Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: exoskeleton

13 Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton

Authors: Tawakal Hasnain Baluch, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umer Izhar, Umar Shahbaz Khan

Abstract:

This paper will provide the kinematic and dynamic analysis of a lower limb exoskeleton. The forward and inverse kinematics of proposed exoskeleton is performed using Denevit and Hartenberg method. The torques required for the actuators will be calculated using Lagrangian formulation technique. This research can be used to design the control of the proposed exoskeleton.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, Exoskeleton, Kinematic Analysis, Lower Limb, Rehabilitation Robotics

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12 Optimization of the Control Scheme for Human Extremity Exoskeleton

Authors: Yang Li, Xiaorong Guan, Cheng Xu

Abstract:

In order to design a suitable control scheme for human extremity exoskeleton, the interaction force control scheme with traditional PI controller was presented, and the simulation study of the electromechanical system of the human extremity exoskeleton was carried out by using a MATLAB/Simulink module. By analyzing the simulation calculation results, it was shown that the traditional PI controller is not very suitable for every movement speed of human body. So, at last the fuzzy self-adaptive PI controller was presented to solve this problem. Eventually, the superiority and feasibility of the fuzzy self-adaptive PI controller was proved by the simulation results and experimental results.

Keywords: Human extremity exoskeleton, interaction force control scheme, simulation study, fuzzy self-adaptive pi controller, man-machine coordinated walking, bear payload.

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11 Energy Efficient Autonomous Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Human Motion Enhancement

Authors: Nazim Mir-Nasiri, Hudyjaya Siswoyo Jo

Abstract:

The paper describes conceptual design, control strategies, and partial simulation for a new fully autonomous lower limb wearable exoskeleton system for human motion enhancement that can support its weight and increase strength and endurance. Various problems still remain to be solved where the most important is the creation of a power and cost efficient system that will allow an exoskeleton to operate for extended period without batteries being frequently recharged. The designed exoskeleton is enabling to decouple the weight/mass carrying function of the system from the forward motion function which reduces the power and size of propulsion motors and thus the overall weight, cost of the system. The decoupling takes place by blocking the motion at knee joint by placing passive air cylinder across the joint. The cylinder is actuated when the knee angle has reached the minimum allowed value to bend. The value of the minimum bending angle depends on usual walk style of the subject. The mechanism of the exoskeleton features a seat to rest the subject’s body weight at the moment of blocking the knee joint motion. The mechanical structure of each leg has six degrees of freedom: four at the hip, one at the knee, and one at the ankle. Exoskeleton legs are attached to subject legs by using flexible cuffs. The operation of all actuators depends on the amount of pressure felt by the feet pressure sensors and knee angle sensor. The sensor readings depend on actual posture of the subject and can be classified in three distinct cases: subject stands on one leg, subject stands still on both legs and subject stands on both legs but transit its weight from one leg to other. This exoskeleton is power efficient because electrical motors are smaller in size and did not participate in supporting the weight like in all other existing exoskeleton designs.

Keywords: Energy efficient system, exoskeleton, motion enhancement, robotics.

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10 Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System

Authors: Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith

Abstract:

This paper deals with a robust model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation approach used to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system. The considered system is a 2-DoF robot in interaction with an upper limb used for rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to control the flexion/extension movement of the shoulder and the elbow joints in presence of matched disturbances. In the first part, we present the exoskeleton-upper limb system modeling. Then, we controlled the considered system by the model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation. A stability study is realized. To prove the controller performance, a robustness analysis was needed. Simulation results are provided to confirm the robustness of the gravity compensation combined with to the Model free terminal sliding mode in presence of uncertainties.

Keywords: Exoskeleton-upper limb system, gravity compensation, model free terminal sliding mode, robustness analysis, Monte Carlo, H∞ methods.

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9 Enhancing Human Mobility Exoskeleton Comfort Using Admittance Controller

Authors: Alexandre Rabaseda, Emelie Seguin, Marc Doumit

Abstract:

Human mobility exoskeletons have been in development for several years and are becoming increasingly efficient. Unfortunately, user comfort was not always a priority design criterion throughout their development. To further improve this technology, exoskeletons should operate and deliver assistance without causing discomfort to the user. For this, improvements are necessary from an ergonomic point of view. The device’s control method is important when endeavoring to enhance user comfort. Exoskeleton or rehabilitation device controllers use methods of control called interaction controls (admittance and impedance controls). This paper proposes an extended version of an admittance controller to enhance user comfort. The control method used consists of adding an inner loop that is controlled by a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. This allows the interaction force to be kept as close as possible to the desired force trajectory. The force-tracking admittance controller modifies the actuation force of the system in order to follow both the desired motion trajectory and the desired relative force between the user and the exoskeleton.

Keywords: Mobility assistive device, exoskeleton, force-tracking admittance controller, user comfort.

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8 Exoskeleton for Hemiplegic Patients: Mechatronic Approach to Move One Disabled Lower Limb

Authors: Alaoui Hamza, Moutacalli Mohamed Tarik, Chebak Ahmed

Abstract:

The number of people suffering from hemiplegia is growing each year. This lower limb disability affects all the aspects of their lives by taking away their autonomy. This implicates their close relatives, as well as the health system to provide the necessary care they need. The integration of exoskeletons in the medical field became a promising solution to resolve this issue. This paper presents an exoskeleton designed to help hemiplegic people get back the sensation and ability of normal walking. For this purpose, three step models have been created. The first step allows a simple forward movement of the leg. The second method is designed to overcome some obstacles in the patient path, and finally the third step model gives the patient total control over the device. Each of the control methods was designed to offer a solution to the challenges that the patients may face during the walking process.

Keywords: Ability of normal walking, exoskeleton, hemiplegic patients, lower limb motion, mechatronics.

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7 Iterative Estimator-Based Nonlinear Backstepping Control of a Robotic Exoskeleton

Authors: Brahmi Brahim, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Maarouf Saad, Cristóbal Ochoa Luna

Abstract:

A repetitive training movement is an efficient method to improve the ability and movement performance of stroke survivors and help them to recover their lost motor function and acquire new skills. The ETS-MARSE is seven degrees of freedom (DOF) exoskeleton robot developed to be worn on the lateral side of the right upper-extremity to assist and rehabilitate the patients with upper-extremity dysfunction resulting from stroke. Practically, rehabilitation activities are repetitive tasks, which make the assistive/robotic systems to suffer from repetitive/periodic uncertainties and external perturbations induced by the high-order dynamic model (seven DOF) and interaction with human muscle which impact on the tracking performance and even on the stability of the exoskeleton. To ensure the robustness and the stability of the robot, a new nonlinear backstepping control was implemented with designed tests performed by healthy subjects. In order to limit and to reject the periodic/repetitive disturbances, an iterative estimator was integrated into the control of the system. The estimator does not need the precise dynamic model of the exoskeleton. Experimental results confirm the robustness and accuracy of the controller performance to deal with the external perturbation, and the effectiveness of the iterative estimator to reject the repetitive/periodic disturbances.

Keywords: Backstepping control, iterative control, rehabilitation, ETS-MARSE.

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6 Kinematic Analysis of an Assistive Robotic Leg for Hemiplegic and Hemiparetic Patients

Authors: M.R. Safizadeh, M. Hussein, K. F. Samat, M.S. Che Kob, M.S. Yaacob, M.Z. Md Zain

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the kinematic analysis and mechanism design of an assistive robotic leg for hemiplegic and hemiparetic patients. In this work, the priority is to design and develop the lightweight, effective and single driver mechanism on the basis of experimental hip and knee angles- data for walking speed of 1 km/h. A mechanism of cam-follower with three links is suggested for this purpose. The kinematic analysis is carried out and analysed using commercialized MATLAB software based on the prototype-s links sizes and kinematic relationships. In order to verify the kinematic analysis of the prototype, kinematic analysis data are compared with the experimental data. A good agreement between them proves that the anthropomorphic design of the lower extremity exoskeleton follows the human walking gait.

Keywords: Kinematic analysis, assistive robotic leg, lower extremity exoskeleton, cam-follower mechanism.

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5 Preliminary Study on Analysis of Pinching Motion Actuated by Electro-Active Polymers

Authors: Doo W. Lee, Soo J. Lee, Bye R. Yoon, Jae Y. Jho, Kyehan Rhee

Abstract:

Hand exoskeletons have been developed in order to assist daily activities for disabled and elder people. A figure exoskeleton was developed using ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators, and the performance of it was evaluated in this study. In order to study dynamic performance of a finger dummy performing pinching motion, force generating characteristics of an IPMC actuator and pinching motion of a thumb and index finger dummy actuated by IMPC actuators were analyzed. The blocking force of 1.54 N was achieved under 4 V of DC. A thumb and index finger dummy, which has one degree of freedom at the proximal joint of each figure, was manufactured by a three dimensional rapid prototyping. Each figure was actuated by an IPMC actuator, and the maximum fingertip force was 1.18 N. Pinching motion of a dummy was analyzed by two video cameras in vertical top and horizontal left end view planes. A figure dummy powered by IPMC actuators could perform flexion and extension motion of an index figure and a thumb.

Keywords: Finger exoskeleton, ionic polymer metal composite, flexion and extension, motion analysis.

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4 An Ergonomic Evaluation of Three Load Carriage Systems for Reducing Muscle Activity of Trunk and Lower Extremities during Giant Puppet Performing Tasks

Authors: Cathy SW. Chow, Kristina Shin, Faming Wang, B. C. L. So

Abstract:

During some dynamic giant puppet performances, an ergonomically designed load carrier system is necessary for the puppeteers to carry a giant puppet body’s heavy load with minimum muscle stress. A load carrier (i.e. prototype) was designed with two small wheels on the foot; and a hybrid spring device on the knee in order to assist the sliding and knee bending movements respectively. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three load carriers including two other commercially available load mounting systems, Tepex and SuitX, and the prototype. Ten male participants were recruited for the experiment. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to collect the participants’ muscle activities during forward moving and bouncing and with and without load of 11.1 kg that was 60 cm above the shoulder. Five bilateral muscles including the lumbar erector spinae (LES), rectus femoris (RF), bicep femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GM) were selected for data collection. During forward moving task, the sEMG data showed smallest muscle activities by Tepex harness which exhibited consistently the lowest, compared with the prototype and SuitX which were significantly higher on left LES 68.99% and 64.99%, right LES 26.57% and 82.45%; left RF 87.71% and 47.61%, right RF 143.57% and 24.28%; left BF 80.21% and 22.23%, right BF 96.02% and 21.83%; right TA 6.32% and 4.47%; left GM 5.89% and 12.35% respectively. The result above reflected mobility was highly restricted by tested exoskeleton devices. On the other hand, the sEMG data from bouncing task showed the smallest muscle activities by prototype which exhibited consistently the lowest, compared with the Tepex harness and SuitX which were significantly lower on lLES 6.65% and 104.93, rLES 23.56% and 92.19%; lBF 33.21% and 93.26% and rBF 24.70% and 81.16%; lTA 46.51% and 191.02%; rTA 12.75% and 125.76%; IGM 31.54% and 68.36%; rGM 95.95% and 96.43% respectively.

Keywords: Exoskeleton, load carriage aid, giant puppet performers, electromyography.

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3 Design of High Torque Elbow Joint for Above Elbow Prosthesis

Authors: Irfan Hussain, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umar S. Khan

Abstract:

Above Elbow Prosthesis is one of the most commonly amputated or missing limbs. The research is done for modelling techniques of upper limb prosthesis and design of high torque, light weight and compact in size elbow actuator. The purposed actuator consists of a DC motor, planetary gear set and a harmonic drive. The calculations show that the actuator is good enough to be used in real life powered prosthetic upper limb or rehabilitation exoskeleton.

Keywords: Above Elbow prosthesis, Harmonic drive, Planetarygear set, Sagittal Plane

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2 Relating Interface Properties with Crack Propagation in Composite Laminates

Authors: Tao Qu, Chandra Prakash, Vikas Tomar

Abstract:

The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have been shown to be a key factor contributing to their high performance. This work analyzes crack propagation in a 2-ply laminate subjected to uniaxial tensile mode-I crack propagation loading that has laminate properties derived based on biological material constituents (marine exoskeleton- chitin and calcite). Interfaces in such laminates are explicitly modeled based on earlier molecular simulations performed by authors. Extended finite element method and cohesive zone modeling based simulations coupled with theoretical analysis are used to analyze crack propagation. Analyses explicitly quantify the effect that interface mechanical property variation has on the delamination as well as the transverse crack propagation in examined 2-ply laminates.

Keywords: Chitin, composites, interfaces, fracture.

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1 Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Christopher Spiewak, M. R. Islam, Mohammad Arifur Rahaman, Mohammad H. Rahman, Roger Smith, Maarouf Saad

Abstract:

For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.

Keywords: Biorobotics, rehabilitation, nonlinear control, robotic assistive device, exoskeleton.

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