Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 220

Search results for: Mirror therapy

220 The Effects of Mirror Therapy on Clinical Improvement in Hemiplegic Lower Extremity Rehabilitation in Subjects with Chronic Stroke

Authors: Hassan M. Abo Salem, Xiaolin Huang

Abstract:

Background: The effectiveness of mirror therapy (MT) has been investigated in acute hemiplegia. The present study examines whether MT, given during chronic stroke, was more effective in promoting motor recovery of the lower extremity and walking speed than standard rehabilitation alone. Methods: The study enrolled 30 patients with chronic stroke. Fifteen patients each were assigned to the treatment group and the control group. All patients received a conventional rehabilitation program for a 4-week period. In addition to this rehabilitation program, patients in the treatment group received mirror therapy for 4 weeks, 5 days a week. Main measures: Passive ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, gait speed, Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery, plantar flexor muscle tone by Modified Ashworth Scale. Results: No significant difference was found in the outcome measures among groups before treatment. When compared with standard rehabilitation, mirror therapy improved Ankle ROM, Brunnstrom stages and waking speed (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between two groups on MAS (P > 0.05).Conclusion: Mirror therapy combined with a conventional stroke rehabilitation program enhances lowerextremity motor recovery and walking speed in chronic stroke patients.

Keywords: Mirror therapy, stroke, MAS, walking speed.

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219 Analysis of Complex Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks

Authors: Chimin Tsai

Abstract:

This work consists of three parts. First, the alias-free condition for the conventional two-channel quadrature mirror filter bank is analyzed using complex arithmetic. Second, the approach developed in the first part is applied to the complex quadrature mirror filter bank. Accordingly, the structure is simplified and the theory is easier to follow. Finally, a new class of complex quadrature mirror filter banks is proposed. Interesting properties of this new structure are also discussed.

Keywords: Aliasing cancellation, complex signal processing, polyphase realization, quadrature mirror filter banks.

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218 High Voltage Driver Design for Actuating a MOEMS Mirror Array

Authors: M. Lenzhofer, D. Holzmann, A. Tortschanoff

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new multichannel high voltage driver box to connect up to six MOEMS mirror devices to it that have resonant and also quasistatically driven actuating electrodes. It is possible to drive all resonant axes synchronously while the amplitude of them can individually be controlled by separate microcontrollers that also operate the quasistatic axes. Circuit simulations are compared with the measurements done on the real system and also show the robust driving performance of a MOEMS mirror.

Keywords: MOEMS, scanner mirror, electrostatic driver.

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217 A 0.9 V, High-Speed, Low-Power Tunable Gain Current Mirror

Authors: Hassan Faraji Baghtash

Abstract:

A high-speed current mirror with low-power method of adjusting current gain is presented. The current mirror provides continuous gain adjustment; yet, its gain can simply be programmed digitally, as well. The structure features the ever interesting merits of linear-in-dB gain control scheme and low power/voltage operation. The performance of proposed structure is verified through the simulation in TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS Technology. The proposed tunable gain current mirror structure draws only 18 µW from 0.9 V power supply and can operate at high frequencies up to 550 MHz in the worst case condition of maximum gain setting.

Keywords: Current mirror, current mode, low power, low voltage, tunable circuit, variable current amplifier.

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216 Creating a Virtual Perception for Upper Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Arthur Ricardo Deps Miguel Ferreira, John Buchanan, Amarnath Banerjee

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a virtual-reality system ARWED, which will be used in physical rehabilitation of patients with reduced upper extremity mobility to increase limb Active Range of Motion (AROM). The ARWED system performs a symmetric reflection and real-time mapping of the patient’s healthy limb on to their most affected limb, tapping into the mirror neuron system and facilitating the initial learning phase. Using the ARWED, future experiments will test the extension of the action-observation priming effect linked to the mirror-neuron system on healthy subjects and then stroke patients.

Keywords: Physical rehabilitation, mirror neuron, virtual reality, stroke therapy.

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215 Investigation on Adjustable Mirror Bender Using Light Beam Size

Authors: A. Oonsivilai, A. Suthummapiwat, P.Songsiritthigul

Abstract:

In this research, the use of light beam size to design the adjustable mirror bender is presented. The focused beam line characterized by its size towards the synchrotron light beam line is investigated. The COSMOSWorks is used in all simulation components of curvature adjustment system to analyze in finite element method. The results based on simulation covers the use of applied forces during adjustment of the mirror radius are presented.

Keywords: Light beam-line, mirror bender, synchrotron light machine.

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214 A Novel Low Power Very Low Voltage High Performance Current Mirror

Authors: Khalil Monfaredi, Hassan Faraji Baghtash, Majid Abbasi

Abstract:

In this paper a novel high output impedance, low input impedance, wide bandwidth, very simple current mirror with input and output voltage requirements less than that of a simple current mirror is presented. These features are achieved with very simple structure avoiding extra large node impedances to ensure high bandwidth operation. The circuit's principle of operation is discussed and compared to simple and low voltage cascode (LVC) current mirrors. Such outstanding features of this current mirror as high output impedance ~384K, low input impedance~6.4, wide bandwidth~178MHz, low input voltage ~ 362mV, low output voltage ~ 38mV and low current transfer error ~4% (all at 50μA) makes it an outstanding choice for high performance applications. Simulation results in BSIM 0.35μm CMOS technology with HSPICE are given in comparison with simple, and LVC current mirrors to verify and validate the performance of the proposed current mirror.

Keywords: Analog circuits, Current mirror, high frequency, Low power, Low voltage.

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213 An Accurate, Wide Dynamic Range Current Mirror Structure

Authors: Hassan Faraji Baghtash

Abstract:

In this paper, a low voltage high performance current mirror is presented. Its most important specifications, which are improved in this work, are analyzed and formulated proving that it has such outstanding merits as: Very low input resistance of 26mΩ, very wide current dynamic range of 8 decades from 10pA to 1mA (160dB) together with an extremely low current copy error of less than 0.6ppm, and very low input and output voltages. Furthermore, the proposed current mirror bandwidth is 944MHz utilizing very low power consumption (267μW) and transistors count. HSPICE simulation results are performed using TSMC 0.18μm CMOS technology utilizing 1.8V single power supply, confirming the theoretically proved outstanding performance of the proposed current mirror. Monte Carlo simulation of its most important parameter is also examined showing its sufficiently resistance against technology process variations.

Keywords: Current mirror/source, high accuracy, low voltage, wide dynamic range.

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212 Design and Fabrication of an Electrostatically Actuated Parallel-Plate Mirror by 3D-Printer

Authors: J. Mizuno, S. Takahashi

Abstract:

In this paper, design and fabrication of an actuated parallel-plate mirror based on a 3D-printer is described. The mirror and electrode layers are fabricated separately and assembled thereafter. The alignment is performed by dowel pin-hole pairs fabricated on the respective layers. The electrodes are formed on the surface of the electrode layer by Au ion sputtering using a suitable mask, which is also fabricated by a 3D-printer.For grounding the mirror layer, except the contact area with the electrode paths, all the surface is Au ion sputtered. 3D-printers are widely used for creating 3D models or mock-ups. The authors have recently proposed that these models can perform electromechanical functions such as actuators by suitably masking them followed by metallization process. Since the smallest possible fabrication size is in the order of sub-millimeters, these electromechanical devices are named by the authors as SMEMS (Sub-Milli Electro-Mechanical Systems) devices. The proposed mirror described in this paper which consists of parallel-plate electrostatic actuators is also one type of SMEMS devices. In addition, SMEMS is totally environment-clean compared to MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabrication processes because any hazardous chemicals or gases are utilized.

Keywords: MEMS, parallel-plate mirror, SMEMS, 3D-printer.

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211 A High-Frequency Low-Power Low-Pass-Filter-Based All-Current-Mirror Sinusoidal Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: A. Leelasantitham, B. Srisuchinwong

Abstract:

A high-frequency low-power sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is presented through the use of two 2nd-order low-pass current-mirror (CM)-based filters, a 1st-order CM low-pass filter and a CM bilinear transfer function. The technique is relatively simple based on (i) inherent time constants of current mirrors, i.e. the internal capacitances and the transconductance of a diode-connected NMOS, (ii) a simple negative resistance RN formed by a resistor load RL of a current mirror. Neither external capacitances nor inductances are required. As a particular example, a 1.9-GHz, 0.45-mW, 2-V CMOS low-pass-filter-based all-current-mirror sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is demonstrated. The oscillation frequency (f0) is 1.9 GHz and is current-tunable over a range of 370 MHz or 21.6 %. The power consumption is at approximately 0.45 mW. The amplitude matching and the quadrature phase matching are better than 0.05 dB and 0.15°, respectively. Total harmonic distortions (THD) are less than 0.3 %. At 2 MHz offset from the 1.9 GHz, the carrier to noise ratio (CNR) is 90.01 dBc/Hz whilst the figure of merit called a normalized carrier-to-noise ratio (CNRnorm) is 153.03 dBc/Hz. The ratio of the oscillation frequency (f0) to the unity-gain frequency (fT) of a transistor is 0.25. Comparisons to other approaches are also included.

Keywords: Sinusoidal quadrature oscillator, low-pass-filterbased, current-mirror bilinear transfer function, all-current-mirror, negative resistance, low power, high frequency, low distortion.

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210 Near Perfect Reconstruction Quadrature Mirror Filter

Authors: A. Kumar, G. K. Singh, R. S. Anand

Abstract:

In this paper, various algorithms for designing quadrature mirror filter are reviewed and a new algorithm is presented for the design of near perfect reconstruction quadrature mirror filter bank. In the proposed algorithm, objective function is formulated using the perfect reconstruction condition or magnitude response condition of prototype filter at frequency (ω = 0.5π) in ideal condition. The cutoff frequency is iteratively changed to adjust the filters coefficients using optimization algorithm. The performances of the proposed algorithm are evaluated in term of computation time, reconstruction error and number of iterations. The design examples illustrate that the proposed algorithm is superior in term of peak reconstruction error, computation time, and number of iterations. The proposed algorithm is simple, easy to implement, and linear in nature.

Keywords: Aliasing cancellations filter bank, Filter banks, quadrature mirror filter (QMF), subband coding.

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209 Analysis of Current Mirror in 32nm MOSFET and CNTFET Technologies

Authors: Mohini Polimetla, Rajat Mahapatra

Abstract:

There is need to explore emerging technologies based on carbon nanotube electronics as the MOS technology is approaching its limits. As MOS devices scale to the nano ranges, increased short channel effects and process variations considerably effect device and circuit designs. As a promising new transistor, the Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor(CNTFET) avoids most of the fundamental limitations of the Traditional MOSFET devices. In this paper we present the analysis and comparision of a Carbon Nanotube FET(CNTFET) based 10(A current mirror with MOSFET for 32nm technology node. The comparision shows the superiority of the former in terms of 97% increase in output resistance,24% decrease in power dissipation and 40% decrease in minimum voltage required for constant saturation current. Furthermore the effect on performance of current mirror due to change in chirality vector of CNT has also been investigated. The circuit simulations are carried out using HSPICE model.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor, Chirality Vector, Current Mirror

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208 An Investigation of the Effects of Emotional Experience Induction on Mirror Neurons System Activity with Regard to Spectrum of Depressive Symptoms

Authors: Elyas Akbari, Jafar Hasani, Newsha Dehestani, Mohammad Khaleghi, Alireza Moradi

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of emotional experience induction in the mirror neurons systems (MNS) activity with regard to the spectrum of depressive symptoms. For this purpose, at first stage, 449 students of Kharazmi University of Tehran were selected randomly and completed the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Then, 36 students with standard Z-score equal or above +1.5 and equal or equal or below -1.5 were selected to construct two groups of high and low spectrum of depressive symptoms. In the next stage, the basic activity of MNS was recorded (mu wave) before presenting the positive and negative emotional video clips by Electroencephalography (EEG) technique. The findings related to emotion induction (neutral, negative and positive emotion) demonstrated that the activity of recorded mirror neuron areas had a significant difference between the depressive and non-depressive groups. These findings suggest that probably processing of negative emotions in depressive individuals is due to the idea that the mirror neurons in motor cortex matched up the activity of cognitive regions with the person’s schema. Considering the results of the present study, it could be said that the MNS provides a substrate where emotional disorders can be studied and evaluated.

Keywords: Emotional experiences, mirror neurons, depressive symptoms.

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207 A Low Voltage High Performance Self Cascode Current Mirror

Authors: Jasdeep Kaur, Nupur Prakash, S. S. Rajput

Abstract:

A current mirror (CM) based on self cascode MOSFETs low voltage analog and mixed mode structures has been proposed. The proposed CM has high output impedance and can operate at 0.5 V. P-Spice simulations confirm the high performance of this CM with a bandwidth of 6.0 GHz at input current of 100 μA.

Keywords: Current Mirrors, Composite Cascode Structure, Current Source/Sink

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206 Mirror Neuron System Study on Elderly Using Dynamic Causal Modeling fMRI Analysis

Authors: R. Keerativittatayut, B. Kaewkamnerdpong, J. Laothamatas, W. Sungkarat

Abstract:

Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a promising technique to study the connectivity among brain regions and effects of stimuli through modeling neuronal interactions from time-series neuroimaging. The aim of this study is to study characteristics of a mirror neuron system (MNS) in elderly group (age: 60-70 years old). Twenty volunteers were MRI scanned with visual stimuli to study a functional brain network. DCM was employed to determine the mechanism of mirror neuron effects. The results revealed major activated areas including precentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior occipital gyrus, and supplementary motor area. When visual stimuli were presented, the feed-forward connectivity from visual area to conjunction area was increased and forwarded to motor area. Moreover, the connectivity from the conjunction areas to premotor area was also increased. Such findings can be useful for future diagnostic process for elderly with diseases such as Parkinson-s and Alzheimer-s.

Keywords: Mirror Neuron System (MNS), Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM), Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

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205 Design of Two-Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using Digital All-Pass Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Yi-Lin Shieh

Abstract:

The paper deals with the minimax design of two-channel linear-phase (LP) quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks using infinite impulse response (IIR) digital all-pass filters (DAFs). Based on the theory of two-channel QMF banks using two IIR DAFs, the design problem is appropriately formulated to result in an appropriate Chebyshev approximation for the desired group delay responses of the IIR DAFs and the magnitude response of the low-pass analysis filter. Through a frequency sampling and iterative approximation method, the design problem can be solved by utilizing a weighted least squares approach. The resulting two-channel QMF banks can possess approximately LP response without magnitude distortion. Simulation results are presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: Chebyshev approximation, Digital All-Pass Filter, Quadrature Mirror Filter, Weighted Least Squares.

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204 What Do Young People Seeking Professional Help Want and Expect From Therapy?

Authors: Clare Watsford, Debra Rickwood

Abstract:

Client expectations and preferences about therapy represent an important area of investigation as research shows they are linked to engagement in therapy and therapy outcomes. Studies examining young people-s expectations and preferences of therapy remain a neglected area of research. The present study explored what expectations and preferences young people seeking professional help held regarding: their role as a client, their therapist-s role, their therapeutic outcomes, and the processes of therapy. Gender and age differences were also examined. Participants included 188 young people aged 12-25 who completed a survey while attending their initial session at a youth mental health service. Data were analysed using quantitative methods. Results found the young people held significantly more pessimistic expectations around therapy when compared to what they had wanted therapy to be like. Few age and gender differences were found. Results highlight the importance of a collaborative therapy approach when working with young people.

Keywords: Client expectations, mental health services, preferences, young people

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203 Optimal Design of Two-Channel Recursive Parallelogram Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Yi-Lin Shieh

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimal design of two-channel recursive parallelogram quadrature mirror filter (PQMF) banks. The analysis and synthesis filters of the PQMF bank are composed of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive digital all-pass filters (DAFs) with nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP) support region. The design problem can be facilitated by using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive NSHP DAFs, we appropriately formulate the design problem to result in an optimization problem that can be solved by using a weighted least-squares (WLS) algorithm in the minimax (L) optimal sense. The designed 2-D recursive PQMF bank achieves perfect magnitude response and possesses satisfactory phase response without requiring extra phase equalizer. Simulation results are also provided for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: Parallelogram Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank, Doubly Complementary Filter, Nonsymmetric Half-Plane Filter, Weighted Least Squares Algorithm, Digital All-Pass Filter.

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202 PointNetLK-OBB: A Point Cloud Registration Algorithm with High Accuracy

Authors: Wenhao Lan, Ning Li, Qiang Tong

Abstract:

To improve the registration accuracy of a source point cloud and template point cloud when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, a PointNetLK algorithm combined with an oriented bounding box (PointNetLK-OBB) is proposed. In this algorithm, the OBB of a 3D point cloud is used to represent the macro feature of source and template point clouds. Under the guidance of the iterative closest point algorithm, the OBB of the source and template point clouds is aligned, and a mirror symmetry effect is produced between them. According to the fitting degree of the source and template point clouds, the mirror symmetry plane is detected, and the optimal rotation and translation of the source point cloud is obtained to complete the 3D point cloud registration task. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a comparative experiment was performed using the publicly available ModelNet40 dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with PointNetLK, PointNetLK-OBB improves the registration accuracy of the source and template point clouds when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, and the sensitivity of the initial relative position between the source point cloud and template point cloud is reduced. The primary contribution of this paper is the use of PointNetLK to avoid the non-convex problem of traditional point cloud registration and leveraging the regularity of the OBB to avoid the local optimization problem in the PointNetLK context.

Keywords: Mirror symmetry, oriented bounding box, point cloud registration, PointNetLK-OBB.

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201 Evaluation of Aerodynamic Noise Generation by a Generic Side Mirror

Authors: Yiping Wang, Zhengqi Gu, Weiping Li, Xiaohui Lin

Abstract:

The aerodynamic noise radiation from a side view mirror (SVM) in the high-speed airflow is calculated by the combination of unsteady incompressible fluid flow analysis and acoustic analysis. The transient flow past the generic SVM is simulated with variable turbulence model, namely DES Detached Eddy Simulation and LES (Large Eddy Simulation). Detailed velocity vectors and contour plots of the time-varying velocity and pressure fields are presented along cut planes in the flow-field. Mean and transient pressure are also monitored at several points in the flow field and compared to corresponding experimentally data published in literature. The acoustic predictions made using the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkins acoustic analogy (FW-H) and the boundary element (BEM).

Keywords: Aerodynamic noise, BEM, DES, FW-H acousticanalogy, LES

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200 Pre-Operative Tool for Facial-Post-Surgical Estimation and Detection

Authors: Ayat E. Ali, Christeen R. Aziz, Merna A. Helmy, Mohammed M. Malek, Sherif H. El-Gohary

Abstract:

Goal: Purpose of the project was to make a plastic surgery prediction by using pre-operative images for the plastic surgeries’ patients and to show this prediction on a screen to compare between the current case and the appearance after the surgery. Methods: To this aim, we implemented a software which used data from the internet for facial skin diseases, skin burns, pre-and post-images for plastic surgeries then the post- surgical prediction is done by using K-nearest neighbor (KNN). So we designed and fabricated a smart mirror divided into two parts a screen and a reflective mirror so patient's pre- and post-appearance will be showed at the same time. Results: We worked on some skin diseases like vitiligo, skin burns and wrinkles. We classified the three degrees of burns using KNN classifier with accuracy 60%. We also succeeded in segmenting the area of vitiligo. Our future work will include working on more skin diseases, classify them and give a prediction for the look after the surgery. Also we will go deeper into facial deformities and plastic surgeries like nose reshaping and face slim down. Conclusion: Our project will give a prediction relates strongly to the real look after surgery and decrease different diagnoses among doctors. Significance: The mirror may have broad societal appeal as it will make the distance between patient's satisfaction and the medical standards smaller.

Keywords: K-nearest neighbor, face detection, vitiligo, bone deformity.

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199 The Effectiveness of Metaphor Therapy on Depression among Female Students

Authors: Marzieh Talebzadeh Shoushtari

Abstract:

The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metaphor therapy on depression among female students. The sample included 60 female students with depression symptoms selected by simple sampling and randomly divided into two equal groups (experimental and control groups). Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the variables. This was an experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design with control group. Eight metaphor therapy sessions were held for the experimental group. A post-test was administered to both groups. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results showed that the Metaphor therapy decreased depression in the experimental group compared to the control group.

Keywords: Metaphor therapy, depression, female, students.

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198 The Internationalization of R&D and its Offshoring Process

Authors: Jianlin Li, Jizhen Li

Abstract:

Transnational corporations (TNCs) are playing a major role in global R&D, not only through activities in their home countries but also increasingly abroad. However, the process of R&D offshoring is not yet discussed thoroughly. Based on in-depth case study on Agilent China Communications Operation, this paper presents a stage model for theorizing the R&D offshoring process. This stage model outlines 5 maturity levels of organization and the offshoring process: Subsidiary team, Mirror team, Independent team, Mirror sector and the Independent sector (from software engineering point of view, it is similar to the local team's capability level of maturity model). Moreover, the paper gives a detailed discussion on the relevant characteristics, as well as the ability/responsibility of transfer, priorities and the corresponding organization structure. It also gives the characteristics and key points of different level-s R&D offshoring implementation using actual team practice.

Keywords: Internationalization of R&D, R&D offshoring process, Multinational Corporations, Organization Level.

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197 Igbo Art: A Reflection of the Igbo’s Visual Culture

Authors: David Osa-Egonwa

Abstract:

Visual culture is the expression of the norms and social behavior of a society in visual images. A reflection simply shows you how you look when you stand before a mirror, a clear water or stream. The mirror does not alter, improve or distort your original appearance, neither does it show you a caricature of what stands before it, this is the case with visual images created by a tribe or society. The ‘uli’ is hand drawn body design done on Igbo women and speaks of a culture of body adornment which is a practice that is appreciated by that tribe. The use of pattern of the gliding python snake ‘ije eke’ or ‘ijeagwo’ for wall painting speaks of the Igbo culture as one that appreciates wall paintings based on these patterns. Modern life came and brought a lot of change to the Igbo-speaking people of Nigeria. Change cloaked in the garment of Westernization has influenced the culture of the Igbos. This has resulted in a problem which is a break in the cultural practice that has also affected art produced by the Igbos. Before the colonial masters arrived and changed the established culture practiced by the Igbos, visual images were created that retained the culture of this people. To bring this point to limelight, this paper has adopted a historical method. A large number of works produced during pre and post-colonial era which range from sculptural pieces, paintings and other artifacts, just to mention a few, were studied carefully and it was discovered that the visual images hold the culture or aspects of the culture of the Igbos in their renditions and can rightly serve as a mirror of the Igbo visual culture.

Keywords: Artistic renditions, historical method, Igbo visual culture, changes.

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196 Parameters Influencing the Output Precision of a Lens-Lens Beam Generator Solar Concentrator

Authors: M. Tawfik, X. Tonnellier, C. Sansom

Abstract:

The Lens-Lens Beam Generator (LLBG) is a Fresnel-based optical concentrating technique which provides flexibility in selecting the solar receiver location compared to conventional techniques through generating a powerful concentrated collimated solar beam. In order to achieve that, two successive lenses are used and followed by a flat mirror. Hence the generated beam emerging from the LLBG has a high power flux which impinges on the target receiver, it is important to determine the precision of the system output. In this present work, mathematical investigation of different parameters affecting the precision of the output beam is carried out. These parameters include: Deflection in sun-facing lens and its holding arm, delay in updating the solar tracking system, and the flat mirror surface flatness. Moreover, relationships that describe the power lost due to the effect of each parameter are derived in this study.

Keywords: Fresnel lens, LLBG, solar concentrator, solar tracking.

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195 Pilot Trial of Evidence-Based Integrative Group Therapy to Improve Executive Functioning among Adults: Implications for Community Mental Health and Training Clinics

Authors: B. Parchem, M. Watanabe, D. Modrakovic, L. Mathew, A. Franklin, M. Cao, R. E. Broudy

Abstract:

Objective: Executive functioning (EF) deficits underlie several mental health diagnoses including ADHD, anxiety, and depression. Community mental health clinics face extensive waitlists for services with many referrals involving EF deficits. A pilot trial of a four-week group therapy was developed using key components from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), and mindfulness with an aim to improve EF skills and offer low-fee services. Method: Eight adults (M = 34.5) waiting for services at a community clinic were enrolled in a four-week group therapy at an in-house training clinic for doctoral trainees. Baseline EF, pre-/post-intervention ADHD and distress symptoms, group satisfaction, and curriculum helpfulness were assessed. Results: Downward trends in ADHD and distress symptoms pre/post-intervention were not significant. Favorable responses on group satisfaction and helpfulness suggest clinical utility. Conclusion: Preliminary pilot data from a brief group therapy to improve EF may be an efficacious, acceptable, and feasible intervention for adults waiting for services at community mental health and training clinics where there are high demands and limits to services and staffs.

Keywords: Executive functioning, cognitive-behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, adult group therapy.

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194 Quantum Localization of Vibrational Mirror in Cavity Optomechanics

Authors: Madiha Tariq, Hena Rabbani

Abstract:

Recently, cavity-optomechanics becomes an extensive research field that has manipulated the mechanical effects of light for coupling of the optical field with other physical objects specifically with regards to dynamical localization. We investigate the dynamical localization (both in momentum and position space) for a vibrational mirror in a Fabry-Pérot cavity driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse probe field. The weak probe field phenomenon results in classical chaos in phase space and spatio temporal dynamics in position |ψ(x)²| and momentum space |ψ(p)²| versus time show quantum localization in both momentum and position space. Also, we discuss the parametric dependencies of dynamical localization for a designated set of parameters to be experimentally feasible. Our work opens an avenue to manipulate the other optical phenomena and applicability of proposed work can be prolonged to turn-able laser sources in the future.

Keywords: Dynamical localization, cavity optomechanics, hamiltonian chaos, probe field.

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193 Low Voltage High Gain Linear Class AB CMOS OTA with DC Level Input Stage

Authors: Houda Bdiri Gabbouj, Néjib Hassen, Kamel Besbes

Abstract:

This paper presents a low-voltage low-power differential linear transconductor with near rail-to-rail input swing. Based on the current-mirror OTA topology, the proposed transconductor combines the Flipped Voltage Follower (FVF) technique to linearize the transconductor behavior that leads to class- AB linear operation and the virtual transistor technique to lower the effective threshold voltages of the transistors which offers an advantage in terms of low supply requirement. Design of the OTA has been discussed. It operates at supply voltages of about ±0.8V. Simulation results for 0.18μm TSMC CMOS technology show a good input range of 1Vpp with a high DC gain of 81.53dB and a total harmonic distortion of -40dB at 1MHz for an input of 1Vpp. The main aim of this paper is to present and compare new OTA design with high transconductance, which has a potential to be used in low voltage applications.

Keywords: Amplifier class AB, current mirror, flipped voltage follower, low voltage.

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192 Cognitive Behaviour Therapy to Treat Social Anxiety Disorder: A Psychology Case

Authors: Yasmin Binti Othman Mydin, Mohd. Fadzillah Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy is the first cognitive behavior therapy which was introduced by Albert Ellis. This is a systematic and structured psychotherapy which is effective in treating various psychological problems. A patient, 25 years old male, experienced intense fear and situational panic attack to return to his faculty and to face his class-mates after a long absence (2 years). This social anxiety disorder was a major factor that impeded the progress of his study. He was treated with the use of behavioural technique such as relaxation breathing technique and cognitive techniques such as imagery, cognitive restructuring, rationalization technique and systematic desensitization. The patient reported positive improvement in the anxiety disorder, able to progress well in studies and lead a better quality of life as a student.

Keywords: Anxiety, behaviour, cognitive, therapy

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191 A Heat-Inducible Transgene Expression System for Gene Therapy

Authors: Masaki Yamaguchi, Akira Ito, Noriaki Okamoto, Yoshinori Kawabe, Masamichi Kamihira

Abstract:

Heat-inducible gene expression vectors are useful for hyperthermia-induced cancer gene therapy, because the combination of hyperthermia and gene therapy can considerably improve the therapeutic effects. In the present study, we developed an enhanced heat-inducible transgene expression system in which a heat-shock protein (HSP) promoter and tetracycline-responsive transactivator were combined. When the transactivator plasmid containing the tetracycline-responsive transactivator gene was co-transfected with the reporter gene expression plasmid, a high level of heat-induced gene expression was observed compared with that using the HSP promoter without the transactivator. In vitro evaluation of the therapeutic effect using HeLa cells showed that heat-induced therapeutic gene expression caused cell death in a high percentage of these cells, indicating that this strategy is promising for cancer gene therapy.

Keywords: Inducible gene expression, Gene therapy, Hyperthermia, Heat shock protein, Tetracycline transactivator.

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