central pattern generator is applied for locomotion of walking machines. It coordinates leg movements and can generate omnidirectional walking. As a result, through a sensorimotor loop this reactive neural controller enables the machines to explore a dynamic environment by avoiding obstacles, turn toward a light source, and then stop near to it.

Keywords: Recurrent neural networks, Walking robots, Modular neural control, Phototaxis, Obstacle avoidance behavior.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1463
86 Human Induced Dynamic Loading on Stairs

Authors: L. Gaile, I. Radinsh

Abstract:

Based on experimental data using accelerometry technology there was developed an analytical model that approximates human induced ground reaction forces in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions ascending and descending the stairs. Proposed dynamic loading factors and corresponding phase shifts for the first five harmonics of continuous walking force history in case of stair ascend and descend. Into account is taken imperfectness of individual footfall forcing functions, differences between continuous walking force histories among individuals. There is proposed mean synthetic continuous walking force history that can be used in numerical simulations of human movement on the stairs.

Keywords: footfall, ground reaction forces, human loads, serviceability, stair vibration, walking

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1834
85 Managing a Manufacturing System with Integration of Walking Worker and Lean Thinking

Authors: Said Rabah Azzam, Laura Carolina Arias, Shikun Zhou

Abstract:

A product goes through various processes in a production flow which is also known as assembly line in manufacturing process management. Toyota created a new concept which is known as lean concept in manufacturing industry. Today it is the leading model in manufacturing plants through the globe. The linear walking worker assembly line is a flexible assembly system where each worker travels down the line carrying out each assembly task at each station; and each worker accomplishes the assembly of a unit from start to finish. This paper attempts to combine the flexibility of the walking worker and lean in order to quantify the benefits from applying the shop floor principles of lean management.

Keywords: Toyota Production System, TPS, LeanManufacturing, Walking Worker, Lean Management, Management, Linear Assembly Lines, U-shaped Assembly Lines, Shop FloorManagement

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1539
84 Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking

Authors: Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima, Macky Kato, Shoji Igawa

Abstract:

The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as Electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age = 22.5 (±1.0) years, body mass = 61.4 (±3.6) kg, height = 170.3 (±4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age = 22.7 (±2.9) years, body mass = 53.0 (±1.7) kg, height = 156.7 (±4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Seven healthy subjects were tested on the treadmill, walking, walking (W) with Nordic Poles (NW) and walking with 1kg weight Nordic Poles (NW+1). Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Eight EMG activities were recorded by bipolar surface methods in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The level of significance was set at a = 0.05, with p < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Our results confirmed that use of NW poles increased HR at a given upper arm muscle activity but decreased lower limb EMGs in comparison with W. Moreover NW was able to increase more step lengths with hip joint extension during NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). Therefore, it was thought either of NW and 1kgNW were to have benefit as a physical exercise for safe, feasible, and readily training for a wide range of aged people in the quality of daily life. However, there was no significant effected in leg muscles activity by using 1kgNW except for upper arm muscle activity during Nordic pole walking.

Keywords: Nordic walking, electromyogram, heart rate.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 586
83 Analysis of Production Loss on a Linear Walking Worker Line

Authors: Qian Wang, Sylvain Lassalle, Antony R. Mileham, Geraint W. Owen

Abstract:

This paper mathematically analyses the varying magnitude of production loss, which may occur due to idle time (inprocess waiting time and traveling time) on a linear walking worker assembly line. Within this flexible and reconfigurable assembly system, each worker travels down the line carrying out each assembly task at each station; and each worker accomplishes the assembly of a unit from start to finish and then travels back to the first station to start the assembly of a new product. This strategy of system design attempts to combine the flexibility of the U-shaped moving worker assembly cell with the efficiency of the conventional fixed worker assembly line. The paper aims to evaluate the effect of idle time that may offset the labor efficiency of each walking worker providing an insight into the mechanism of such a flexible and reconfigurable assembly system.

Keywords: Production lines, manufacturing systems, assemblysystems, walking workers.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1595
82 A Systematic Approach for Design a Low-Cost Mobility Assistive Device for Elderly People

Authors: Omar Salah, Ahmed A. Ramadan, Salvatore Sessa, Ahmed A. Abo-Ismail

Abstract:

Walking and sit to stand are activities carried out by all the people many times during the day, but physical disabilities due to age and diseases create needs of assistive devices to help elderly people during their daily life. This study aims to study the different types and mechanisms of the assistive devices. We will analyze the limitations and the challenges faced by the researchers in this field. We will introduce the Assistive Device developed at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, named E-JUST Assistive Device (EJAD). EJAD will be a low cost intelligent assistive device to help elders in walking and sit-to-stand activities.

Keywords: Active walker, Assistive robotics, Standing Assistance, Walking Assistance

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2380
81 Pedestrian Areas and Sustainable Development

Authors: Khashayar Kashani Jou

Abstract:

Transportation is one of the most fundamental challenges of urban development in contemporary world. On the other hand, sustainable urban development has received tremendous public attention in the last few years. This trend in addition to other factors such as energy cost, environmental concerns, traffic congestion and the feeling of lack of belonging have contributed to the development of pedestrian areas. The purpose of this paper is to study the role of walkable streets in sustainable development of cities. Accordingly, a documentary research through valid sources has been utilized to substantiate this study. The findings demonstrate that walking can lead to sustainable urban development from physical, social, environmental, cultural, economic and political aspects. Also, pedestrian areas –which are the main context of walking- act as focal points of development in cities and have a great effect on modifying and stimulating of their adjacent urban spaces.

Keywords: Pedestrian area, Sustainable urban development, Walking, Woonerf

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3136
80 Rehabilitation Robot in Primary Walking Pattern Training for SCI Patient at Home

Authors: Taisuke Sakaki, Toshihiko Shimokawa, Nobuhiro Ushimi, Koji Murakami, Yong-Kwun Lee, Kazuhiro Tsuruta, Kanta Aoki, Kaoru Fujiie, Ryuji Katamoto, Atsushi Sugyo

Abstract:

Recently attention has been focused on incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI) to the central spine caused by pressure on parts of the white matter conduction pathway, such as the pyramidal tract. In this paper, we focus on a training robot designed to assist with primary walking-pattern training. The target patient for this training robot is relearning the basic functions of the usual walking pattern; it is meant especially for those with incomplete-type SCI to the central spine, who are capable of standing by themselves but not of performing walking motions. From the perspective of human engineering, we monitored the operator’s actions to the robot and investigated the movement of joints of the lower extremities, the circumference of the lower extremities, and exercise intensity with the machine. The concept of the device was to provide mild training without any sudden changes in heart rate or blood pressure, which will be particularly useful for the elderly and disabled. The mechanism of the robot is modified to be simple and lightweight with the expectation that it will be used at home.

Keywords: Training, rehabilitation, SCI patient, welfare, robot.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1543
79 Study on Influencing Factors of Walkability of Rail Transit Station Area

Authors: Yang Wenjuan, Xu Yilun

Abstract:

Based on the comparative analysis of the relevant evaluation methods of walking environment, this paper selects the combined evaluation method of macro urban morphology analysis and micro urban design quality survey, then investigates and analyzes the walking environment of three rail transit station area in Nanjing to explore the influence factor and internal relation of walkability of rail transit station area. Analysis shows that micro urban design factors have greater impact on the walkability of rail transit station area compared with macro urban morphology factors, the convenience is the key factor in the four aspects of convenience, security, identity and comfortability of the urban design factors, the convenience is not only affected by the block network form, but also related to the quality of the street space. The overall evaluation of walkability comes from the overlapping and regrouping of the walking environment at different levels, but some environmental factors play a leading role. The social attributes of pedestrians also partly influence their walking perception and evaluation.

Keywords: Rail transit station area, walkability, evaluation, influence factors.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 478
78 Design and Implementation of a Control System for a Walking Robot with Color Sensing and Line Following Using PIC and ATMEL Microcontrollers

Authors: Ibraheem K. Ibraheem

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design and implement line-tracking mobile robot. The robot must follow a line drawn on the floor with different color, avoids hitting moving object like another moving robot or walking people and achieves color sensing. The control system reacts by controlling each of the motors to keep the tracking sensor over the middle of the line. Proximity sensors used to avoid hitting moving objects that may pass in front of the robot. The programs have been written using micro c instructions, then converted into PIC16F887 ATmega48/88/168 microcontrollers counterparts. Practical simulations show that the walking robot accurately achieves line following action and exactly recognizes the colors and avoids any obstacle in front of it.

Keywords: Color sensing, H-bridge, line following, mobile robot, PIC microcontroller, obstacle avoidance, phototransistor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3002
77 Walking Hexapod Robot in Disaster Recovery: Developing Algorithm for Terrain Negotiation and Navigation

Authors: Md. Masum Billah, Mohiuddin Ahmed, Soheli Farhana

Abstract:

In modern day disaster recovery mission has become one of the top priorities in any natural disaster management regime. Smart autonomous robots may play a significant role in such missions, including search for life under earth quake hit rubbles, Tsunami hit islands, de-mining in war affected areas and many other such situations. In this paper current state of many walking robots are compared and advantages of hexapod systems against wheeled robots are described. In our research we have selected a hexapod spider robot; we are developing focusing mainly on efficient navigation method in different terrain using apposite gait of locomotion, which will make it faster and at the same time energy efficient to navigate and negotiate difficult terrain. This paper describes the method of terrain negotiation navigation in a hazardous field.

Keywords: Walking robots, locomotion, hexapod robot, gait, hazardous field.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4102
76 Exoskeleton for Hemiplegic Patients: Mechatronic Approach to Move One Disabled Lower Limb

Authors: Alaoui Hamza, Moutacalli Mohamed Tarik, Chebak Ahmed

Abstract:

The number of people suffering from hemiplegia is growing each year. This lower limb disability affects all the aspects of their lives by taking away their autonomy. This implicates their close relatives, as well as the health system to provide the necessary care they need. The integration of exoskeletons in the medical field became a promising solution to resolve this issue. This paper presents an exoskeleton designed to help hemiplegic people get back the sensation and ability of normal walking. For this purpose, three step models have been created. The first step allows a simple forward movement of the leg. The second method is designed to overcome some obstacles in the patient path, and finally the third step model gives the patient total control over the device. Each of the control methods was designed to offer a solution to the challenges that the patients may face during the walking process.

Keywords: Ability of normal walking, exoskeleton, hemiplegic patients, lower limb motion, mechatronics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 236
75 Effect of Twelve Weeks Brisk Walking on Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Anthropometric Circumference of Obese Males

Authors: Kaukab Azeem

Abstract:

Introduction: Obesity is a major health risk issue in the present day of life for one and all globally. Obesity is one of the major concerns for public health according to recent increasing trends in obesity-related diseases such as Type 2 diabetes. ( Kazuya, 1994).and hyperlipidemia, (Sakata,1990) .which are more prevalent in Japanese adults with body mass index (BMI) values Z25 kg/m2.( Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare,1997). The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of twelve weeks of brisk walking on blood pressure and body mass index, anthropometric measurements of obese males. Method: Thirty obese (BMI= above 30) males, aged 18 to 22 years, were selected from King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia. The subject-s height (cm) was measured using a stadiometer and body mass (kg) was measured with a electronic weighing machine. BMI was subsequently calculated (kg/m2). The blood pressure was measured with standardized sphygmomanometer in mm of Hg. All the measurements were taken twice before and twice after the experimental period. The pre and post anthropometric measurements of waist and hip circumference were measured with the steel tape in cm. The subjects underwent walking schedule two times in a week for 12 weeks. The 45 minute sessions of brisk walking were undertaken at an average intensity of 65% to 85% of maximum HR (HRmax; calculated as 220-age). Results & Discussion: Statistical findings revealed significant changes from pre test to post test in case of both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in the walking group. Results also showed significant decrease in their body mass index and anthropometric measurements i.e. (waist & hip circumference). Conclusion: It was concluded that twelve weeks brisk walking is beneficial for lowering of blood pressure, body mass index, and anthropometric circumference of obese males.

Keywords: Anthropometric, Blood pressure, Body mass index

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2830
74 Design of Walking Beam Pendle Axle Suspension System

Authors: K. Arunachalam, P. Mannar Jawahar

Abstract:

This paper deals with design of walking beam pendel axle suspension system. This axles and suspension systems are mainly required for transportation of heavy duty and Over Dimension Consignment (ODC) cargo, which is exceeding legal limit in terms of length, width and height. Presently, in Indian transportation industry, ODC movement growth rate has increased in transportation of bridge sections (pre-cast beams), transformers, heavy machineries, boilers, gas turbines, windmill blades etc. However, current Indian standard road transport vehicles are facing lot of service and maintenance issues due to non availability of suitable axle and suspension to carry the ODC cargoes. This in turn will lead to increased number of road accidents, bridge collapse and delayed deliveries, which finally result in higher operating cost. Understanding these requirements, this work was carried out. These axles and suspensions are designed for optimum self – weight with maximum payload carrying capacity with better road stability.

Keywords: Heavy duty trailer, Off–highway trucks, Over dimension cargo, Walking beam pendel axle suspension.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5366
73 Community-Based Destination Sustainable Development: Case of Cicada Walking Street, Hua Hin, Thailand

Authors: Pongsiri Kingkan

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the role and activities of the participants and the impact of activities created in the local area in order to sustainably develop the local areas. This study applied both qualitative and quantitative approaches presented in descriptive style; the data was collected via survey, observation and in-depth interviews with samples. The results illustrated five sorts of roles of participants of the Cicada Walking-street and four types of creative activities; recreation based, art based, cultural based, and live events. Integration of local characteristics, arts and cultures were presented creatively and interestingly. Participants are various. The roles of the participants found in the Cicada Market are group of the property and area management, entrepreneurs, leisure (entertaining persons), local people, and tourists. The good impacts on local communities are those in terms of economy, environmental friendly and local arts and cultures promoting. On the other hand, the traffic congestion, waste and the increasing of energy consumption are negative impacts from area development.

Keywords: Creative Tourism Activity, Destination Development, Sustainable Development, Walking Street.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1446
72 Implementation of Lower-Limb Rehabilitation System Using Attraction Motors with a Treadmill

Authors: Young-Lim Choi, Nak-Yun Choi, Jae-Yong Seo, Sang-Il Park, Jong-Wook Kim

Abstract:

This paper proposes a prototype of a lower-limb rehabilitation system for recovering and strengthening patients- injured lower limbs. The system is composed of traction motors for each leg position, a treadmill as a walking base, tension sensors, microcontrollers controlling motor functions and a main system with graphic user interface. For derivation of reference or normal velocity profiles of the body segment point, kinematic method is applied based on the humanoid robot model using the reference joint angle data of normal walking.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, lower limb, treadmill, humanoid robot.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1190
71 ZMP Based Reference Generation for Biped Walking Robots

Authors: Kemalettin Erbatur, Özer Koca, Evrim Taşkıran, Metin Yılmaz, Utku Seven

Abstract:

Recent fifteen years witnessed fast improvements in the field of humanoid robotics. The human-like robot structure is more suitable to human environment with its supreme obstacle avoidance properties when compared with wheeled service robots. However, the walking control for bipedal robots is a challenging task due to their complex dynamics. Stable reference generation plays a very important role in control. Linear Inverted Pendulum Model (LIPM) and the Zero Moment Point (ZMP) criterion are applied in a number of studies for stable walking reference generation of biped walking robots. This paper follows this main approach too. We propose a natural and continuous ZMP reference trajectory for a stable and human-like walk. The ZMP reference trajectories move forward under the sole of the support foot when the robot body is supported by a single leg. Robot center of mass trajectory is obtained from predefined ZMP reference trajectories by a Fourier series approximation method. The Gibbs phenomenon problem common with Fourier approximations of discontinuous functions is avoided by employing continuous ZMP references. Also, these ZMP reference trajectories possess pre-assigned single and double support phases, which are very useful in experimental tuning work. The ZMP based reference generation strategy is tested via threedimensional full-dynamics simulations of a 12-degrees-of-freedom biped robot model. Simulation results indicate that the proposed reference trajectory generation technique is successful.

Keywords: Biped robot, Linear Inverted Pendulum Model, Zero Moment Point, Fourier series approximation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1319
70 Dynamic Action Induced By Walking Pedestrian

Authors: J. Kala, V. Salajka, P. Hradil

Abstract:

The main focus of this paper is on the human induced forces. Almost all existing force models for this type of load (defined either in the time or frequency domain) are developed from the assumption of perfect periodicity of the force and are based on force measurements conducted on rigid (i.e. high frequency) surfaces. To verify the different authors conclusions the vertical pressure measurements invoked during the walking was performed, using pressure gauges in various configurations. The obtained forces are analyzed using Fourier transformation. This load is often decisive in the design of footbridges. Design criteria and load models proposed by widely used standards and other researchers were introduced and a comparison was made.

Keywords: Pedestrian action, Experimental analysis, Fourier series, serviceability, cycle loading.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2124
69 Control of Underactuated Biped Robots Using Event Based Fuzzy Partial Feedback Linearization

Authors: Omid Heydarnia, Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Behnam Dadashzadeh, M. R. Sayyed Noorani

Abstract:

Underactuated biped robots control is one of the interesting topics in robotics. The main difficulties are its highly nonlinear dynamics, open-loop instability, and discrete event at the end of the gait. One of the methods to control underactuated systems is the partial feedback linearization, but it is not robust against uncertainties and disturbances that restrict its performance to control biped walking and running. In this paper, fuzzy partial feedback linearization is presented to overcome its drawback. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method to generate stable and robust biped walking and running gaits.

Keywords: Underactuated system, biped robot, fuzzy control, partial feedback linearization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1201
68 Simulation of the Pedestrian Flow in the Tawaf Area Using the Social Force Model

Authors: Zarita Zainuddin, Kumatha Thinakaran, Mohammed Shuaib

Abstract:

In today-s modern world, the number of vehicles is increasing on the road. This causes more people to choose walking instead of traveling using vehicles. Thus, proper planning of pedestrians- paths is important to ensure the safety of pedestrians in a walking area. Crowd dynamics study the pedestrians- behavior and modeling pedestrians- movement to ensure safety in their walking paths. To date, many models have been designed to ease pedestrians- movement. The Social Force Model is widely used among researchers as it is simpler and provides better simulation results. We will discuss the problem regarding the ritual of circumambulating the Ka-aba (Tawaf) where the entrances to this area are usually congested which worsens during the Hajj season. We will use the computer simulation model SimWalk which is based on the Social Force Model to simulate the movement of pilgrims in the Tawaf area. We will first discuss the effect of uni and bi-directional flows at the gates. We will then restrict certain gates to the area as the entrances only and others as exits only. From the simulations, we will study the effect of the distance of other entrances from the beginning line and their effects on the duration of pilgrims circumambulate Ka-aba. We will distribute the pilgrims at the different entrances evenly so that the congestion at the entrances can be reduced. We would also discuss the various locations and designs of barriers at the exits and its effect on the time taken for the pilgrims to exit the Tawaf area.

Keywords: circumambulation, Ka'aba, pedestrian flow, SFM, Tawaf , entrance, exit

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1511
67 The Effects of Mirror Therapy on Clinical Improvement in Hemiplegic Lower Extremity Rehabilitation in Subjects with Chronic Stroke

Authors: Hassan M. Abo Salem, Xiaolin Huang

Abstract:

Background: The effectiveness of mirror therapy (MT) has been investigated in acute hemiplegia. The present study examines whether MT, given during chronic stroke, was more effective in promoting motor recovery of the lower extremity and walking speed than standard rehabilitation alone. Methods: The study enrolled 30 patients with chronic stroke. Fifteen patients each were assigned to the treatment group and the control group. All patients received a conventional rehabilitation program for a 4-week period. In addition to this rehabilitation program, patients in the treatment group received mirror therapy for 4 weeks, 5 days a week. Main measures: Passive ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, gait speed, Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery, plantar flexor muscle tone by Modified Ashworth Scale. Results: No significant difference was found in the outcome measures among groups before treatment. When compared with standard rehabilitation, mirror therapy improved Ankle ROM, Brunnstrom stages and waking speed (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between two groups on MAS (P > 0.05).Conclusion: Mirror therapy combined with a conventional stroke rehabilitation program enhances lowerextremity motor recovery and walking speed in chronic stroke patients.

Keywords: Mirror therapy, stroke, MAS, walking speed.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4249
66 F-IVT Actuation System to Power Artificial Knee Joint

Authors: Alò Roberta, Bottiglione Francesco, Mantriota Giacomo

Abstract:

The efficiency of the actuation system of exoskeletons and active orthoses for lower limbs is a significant aspect of the design of such devices because it affects their efficacy. The F-IVT is an innovative actuation system to power artificial knee joint with energy recovery capabilities. Its key and non-conventional elements are a flywheel that acts as a mechanical energy storage system, and an Infinitely Variable Transmission (IVT). The design of the F-IVT can be optimized for a certain walking condition, resulting in a heavy reduction of both the electric energy consumption and of the electric peak power. In this work, by means of simulations of level ground walking at different speeds, it is demonstrated that the F-IVT is still an advantageous actuator which permits to save energy consumption and to downsize the electric motor even when it does not work in nominal conditions.

Keywords: Active orthoses, actuators, lower extremity exoskeletons, knee joint.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1924
65 Kinematic Analysis of an Assistive Robotic Leg for Hemiplegic and Hemiparetic Patients

Authors: M.R. Safizadeh, M. Hussein, K. F. Samat, M.S. Che Kob, M.S. Yaacob, M.Z. Md Zain

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the kinematic analysis and mechanism design of an assistive robotic leg for hemiplegic and hemiparetic patients. In this work, the priority is to design and develop the lightweight, effective and single driver mechanism on the basis of experimental hip and knee angles- data for walking speed of 1 km/h. A mechanism of cam-follower with three links is suggested for this purpose. The kinematic analysis is carried out and analysed using commercialized MATLAB software based on the prototype-s links sizes and kinematic relationships. In order to verify the kinematic analysis of the prototype, kinematic analysis data are compared with the experimental data. A good agreement between them proves that the anthropomorphic design of the lower extremity exoskeleton follows the human walking gait.

Keywords: Kinematic analysis, assistive robotic leg, lower extremity exoskeleton, cam-follower mechanism.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1606
64 Static and Dynamic Load on Hip Contact of Hip Prosthesis and Thai Femoral Bones

Authors: K. Chalernpon, P. Aroonjarattham, K. Aroonjarattham

Abstract:

Total hip replacement had been one of the most successful operations in hip arthritis surgery. The purpose of this research had been to develop a dynamic hip contact of Thai femoral bone to analyze the stress distribution on the implant and the strain distribution on the bone model under daily activities and compared with the static load simulation. The results showed the different of maximum von Mises stress 0.14 percent under walking and 0.03 percent under climbing stair condition and the different of equivalent total strain 0.52 percent under walking and 0.05 percent under climbing stair condition. The muscular forces should be evaluated with dynamic condition to reduce the maximum von Mises stress and equivalent total strain.

Keywords: Dynamic loading, Static Load, Hip prosthesis, Thai femur, Femoral bone, Finite Element Analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3417
63 The Application of Dynamic Network Process to Environment Planning Support Systems

Authors: Wann-Ming Wey

Abstract:

In recent years, in addition to face the external threats such as energy shortages and climate change, traffic congestion and environmental pollution have become anxious problems for many cities. Considering private automobile-oriented urban development had produced many negative environmental and social impacts, the transit-oriented development (TOD) has been considered as a sustainable urban model. TOD encourages public transport combined with friendly walking and cycling environment designs, however, non-motorized modes help improving human health, energy saving, and reducing carbon emissions. Due to environmental changes often affect the planners’ decision-making; this research applies dynamic network process (DNP) which includes the time dependent concept to promoting friendly walking and cycling environmental designs as an advanced planning support system for environment improvements.

This research aims to discuss what kinds of design strategies can improve a friendly walking and cycling environment under TOD. First of all, we collate and analyze environment designing factors by reviewing the relevant literatures as well as divide into three aspects of “safety”, “convenience”, and “amenity” from fifteen environment designing factors. Furthermore, we utilize fuzzy Delphi Technique (FDT) expert questionnaire to filter out the more important designing criteria for the study case. Finally, we utilized DNP expert questionnaire to obtain the weights changes at different time points for each design criterion. Based on the changing trends of each criterion weight, we are able to develop appropriate designing strategies as the reference for planners to allocate resources in a dynamic environment. In order to illustrate the approach we propose in this research, Taipei city as one example has been used as an empirical study, and the results are in depth analyzed to explain the application of our proposed approach.

Keywords: Environment Planning Support Systems, Walking and Cycling, Transit-oriented Development (TOD), Dynamic Network Process (DNP).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1601