Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1659

Search results for: Voltage mode

1659 Low Power Low Voltage Current Mode Pipelined A/D Converters

Authors: Krzysztof Wawryn, Robert Suszyński, Bogdan Strzeszewski

Abstract:

This paper presents two prototypes of low power low voltage current mode 9 bit pipelined a/d converters. The first and the second converters are configured of 1.5 bit and 2.5 bit stages, respectively. The a/d converter structures are composed of current mode building blocks and final comparator block which converts the analog current signal into digital voltage signal. All building blocks have been designed in CMOS AMS 0.35μm technology, then simulated to verify proposed concept. The performances of both converters are compared to performances of known current mode and voltage mode switched capacitance converter structures. Low power consumption and small chip area are advantages of the proposed converters.

Keywords: Pipelined converter, a/d converter, low power, lowvoltage, current mode.

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1658 A Low-Voltage Current-Mode Wheatstone Bridge using CMOS Transistors

Authors: Ebrahim Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new circuit arrangement for a current-mode Wheatstone bridge that is suitable for low-voltage integrated circuits implementation. Compared to the other proposed circuits, this circuit features severe reduction of the elements number, low supply voltage (1V) and low power consumption (<350uW). In addition, the circuit has favorable nonlinearity error (<0.35%), operate with multiple sensors and works by single supply voltage. The circuit employs MOSFET transistors, so it can be used for standard CMOS fabrication. Simulation results by HSPICE show high performance of the circuit and confirm the validity of the proposed design technique.

Keywords: Wheatstone bridge, current-mode, low-voltage, MOS.

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1657 A Digitally Programmable Voltage-mode Multifunction Biquad Filter with Single-Output

Authors: C. Ketviriyakit, W. Kongnun, C. Chanapromma, P. Silapan

Abstract:

This article proposes a voltage-mode multifunction filter using differential voltage current controllable current conveyor transconductance amplifier (DV-CCCCTA). The features of the circuit are that: the quality factor and pole frequency can be tuned independently via the values of capacitors: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of merely 1 DV-CCCCTA, and 2 capacitors. Without any component matching conditions, the proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into an integrated circuit. Additionally, each function response can be selected by suitably selecting input signals with digital method. The PSpice simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

Keywords: DV-CCCCTA, Voltage-mode, Multifunction filter

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1656 On Two Control Approaches for The Output Voltage Regulation of a Boost Converter

Authors: Abdelaziz Sahbani, Kamel Ben Saad, Mohamed Benrejeb

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison between two proposed control strategies for a DC-DC boost converter. The first control is a classical Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and the second one is a distance based Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC). The SMC is an analytical control approach based on the boost mathematical model. However, the FSMC is a non-conventional control approach which does not need the controlled system mathematical model. It needs only the measures of the output voltage to perform the control signal. The obtained simulation results show that the two proposed control methods are robust for the case of load resistance and the input voltage variations. However, the proposed FSMC gives a better step voltage response than the one obtained by the SMC.

Keywords: Boost DC-DC converter, Sliding Mode Control (SMC), Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC), Robustness.

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1655 Triple-input Single-output Voltage-mode Multifunction Filter Using Only Two Current Conveyors

Authors: Mehmet Sagbas, Kemal Fidanboylu, M. Can Bayram

Abstract:

A new voltage-mode triple-input single-output multifunction filter using only two current conveyors is presented. The proposed filter which possesses three inputs and single-output can generate all biquadratic filtering functions at the output terminal by selecting different input signal combinations. The validity of the proposed filter is verified through PSPICE simulations.

Keywords: Active Filters, Voltage mode, Current conveyor

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1654 A Superior Delay Estimation Model for VLSI Interconnect in Current Mode Signaling

Authors: Sunil Jadav, Rajeevan Chandel Munish Vashishath

Abstract:

Today’s VLSI networks demands for high speed. And in this work the compact form mathematical model for current mode signalling in VLSI interconnects is presented.RLC interconnect line is modelled using characteristic impedance of transmission line and inductive effect. The on-chip inductance effect is dominant at lower technology node is emulated into an equivalent resistance. First order transfer function is designed using finite difference equation, Laplace transform and by applying the boundary conditions at the source and load termination. It has been observed that the dominant pole determines system response and delay in the proposed model. The novel proposed current mode model shows superior performance as compared to voltage mode signalling. Analysis shows that current mode signalling in VLSI interconnects provides 2.8 times better delay performance than voltage mode. Secondly the damping factor of a lumped RLC circuit is shown to be a useful figure of merit.

Keywords: Current Mode, Voltage Mode, VLSI Interconnect.

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1653 Characterization of Electrohydrodynamic Force on Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge Plasma Actuator Using Fluid Simulation

Authors: Hiroyuki Nishida, Taku Nonomura, Takashi Abe

Abstract:

Wall-surface jet induced by the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been proposed as an actuator for active flow control in aerodynamic applications. Discharge plasma evolution of the DBD plasma actuator was simulated based on a simple fluid model, in which the electron, one type of positive ion and negative ion were taken into account. Two-dimensional simulation was conducted, and the results are in agreement with the insights obtained from experimental studies. The simulation results indicate that the discharge mode changes depending on applied voltage slope; when the applied voltage is positive-going with high applied voltage slope, the corona-type discharge mode turns into the streamer-type discharge mode and the threshold voltage slope is around 300 kV/ms in this simulation. The characteristics of the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) force, which is the source of the wall-surface jet, also change depending on the discharge mode; the tentative peak value of the EHD force during the positive-going voltage phase is saturated by the periodical formation of the streamer-type discharge.

Keywords: Dielectric barrier discharge, Plasma actuator, Fluid simulation.

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1652 Comprehensive Nonlinearity Simulation of Different Types and Modes of HEMTs with Respect to Biasing Conditions

Authors: M. M. Karkhanehchi, A. Ammani

Abstract:

A simple analytical model has been developed to optimize biasing conditions for obtaining maximum linearity among lattice-matched, pseudomorphic and metamorphic HEMT types as well as enhancement and depletion HEMT modes. A nonlinear current-voltage model has been simulated based on extracted data to study and select the most appropriate type and mode of HEMT in terms of a given gate-source biasing voltage within the device so as to employ the circuit for the highest possible output current or voltage linear swing. Simulation results can be used as a basis for the selection of optimum gate-source biasing voltage for a given type and mode of HEMT with regard to a circuit design. The consequences can also be a criterion for choosing the optimum type or mode of HEMT for a predetermined biasing condition.

Keywords: Biasing, characteristic, linearity, simulation.

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1651 An Analytical Comparison between Open Loop, PID and Fuzzy Logic Based DC-DC Boost Convertor

Authors: Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Razali Bin Hassan, Fahad Sherwani

Abstract:

This paper explains about the voltage output for DC to DC boost converter between open loop, PID controller and fuzzy logic controller through Matlab Simulink. Simulink input voltage was set at 12V and the voltage reference was set at 24V. The analysis on the deviation of voltage resulted that the difference between reference voltage setting and the output voltage is always lower. Comparison between open loop, PID and FLC shows that, the open loop circuit having a bit higher on the deviation of voltage. The PID circuit boosts for FLC has a lesser deviation of voltage and proved that it is such a better performance on control the deviation of voltage during the boost mode.

Keywords: Boost Convertors, Power Electronics, PID, Fuzzy logic, Open loop.

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1650 Universal Current-Mode OTA-C KHN Biquad

Authors: Dalibor Biolek, Viera Biolková, Zden─øk Kolka

Abstract:

A universal current-mode biquad is described which represents an economical variant of well-known KHN (Kerwin, Huelsman, Newcomb) voltage-mode filter. The circuit consists of two multiple-output OTAs and of two grounded capacitors. Utilizing simple splitter of the input current and a pair of jumpers, all the basic 2nd-order transfer functions can be implemented. The principle is verified by Spice simulation on the level of a CMOS structure of OTAs.

Keywords: Biquad, current mode, OTA.

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1649 A 1.5V,100MS/s,12-bit Current-Mode CMOSS ample-and-Hold Circuit

Authors: O. Hashemipour, S. G. Nabavi

Abstract:

A high-linearity and high-speed current-mode sampleand- hold circuit is designed and simulated using a 0.25μm CMOS technology. This circuit design is based on low voltage and it utilizes a fully differential circuit. Due to the use of only two switches the switch related noise has been reduced. Signal - dependent -error is completely eliminated by a new zero voltage switching technique. The circuit has a linearity error equal to ±0.05μa, i.e. 12-bit accuracy with a ±160 μa differential output - input signal frequency of 5MHZ, and sampling frequency of 100 MHZ. Third harmonic is equal to –78dB.

Keywords: Zero-voltage-technique, MOS-resistor, OTA, Feedback-resistor.

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1648 A Novel Digital Implementation of AC Voltage Controller for Speed Control of Induction Motor

Authors: Ali M. Eltamaly, A. I. Alolah, R. Hamouda, M. Y. Abdulghany

Abstract:

In this paper a novel, simple and reliable digital firing scheme has been implemented for speed control of three-phase induction motor using ac voltage controller. The system consists of three-phase supply connected to the three-phase induction motor via three triacs and its control circuit. The ac voltage controller has three modes of operation depending on the shape of supply current. The performance of the induction motor differs in each mode where the speed is directly proportional with firing angle in two modes and inversely in the third one. So, the control system has to detect the current mode of operation to choose the correct firing angle of triacs. Three sensors are used to feed the line currents to control system to detect the mode of operation. The control strategy is implemented using a low cost Xilinx Spartan-3E field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. Three PI-controllers are designed on FPGA to control the system in the three-modes. Simulation of the system is carried out using PSIM computer program. The simulation results show stable operation for different loading conditions especially in mode 2/3. The simulation results have been compared with the experimental results from laboratory prototype.

Keywords: FPGA, Induction motor, PSIM, triac, Voltage controller.

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1647 A Very High Speed, High Resolution Current Comparator Design

Authors: Neeraj K. Chasta

Abstract:

This paper presents an idea for analog current comparison which compares input signal and reference currents with high speed and accuracy. Proposed circuit utilizes amplification properties of common gate configuration, where voltage variations of input current are amplified and a compared output voltage is developed. Cascaded inverter stages are used to generate final CMOS compatible output voltage. Power consumption of circuit can be controlled by the applied gate bias voltage. The comparator is designed and studied at 180nm CMOS process technology for a supply voltage of 3V.

Keywords: Current Mode, Comparator, High Resolution, High Speed.

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1646 Hysteresis Modulation Based Sliding Mode Control for Positive Output Elementary Super Lift Luo Converter

Authors: K. Ramash Kumar, S. Jeevananthan

Abstract:

The Object of this paper is to design and analyze a Hysteresis modulation based sliding mode control (HMSMC) for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter (POESLLC), which is the start-of-the-art DC-DC converter. The positive output elementary super lift Luo converter performs the voltage conversion from positive source voltage to positive load voltage. This paper proposes a HMSMC capable of providing the good steady state and dynamic performance compared to conventional controllers. Dynamic equations describing the positive output elementary super lift luo converter are derived by using state space average method. The simulation model of the positive output elementary super lift Luo converter with its control circuit is implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The HMSMC for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter is tested for line changes, load changes and also for components variations.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, Positive output elementarysuper lift Luo converter (POESLLC), Hysteresis modulation basedsliding mode control (HMSMC).

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1645 Modeling and Simulation of Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigation of Voltage Sags

Authors: S. Ganesh, L. Raguraman, E. Anushya, J. krishnasree

Abstract:

Voltage sags are the most common power quality disturbance in the distribution system. It occurs due to the fault in the electrical network or by the starting of a large induction motor and this can be solved by using the custom power devices such as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). In this paper DVR is proposed to compensate voltage sags on critical loads dynamically. The DVR consists of VSC, injection transformers, passive filters and energy storage (lead acid battery). By injecting an appropriate voltage, the DVR restores a voltage waveform and ensures constant load voltage. The simulation and experimental results of a DVR using MATLAB software shows clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags.

Keywords: Dynamic voltage restorer, Voltage sags, Power quality, Injection methods.

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1644 Implementation the Average Input Current Mode Control of Two-Phase Interleaved Boost Converter Using Low-Cost Microcontroller

Authors: Yin Yin Phyo, Tun Lin Naing

Abstract:

In this paper, the average input current mode control is proposed for two-phase interleaved boost converter with two separate input inductors operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The required mathematical model is obtained from the equivalent circuits of its different four modes of operation. The small ripple approximation is derived to find the transfer functions from dynamic model using switching function. In average input current mode control, the inner current loop and outer voltage loop are designed with PI controller using bode analysis. Anti-windup structure is applied for PI controllers in control system. Moreover, the simulation work is carried out by MATLAB/Simulink. And, the hardware prototype is implemented by using low-cost microcontroller Arduino Nano. Finally, the laboratory prototype, available from the local market, is constructed to validate the mathematical model. The results show that the output voltage response is the faster rise time and settling time with acceptable overshoot.

Keywords: Average input current mode control, interleaved boost converter, low-cost microcontroller, PI controller, switching function.

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1643 Fuzzy Sliding Mode Speed Controller for a Vector Controlled Induction Motor

Authors: S. Massoum, A. Bentaallah, A. Massoum, F. Benaimeche, P. Wira, A. Meroufel

Abstract:

This paper presents a speed fuzzy sliding mode controller for a vector controlled induction machine (IM) fed by a voltage source inverter (PWM). The sliding mode based fuzzy control method is developed to achieve fast response, a best disturbance rejection and to maintain a good decoupling. The problem with sliding mode control is that there is high frequency switching around the sliding mode surface. The FSMC is the combination of the robustness of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and the smoothness of Fuzzy Logic (FL). To reduce the torque fluctuations (chattering), the sign function used in the conventional SMC is substituted with a fuzzy logic algorithm. The proposed algorithm was simulated by Matlab/Simulink software and simulation results show that the performance of the control scheme is robust and the chattering problem is solved.

Keywords: IM, FOC, FLC, SMC, and FSMC.

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1642 A Low-Voltage Tunable Channel Selection Filter for WiMAX Applications

Authors: Kayvan Ahmadi, Hossein Shamsi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a low-voltage and low-power fully integrated digitally tuned continuous-time channel selection filter for WiMAX applications. A 5th-order elliptic low-pass filter is realized in a Gm-C topology. The bandwidth of the fully differential filter is reconfigurable from 2.5MHz to 20MHz (8x) for different requirements in WiMAX applications. The filter is simulated in a standard 90nm CMOS process. Simulation results show the THD (@Vout =100mVpp) is less than -66dB. The in-band ripple of the filter is about 0.15dB. The filter consumes 1.5mW from a supply voltage of 0.9V.

Keywords: Common-mode feedback, continuous-time, fully differential transconductor, Gm-C topology, low-voltage

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1641 Simplified Space Vector Based Decoupled Switching Strategy for Indirect Vector Controlled Open-End Winding Induction Motor Drive

Authors: Syed Munvar Ali, V. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, M. Surya Kalavathi

Abstract:

In this paper, a dual inverter configuration has been implemented for induction motor drive. This isolated dual inverter is capable to produce high quality of output voltage and minimize common mode voltage (CMV). To this isolated dual inverter a decoupled space vector based pulse width modulation (PWM) technique is proposed. Conventional space vector based PWM (SVPWM) techniques require reference voltage vector calculation and sector identification. The proposed decoupled SVPWM technique generates gating pulses from instantaneous phase voltages and gives a CMV of ±vdc/6. To evaluate proposed algorithm MATLAB based simulation studies are carried on indirect vector controlled open end winding induction motor drive.

Keywords: Inverter configuration, decoupled SVPWM, common mode voltage, vector control.

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1640 Versatile Dual-Mode Class-AB Four-Quadrant Analog Multiplier

Authors: Montree Kumngern, Kobchai Dejhan

Abstract:

Versatile dual-mode class-AB CMOS four-quadrant analog multiplier circuit is presented. The dual translinear loops and current mirrors are the basic building blocks in realization scheme. This technique provides; wide dynamic range, wide-bandwidth response and low power consumption. The major advantages of this approach are; its has single ended inputs; since its input is dual translinear loop operate in class-AB mode which make this multiplier configuration interesting for low-power applications; current multiplying, voltage multiplying, or current and voltage multiplying can be obtainable with balanced input. The simulation results of versatile analog multiplier demonstrate a linearity error of 1.2 %, a -3dB bandwidth of about 19MHz, a maximum power consumption of 0.46mW, and temperature compensated. Operation of versatile analog multiplier was also confirmed through an experiment using CMOS transistor array.

Keywords: Class-AB, dual-mode CMOS analog multiplier, CMOS analog integrated circuit, CMOS translinear integrated circuit.

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1639 Wireless Neural Stimulator with Adjustable Electrical Quantity

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

The neural stimulation has been gaining much interest in neuromodulation research and clinical trials. For efficiency, there is a need for variable electrical stimulation such as current and voltage stimuli as well as wireless framework. In this regard, we develop the wireless neural stimulator capable of voltage and current stimuli. The system consists of ZigBee which is a wireless communication module and stimulus generator. The stimulus generator with 8-bits resolution enable both mono-polar and bi-polar waveform in voltage (-3.3~3.3V) and current(-330~330µA) stimulus mode which is controllable. The experimental results suggest that the proposed neural stimulator can play a role as an effective approach for neuromodulation.

Keywords: Neural stimulator, current stimulation, voltage stimulation, neuromodulation

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1638 Fuel Cell/DC-DC Convertor Control by Sliding Mode Method

Authors: Farzad Abdous

Abstract:

Fuel cell's system requires regulating circuit for voltage and current in order to control power in case of connecting to other generative devices or load. In this paper Fuel cell system and convertor, which is a multi-variable system, are controlled using sliding mode method. Use of weighting matrix in design procedure made it possible to regulate speed of control. Simulation results show the robustness and accuracy of proposed controller for controlling desired of outputs.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, Fuel cell, PEM, Slides mode control.

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1637 Study of Shaft Voltage on Short Circuit Alternator with Static Frequency Converter

Authors: Arun Kumar Datta, Manisha Dubey, Shailendra Jain

Abstract:

Electric machines are driven nowadays by static system popularly known as soft starter. This paper describes a thyristor based static frequency converter (SFC) to run a large synchronous machine installed at a short circuit test laboratory. Normally a synchronous machine requires prime mover or some other driving mechanism to run. This machine doesn’t need a prime mover as it operates in dual mode. In the beginning SFC starts this machine as a motor to achieve the full speed. Thereafter whenever required it can be converted to generator mode. This paper begins with the various starting methodology of synchronous machine. Detailed of SFC with different operational modes have been analyzed. Shaft voltage is a very common phenomenon for the machines with static drives. Various causes of shaft voltages in perspective with this machine are the main attraction of this paper.

Keywords: Capacitive coupling, electric discharge machining, inductive coupling, Shaft voltage, static frequency converter.

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1636 Artificial Voltage-Controlled Capacitance and Inductance using Voltage-Controlled Transconductance

Authors: Mansour I. Abbadi, Abdel-Rahman M. Jaradat

Abstract:

In this paper, a technique is proposed to implement an artificial voltage-controlled capacitance or inductance which can replace the well-known varactor diode in many applications. The technique is based on injecting the current of a voltage-controlled current source onto a fixed capacitor or inductor. Then, by controlling the transconductance of the current source by an external bias voltage, a voltage-controlled capacitive or inductive reactance is obtained. The proposed voltage-controlled reactance devices can be designed to work anywhere in the frequency spectrum. Practical circuits for the proposed voltage-controlled reactances are suggested and simulated.

Keywords: voltage-controlled capacitance, voltage-controlled inductance, varactor diode, variable transconductance.

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1635 Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement Using SVC and TCSC

Authors: Mohammed Amroune, Hadi Sebaa, Tarek Bouktir

Abstract:

Reactive power limit of power system is one of the major causes of voltage instability. The only way to save the system from voltage instability is to reduce the reactive power load or add additional reactive power to reaching the point of voltage collapse. In recent times, the application of FACTS devices is a very effective solution to prevent voltage instability due to their fast and very flexible control. In this paper, voltage stability assessment with SVC and TCSC devices is investigated and compared in the modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The fast voltage stability indicator (FVSI) is used to identify weakest bus and to assess the voltage stability of power system.

Keywords: SVC, TCSC, Voltage stability, Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI), Reactive power.

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1634 Pulse Skipping Modulated DC to DC Step Down Converter Under Discontinuous Conduction Mode

Authors: Ramamurthy S, Ranjan P V, Raghavendiran T A

Abstract:

Reduced switching loss favours Pulse Skipping Modulation mode of switching dc-to-dc converters at light loads. Under certain conditions the converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Inductor current starts from zero in each switching cycle as the switching frequency is constant and not adequately high. A DC-to-DC buck converter is modelled and simulated in this paper under DCM. Effect of ESR of the filter capacitor in input current frequency components is studied. The converter is studied for its operation under input voltage and load variation. The operating frequency is selected to be close to and above audio range.

Keywords: Buck converter, Discontinuous conduction mode, Electromagnetic Interference, Pulse Skipping Modulation.

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1633 Investigation of Inter Feeder Power Flow Regulator: Load Sharing Mode

Authors: Ahmed Hossam-Eldin, Ahmed Elserougi, Ahmed Massoud, Shehab Ahmed

Abstract:

The Inter feeder Power Flow Regulator (IFPFR) proposed in this paper consists of several voltage source inverters with common dc bus; each inverter is connected in series with one of different independent distribution feeders in the power system. This paper is concerned with how to transfer power between the feeders for load sharing purpose. The power controller of each inverter injects the power (for sending feeder) or absorbs the power (for receiving feeder) via injecting suitable voltage; this voltage injection is simulated by voltage drop across series virtual impedance, the impedance value is selected to achieve the concept of power exchange between the feeders without perturbing the load voltage magnitude of each feeder. In this paper a new control scheme for load sharing using IFPFR is proposed.

Keywords: IFPFR, Load sharing, Power transfer

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1632 The Design of PFM Mode DC-DC Converter with DT-CMOS Switch

Authors: Jae-Chang Kwak, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

The high efficiency power management IC (PMIC) with switching device is presented in this paper. PMIC is controlled with PFM control method in order to have high power efficiency at high current level. Dynamic Threshold voltage CMOS (DT-CMOS) with low on-resistance is designed to decrease conduction loss. The threshold voltage of DT-CMOS drops as the gate voltage increase, resulting in a much higher current handling capability than standard MOSFET. PFM control circuits consist of a generator, AND gate and comparator. The generator is made to have 1.2MHz oscillation voltage. The DC-DC converter based on PFM control circuit and low on-resistance switching device is presented in this paper.

Keywords: DT-CMOS, PMIC, PFM, DC-DC converter.

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1631 Chattering Phenomenon Supression of Buck Boost DC-DC Converter with Fuzzy Sliding Modes Control

Authors: Abdelaziz Sahbani, Kamel Ben Saad, Mohamed Benrejeb

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC) as a control strategy for Buck-Boost DC-DC converter. The proposed fuzzy controller specifies changes in the control signal based on the knowledge of the surface and the surface change to satisfy the sliding mode stability and attraction conditions. The performances of the proposed fuzzy sliding controller are compared to those obtained by a classical sliding mode controller. The satisfactory simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control law which reduces the chattering phenomenon. Moreover, the obtained results prove the robustness of the proposed control law against variation of the load resistance and the input voltage of the studied converter.

Keywords: Buck Boost converter, Sliding Mode Control, Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control, robustness, chattering.

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1630 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3 and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, Holding voltage, Latch-up.

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