Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 378

Search results for: robustness

378 The Fundamental Reliance of Iterative Learning Control on Stability Robustness

Authors: Richard W. Longman

Abstract:

Iterative learning control aims to achieve zero tracking error of a specific command. This is accomplished by iteratively adjusting the command given to a feedback control system, based on the tracking error observed in the previous iteration. One would like the iterations to converge to zero tracking error in spite of any error present in the model used to design the learning law. First, this need for stability robustness is discussed, and then the need for robustness of the property that the transients are well behaved. Methods of producing the needed robustness to parameter variations and to singular perturbations are presented. Then a method involving reverse time runs is given that lets the world behavior produce the ILC gains in such a way as to eliminate the need for a mathematical model. Since the real world is producing the gains, there is no issue of model error. Provided the world behaves linearly, the approach gives an ILC law with both stability robustness and good transient robustness, without the need to generate a model.

Keywords: Iterative learning control, stability robustness, monotonic convergence.

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377 Robust Artificial Neural Network Architectures

Authors: A. Schuster

Abstract:

Many artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are inspired by problem-solving strategies found in nature. Robustness is a key feature in many natural systems. This paper studies robustness in artificial neural networks (ANNs) and proposes several novel, nature inspired ANN architectures. The paper includes encouraging results from experimental studies on these networks showing increased robustness.

Keywords: robustness, robust artificial neural networks architectures.

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376 On Enhancing Robustness of an Evolutionary Fuzzy Tracking Controller

Authors: H. Megherbi, A. C. Megherbi, N. Megherbi, K. Benmahamed

Abstract:

This paper presents three-phase evolution search methodology to automatically design fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) that can work in a wide range of operating conditions. These include varying load, parameter variations, and unknown external disturbances. The three-phase scheme consists of an exploration phase, an exploitation phase and a robustness phase. The first two phases search for FLC with high accuracy performances while the last phase aims at obtaining FLC providing the best compromise between the accuracy and robustness performances. Simulations were performed for direct-drive two-axis robot arm. The evolved FLC with the proposed design technique found to provide a very satisfactory performance under the wide range of operation conditions and to overcome problem associated with coupling and nonlinearities characteristics inherent to robot arms.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic control, evolutionary algorithms, robustness, exploration/exploitation phase.

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375 Efficient Antenna Array Beamforming with Robustness against Random Steering Mismatch

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao, Kun-Che Lee

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of using antenna sensors for adaptive beamforming in the presence of random steering mismatch. We present an efficient adaptive array beamformer with robustness to deal with the considered problem. The robustness of the proposed beamformer comes from the efficient designation of the steering vector. Using the received array data vector, we construct an appropriate correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector and a correlation matrix associated with signal sources. Then, the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of the constructed signal correlation matrix is designated as an appropriate estimate of the steering vector. Finally, the adaptive weight vector required for adaptive beamforming is obtained by using the estimated steering vector and the constructed correlation matrix of the array data vector. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Adaptive beamforming, antenna array, linearly constrained minimum variance, robustness, steering vector.

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374 H-Infinity Controller Design for the Switched Reluctance Machine

Authors: Siwar Fadhel, Imen Bahri, Man Zhang

Abstract:

The switched reluctance machine (SRM) has undeniable qualities in terms of low cost and mechanical robustness. However, its highly nonlinear character and its uncertain parameters justify the development of complicated controls. In this paper, authors present the design of a robust H-infinity current controller for an 8/6 SRM with taking into account the nonlinearity of the SRM and with rejection of disturbances. The electromagnetic torque is indirectly regulated through the current controller. To show the performances of this control, a robustness analysis is performed by comparing the H-infinity and PI controller simulation results. This comparison demonstrates better performances for the presented controller. The effectiveness and robustness of the presented controller are also demonstrated by experimental tests.

Keywords: Current regulation, experimentation, robust H-infinity control, switched reluctance machine.

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373 A Normalization-based Robust Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

Digital watermarking has become an important technique for copyright protection but its robustness against attacks remains a major problem. In this paper, we propose a normalizationbased robust image watermarking scheme. In the proposed scheme, original host image is first normalized to a standard form. Zernike transform is then applied to the normalized image to calculate Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of Zernike moments according to the watermark bit stream. The watermark extracting method is a blind method. Security analysis and false alarm analysis are then performed. The quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has very high robustness against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Image normalization, Zernike moments, Robustness.

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372 Redundancy Component Matrix and Structural Robustness

Authors: Xinjian Kou, Linlin Li, Yongju Zhou, Jimian Song

Abstract:

We introduce the redundancy matrix that expresses clearly the geometrical/topological configuration of the structure. With the matrix, the redundancy of the structure is resolved into redundant components and assigned to each member or rigid joint. The values of the diagonal elements in the matrix indicates the importance of the corresponding members or rigid joints, and the geometrically correlations can be shown with the non-diagonal elements. If a member or rigid joint failures, reassignment of the redundant components can be calculated with the recursive method given in the paper. By combining the indexes of reliability and redundancy components, we define an index concerning the structural robustness. To further explain the properties of the redundancy matrix, we cited several examples of statically indeterminate structures, including two trusses and a rigid frame. With the examples, some simple results and the properties of the matrix are discussed. The examples also illustrate that the redundancy matrix and the relevant concepts are valuable in structural safety analysis.

Keywords: Structural robustness, structural reliability, redundancy component, redundancy matrix.

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371 Modelling and Analysis of a Robust Control of Manufacturing Systems: Flow-Quality Approach

Authors: Lotfi Nabli, Achraf Jabeur Telmoudi, Radhi M'hiri

Abstract:

This paper proposes a modeling method of the laws controlling manufacturing systems with temporal and non temporal constraints. A methodology of robust control construction generating the margins of passive and active robustness is being elaborated. Indeed, two paramount models are presented in this paper. The first utilizes the P-time Petri Nets which is used to manage the flow type disturbances. The second, the quality model, exploits the Intervals Constrained Petri Nets (ICPN) tool which allows the system to preserve its quality specificities. The redundancy of the robustness of the elementary parameters between passive and active is also used. The final model built allows the correlation of temporal and non temporal criteria by putting two paramount models in interaction. To do so, a set of definitions and theorems are employed and affirmed by applicator examples.

Keywords: Manufacturing systems control, flow, quality, robustness, redundancy, Petri Nets.

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370 In Search of Robustness and Efficiency via l1− and l2− Regularized Optimization for Physiological Motion Compensation

Authors: Angelica I. Aviles, Pilar Sobrevilla, Alicia Casals

Abstract:

Compensating physiological motion in the context of minimally invasive cardiac surgery has become an attractive issue since it outperforms traditional cardiac procedures offering remarkable benefits. Owing to space restrictions, computer vision techniques have proven to be the most practical and suitable solution. However, the lack of robustness and efficiency of existing methods make physiological motion compensation an open and challenging problem. This work focusses on increasing robustness and efficiency via exploration of the classes of 1−and 2−regularized optimization, emphasizing the use of explicit regularization. Both approaches are based on natural features of the heart using intensity information. Results pointed out the 1−regularized optimization class as the best since it offered the shortest computational cost, the smallest average error and it proved to work even under complex deformations.

Keywords: Motion Compensation, Optimization, Regularization, Beating Heart Surgery, Ill-posed problem.

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369 A Genetic-Algorithm-Based Approach for Audio Steganography

Authors: Mazdak Zamani , Azizah A. Manaf , Rabiah B. Ahmad , Akram M. Zeki , Shahidan Abdullah

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel, principled approach to resolve the remained problems of substitution technique of audio steganography. Using the proposed genetic algorithm, message bits are embedded into multiple, vague and higher LSB layers, resulting in increased robustness. The robustness specially would be increased against those intentional attacks which try to reveal the hidden message and also some unintentional attacks like noise addition as well.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Audio Steganography, DataHiding, Genetic Algorithm, Substitution Techniques.

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368 A New Proportional - Pursuit Coupled Guidance Law with Actuator Delay Compensation

Authors: Chien-Chun Kung, Feng-Lung Chiang, Kuei-Yi Chen, Hsien-Wen Wei, Ming-Yi Huang, Cai-Ming Huang, Sheng-Kai Wang

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present a new three-dimensional proportional-pursuit coupled (PP) guidance law to track highly maneuverable aircraft. Utilizing a 3-D polar coordinate frame, the PP guidance law is formed by collecting proportional navigation guidance in Z-R plane and pursuit guidance in X-Y plane. Feedback linearization control method to solve the guidance accelerations is used to implement PP guidance. In order to compensate the actuator time delay, the time delay compensated version of PP guidance law (CPP) was derived and proved the effectiveness of modifying the problem of high acceleration in the final phase of pursuit guidance and improving the weak robustness of proportional navigation. The simulation results for intercepting Max G turn situation show that the proposed proportional-pursuit coupled guidance law guidance law with actuator delay compensation (CPP) possesses satisfactory robustness and performance.

Keywords: Feedback linearization control, time delay, guidance law, robustness, proportional navigation guidance, pursuit guidance.

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367 H-Infinity and RST Position Controllers of Rotary Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor

Authors: M. Brahim, I. Bahri, Y. Bernard

Abstract:

Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor (TWUM) is a compact, precise, and silent actuator generating high torque at low speed without gears. Moreover, the TWUM has a high holding torque without supply, which makes this motor as an attractive solution for holding position of robotic arms. However, their nonlinear dynamics, and the presence of load-dependent dead zones often limit their use. Those issues can be overcome in closed loop with effective and precise controllers. In this paper, robust H-infinity (H∞) and discrete time RST position controllers are presented. The H∞ controller is designed in continuous time with additional weighting filters to ensure the robustness in the case of uncertain motor model and external disturbances. Robust RST controller based on the pole placement method is also designed and compared to the H∞. Simulink model of TWUM is used to validate the stability and the robustness of the two proposed controllers.

Keywords: Piezoelectric motors, position control, H∞, RST, stability criteria, robustness.

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366 Encrypted Audio Transmission Using Synchronized Nd: YAG Lasers

Authors: R.M. López-Gutiérrez, C. Cruz-Hernández, C. Posadas-Castillo, E.E.García-Guerrero

Abstract:

Encoded information based on synchronization of coupled chaotic Nd:YAG lasers in master-slave configuration is numerically studied. Encoding, transmission, and decoding of information in optical chaotic communication with a single channel is presented. We analyze the robustness of the encrypted audio transmission in a channel noise. In order to illustrate this synchronization robustness, we present two cases of study: synchronization and transmission with a single channel without and with noise in the channel.

Keywords: Encryption, Secure coomunication, Chaos, Synchronization, Complex networks, Nd:YAG laser.

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365 Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System

Authors: Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith

Abstract:

This paper deals with a robust model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation approach used to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system. The considered system is a 2-DoF robot in interaction with an upper limb used for rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to control the flexion/extension movement of the shoulder and the elbow joints in presence of matched disturbances. In the first part, we present the exoskeleton-upper limb system modeling. Then, we controlled the considered system by the model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation. A stability study is realized. To prove the controller performance, a robustness analysis was needed. Simulation results are provided to confirm the robustness of the gravity compensation combined with to the Model free terminal sliding mode in presence of uncertainties.

Keywords: Exoskeleton-upper limb system, gravity compensation, model free terminal sliding mode, robustness analysis, Monte Carlo, H∞ methods.

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364 Emotional Learning based Intelligent Robust Adaptive Controller for Stable Uncertain Nonlinear Systems

Authors: Ali Reza Mehrabian, Caro Lucas

Abstract:

In this paper a new control strategy based on Brain Emotional Learning (BEL) model has been introduced. A modified BEL model has been proposed to increase the degree of freedom, controlling capability, reliability and robustness, which can be implemented in real engineering systems. The performance of the proposed BEL controller has been illustrated by applying it on different nonlinear uncertain systems, showing very good adaptability and robustness, while maintaining stability.

Keywords: Learning control systems, emotional decision making, nonlinear systems, adaptive control.

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363 Alternative to M-Estimates in Multisensor Data Fusion

Authors: Nga-Viet Nguyen, Georgy Shevlyakov, Vladimir Shin

Abstract:

To solve the problem of multisensor data fusion under non-Gaussian channel noise. The advanced M-estimates are known to be robust solution while trading off some accuracy. In order to improve the estimation accuracy while still maintaining the equivalent robustness, a two-stage robust fusion algorithm is proposed using preliminary rejection of outliers then an optimal linear fusion. The numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm is equivalent to the M-estimates in the case of uncorrelated local estimates and significantly outperforms the M-estimates when local estimates are correlated.

Keywords: Data fusion, estimation, robustness, M-estimates.

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362 Design of Novel SCR-based ESD Protection Device for I/O Clamp in BCD Process

Authors: Yong-Seo Koo, Jin-Woo Jung, Byung-Seok Lee, Dong-Su Kim, Yil-Suk Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel LVTSCR-based device for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection of integrated circuits (ICs) is designed, fabricated and characterized. The proposed device is similar to the conventional LVTSCR but it has an embedded PMOSFET in the anode n-well to enhance the turn on speed, the clamping capability and the robustness. This is possible because the embedded PMOSFET provides the sub-path of ESD discharge current. The TLP, HBM and MM testing are carried out to verify the ESD performance of the proposed devices, which are fabricated in 0.35um (Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS) BCDMOS process. The device has the robustness of 70mA/um that is higher about 60mA/um than the LVTSCR, approximately.

Keywords: ESD Protection, grounded gate NMOS (GGNMOS), low trigger voltage SCR (LVTSCR)

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361 Spread Spectrum Image Watermarking for Secured Multimedia Data Communication

Authors: Tirtha S. Das, Ayan K. Sau, Subir K. Sarkar

Abstract:

Digital watermarking is a way to provide the facility of secure multimedia data communication besides its copyright protection approach. The Spread Spectrum modulation principle is widely used in digital watermarking to satisfy the robustness of multimedia signals against various signal-processing operations. Several SS watermarking algorithms have been proposed for multimedia signals but very few works have discussed on the issues responsible for secure data communication and its robustness improvement. The current paper has critically analyzed few such factors namely properties of spreading codes, proper signal decomposition suitable for data embedding, security provided by the key, successive bit cancellation method applied at decoder which have greater impact on the detection reliability, secure communication of significant signal under camouflage of insignificant signals etc. Based on the analysis, robust SS watermarking scheme for secure data communication is proposed in wavelet domain and improvement in secure communication and robustness performance is reported through experimental results. The reported result also shows improvement in visual and statistical invisibility of the hidden data.

Keywords: Spread spectrum modulation, spreading code, signaldecomposition, security, successive bit cancellation

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360 Actuator Fault Detection and Fault Tolerant Control of a Nonlinear System Using Sliding Mode Observer

Authors: R. Loukil, M. Chtourou, T. Damak

Abstract:

In this work, we use the Fault detection and isolation and the Fault tolerant control based on sliding mode observer in order to introduce the well diagnosis of a nonlinear system. The robustness of the proposed observer for the two techniques is tested through a physical example. The results in this paper show the interaction between the Fault tolerant control and the Diagnosis procedure.

Keywords: Fault detection and isolation “FDI”, Fault tolerant control “FTC”, sliding mode observer, nonlinear system, robustness, stability.

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359 Probabilistic Robustness Assessment of Structures under Sudden Column-Loss Scenario

Authors: Ali Y Al-Attraqchi, P. Rajeev, M. Javad Hashemi, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a probabilistic incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of a full reinforced concrete building subjected to column loss scenario for the assessment of progressive collapse. The IDA is chosen to explicitly account for uncertainties in loads and system capacity. Fragility curves are developed to predict the probability of progressive collapse given the loss of one or more columns. At a broader scale, it will also provide critical information needed to support the development of a new generation of design codes that attempt to explicitly quantify structural robustness.

Keywords: Incremental dynamic analysis, progressive collapse, structural engineering, pushdown analysis.

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358 A Novel Dual-Purpose Image Watermarking Technique

Authors: Maha Sharkas, Dahlia R. ElShafie, Nadder Hamdy

Abstract:

Image watermarking has proven to be quite an efficient tool for the purpose of copyright protection and authentication over the last few years. In this paper, a novel image watermarking technique in the wavelet domain is suggested and tested. To achieve more security and robustness, the proposed techniques relies on using two nested watermarks that are embedded into the image to be watermarked. A primary watermark in form of a PN sequence is first embedded into an image (the secondary watermark) before being embedded into the host image. The technique is implemented using Daubechies mother wavelets where an arbitrary embedding factor α is introduced to improve the invisibility and robustness. The proposed technique has been applied on several gray scale images where a PSNR of about 60 dB was achieved.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Multimedia Security, Wavelets, Image Processing.

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357 Robust Nonlinear Control of a Miniature Autonomous Helicopter using Sliding Mode Control Structure

Authors: H. Ifassiouen, M. Guisser, H.Medromi

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation into the design of a flight control system, using a robust sliding mode control structure, designed using the exact feedback linearization procedure of the dynamic of a small-size autonomous helicopter in hover. The robustness of the controller in the context of stabilization and trajectory tracking with respect to small body forces and air resistance on the main and tail rotor, is analytically proved using Lyapunov approach. Some simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance and robustness of such controller in the presence of small body forces and air resistance.

Keywords: Robust control, sliding mode, stability, Lyapunovapproach.

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356 Impulsive Noise-Resilient Subband Adaptive Filter

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

We present a new subband adaptive filter (R-SAF) which is robust against impulsive noise in system identification. To address the vulnerability of adaptive filters based on the L2-norm optimization criterion against impulsive noise, the R-SAF comes from the L1-norm optimization criterion with a constraint on the energy of the weight update. Minimizing L1-norm of the a posteriori error in each subband with a constraint on minimum disturbance gives rise to the robustness against the impulsive noise and the capable convergence performance. Experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed R-SAF outperforms the classical adaptive filtering algorithms when impulsive noise as well as background noise exist.

Keywords: Subband adaptive filter, L1-norm, system identification, robustness, impulsive interference.

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355 A Novel Digital Watermarking Technique Basedon ISB (Intermediate Significant Bit)

Authors: Akram M. Zeki, Azizah A. Manaf

Abstract:

Least Significant Bit (LSB) technique is the earliest developed technique in watermarking and it is also the most simple, direct and common technique. It essentially involves embedding the watermark by replacing the least significant bit of the image data with a bit of the watermark data. The disadvantage of LSB is that it is not robust against attacks. In this study intermediate significant bit (ISB) has been used in order to improve the robustness of the watermarking system. The aim of this model is to replace the watermarked image pixels by new pixels that can protect the watermark data against attacks and at the same time keeping the new pixels very close to the original pixels in order to protect the quality of watermarked image. The technique is based on testing the value of the watermark pixel according to the range of each bit-plane.

Keywords: Watermarking, LSB, ISB, Robustness.

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354 A Bi-Objective Model to Address Simultaneous Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Ordering

Authors: Babak H. Tabrizi, Seyed Farid Ghaderi

Abstract:

Concurrent planning of project scheduling and material ordering has been increasingly addressed within last decades as an approach to improve the project execution costs. Therefore, we have taken the problem into consideration in this paper, aiming to maximize schedules quality robustness, in addition to minimize the relevant costs. In this regard, a bi-objective mathematical model is developed to formulate the problem. Moreover, it is possible to utilize the all-unit discount for materials purchasing. The problem is then solved by the E-constraint method, and the Pareto front is obtained for a variety of robustness values. The applicability and efficiency of the proposed model is tested by different numerical instances, finally.

Keywords: E-constraint method, material ordering, project management, project scheduling.

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353 Low-Cost and Highly Accurate Motion Models for Three-Dimensional Local Landmark-based Autonomous Navigation

Authors: Gheorghe Galben, Daniel N. Aloi

Abstract:

Recently, the Spherical Motion Models (SMM-s) have been introduced [1]. These new models have been developed for 3D local landmark-base Autonomous Navigation (AN). This paper is revealing new arguments and experimental results to support the SMM-s characteristics. The accuracy and the robustness in performing a specific task are the main concerns of the new investigations. To analyze their performances of the SMM-s, the most powerful tools of estimation theory, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF), which give the best estimations in noisy environments, have been employed. The Monte Carlo validation implementations used to test the stability and robustness of the models have been employed as well.

Keywords: Autonomous navigation, extended kalman filter, unscented kalman filter, localization algorithms.

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352 Sparsity-Aware and Noise-Robust Subband Adaptive Filter

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This paper presents a subband adaptive filter (SAF) for a system identification where an impulse response is sparse and disturbed with an impulsive noise. Benefiting from the uses of l1-norm optimization and l0-norm penalty of the weight vector in the cost function, the proposed l0-norm sign SAF (l0-SSAF) achieves both robustness against impulsive noise and much improved convergence behavior than the classical adaptive filters. Simulation results in the system identification scenario confirm that the proposed l0-norm SSAF is not only more robust but also faster and more accurate than its counterparts in the sparse system identification in the presence of impulsive noise.

Keywords: Subband adaptive filter, l0-norm, sparse system, robustness, impulsive interference.

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351 Combined DWT-CT Blind Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Belal AbuHaija, Zainab N. Al-Qudsy

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new robust and secure system that is based on the combination between two different transforms Discrete wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT). The combined transforms will compensate the drawback of using each transform separately. The proposed algorithm has been designed, implemented and tested successfully. The experimental results showed that selecting the best sub-band for embedding from both transforms will improve the imperceptibility and robustness of the new combined algorithm. The evaluated imperceptibility of the combined DWT-CT algorithm which gave a PSNR value 88.11 and the combination DWT-CT algorithm improves robustness since it produced better robust against Gaussian noise attack. In addition to that, the implemented system shored a successful extraction method to extract watermark efficiently.

Keywords: DWT, CT, Digital Image Watermarking, Copyright Protection.

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350 Scene Adaptive Shadow Detection Algorithm

Authors: Mohammed Ibrahim M, Anupama R.

Abstract:

Robustness is one of the primary performance criteria for an Intelligent Video Surveillance (IVS) system. One of the key factors in enhancing the robustness of dynamic video analysis is,providing accurate and reliable means for shadow detection. If left undetected, shadow pixels may result in incorrect object tracking and classification, as it tends to distort localization and measurement information. Most of the algorithms proposed in literature are computationally expensive; some to the extent of equalling computational requirement of motion detection. In this paper, the homogeneity property of shadows is explored in a novel way for shadow detection. An adaptive division image (which highlights homogeneity property of shadows) analysis followed by a relatively simpler projection histogram analysis for penumbra suppression is the key novelty in our approach.

Keywords: homogeneity, penumbra, projection histogram, shadow correction

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349 A New Algorithm for Enhanced Robustness of Copyright Mark

Authors: Harsh Vikram Singh, S. P. Singh, Anand Mohan

Abstract:

This paper discusses a new heavy tailed distribution based data hiding into discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of image, which provides statistical security as well as robustness against steganalysis attacks. Unlike other data hiding algorithms, the proposed technique does not introduce much effect in the stegoimage-s DCT coefficient probability plots, thus making the presence of hidden data statistically undetectable. In addition the proposed method does not compromise on hiding capacity. When compared to the generic block DCT based data-hiding scheme, our method found more robust against a variety of image manipulating attacks such as filtering, blurring, JPEG compression etc.

Keywords: Information Security, Robust Steganography, Steganalysis, Pareto Probability Distribution function.

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