**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**162

# Search results for: Spectrally arbitrary

##### 162 Several Spectrally Non-Arbitrary Ray Patterns of Order 4

**Authors:**
Ling Zhang,
Feng Liu

**Abstract:**

A matrix is called a ray pattern matrix if its entries are either 0 or a ray in complex plane which originates from 0. A ray pattern *A *of order *n *is called spectrally arbitrary if the complex matrices in the ray pattern class of *A* give rise to all possible *n*th degree complex polynomial. Otherwise, it is said to be spectrally non-arbitrary ray pattern*.* We call that a spectrally arbitrary ray pattern *A *of order *n *is minimally spectrally arbitrary if any nonzero entry of *A* is replaced, then *A *is not spectrally arbitrary. In this paper, we find that is not spectrally arbitrary when n equals to 4 for any θ which is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to n. In this article, we give several ray patterns A(θ) of order n that are not spectrally arbitrary for some θ which is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to n. by using the nilpotent-Jacobi method. One example is given in our paper.

**Keywords:**
Spectrally arbitrary,
Nilpotent matrix,
Ray patterns,
sign patterns.

##### 161 Extended Arithmetic Precision in Meshfree Calculations

**Authors:**
Edward J. Kansa,
Pavel Holoborodko

**Abstract:**

Continuously differentiable radial basis functions (RBFs) are meshfree, converge faster as the dimensionality increases, and is theoretically spectrally convergent. When implemented on current single and double precision computers, such RBFs can suffer from ill-conditioning because the systems of equations needed to be solved to find the expansion coefficients are full. However, the Advanpix extended precision software package allows computer mathematics to resemble asymptotically ideal Platonic mathematics. Additionally, full systems with extended precision execute faster graphical processors units and field-programmable gate arrays because no branching is needed. Sparse equation systems are fast for iterative solvers in a very limited number of cases.

**Keywords:**
Meshless spectrally convergent,
partial differential equations,
extended arithmetic precision,
no branching.

##### 160 A Study on Unidirectional Analog Output Voltage Inverter for Capacitive Load

**Authors:**
Sun-Ki Hong,
Nam-HeeByeon,
Jung-Seop Lee,
Tae-Sam Kang

**Abstract:**

For Common R or R-L load to apply arbitrary voltage, the bridge traditional inverters don’t have any difficulties by PWM method. However for driving some piezoelectric actuator, arbitrary voltage not a pulse but a steady voltage should be applied. Piezoelectric load is considered as R-C load and its voltage does not decrease even though the applied voltage decreases. Therefore it needs some special inverter with circuit that can discharge the capacitive energy. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, it becomes more difficult problem. In this paper, a charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator is proposed. The circuit has charging and discharging switches for increasing and decreasing output voltage. With the proposed simple circuit, the load voltage can have any unidirectional level with tens of bandwidth because the load voltage can be adjusted by switching the charging and discharging switch appropriately. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

**Keywords:**
DC-DC converter,
analog output voltage,
sinusoidal
drive,
piezoelectric load,
discharging circuit.

##### 159 Blood Cell Dynamics in a Simple Shear Flow using an Implicit Fluid-Structure Interaction Method Based on the ALE Approach

**Authors:**
Choeng-Ryul Choi,
Chang-Nyung Kim,
Tae-Hyub Hong

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Blood Flow,
Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI),
Micro-Channels,
Arbitrary Shapes,
Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

##### 158 Density Clustering Based On Radius of Data (DCBRD)

**Authors:**
A.M. Fahim,
A. M. Salem,
F. A. Torkey,
M. A. Ramadan

**Abstract:**

Clustering algorithms are attractive for the task of class identification in spatial databases. However, the application to large spatial databases rises the following requirements for clustering algorithms: minimal requirements of domain knowledge to determine the input parameters, discovery of clusters with arbitrary shape and good efficiency on large databases. The well-known clustering algorithms offer no solution to the combination of these requirements. In this paper, a density based clustering algorithm (DCBRD) is presented, relying on a knowledge acquired from the data by dividing the data space into overlapped regions. The proposed algorithm discovers arbitrary shaped clusters, requires no input parameters and uses the same definitions of DBSCAN algorithm. We performed an experimental evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of it, and compared this results with that of DBSCAN. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is significantly efficient in discovering clusters of arbitrary shape and size.

**Keywords:**
Clustering Algorithms,
Arbitrary Shape of clusters,
cluster Analysis.

##### 157 An Expansion Method for Schrödinger Equation of Quantum Billiards with Arbitrary Shapes

**Authors:**
İnci M. Erhan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bessel functions,
Eigenfunction expansion,
Quantum billiard,
Schrödinger equation,
Spherical harmonics

##### 156 Some Rotational Flows of an Incompressible Fluid of Variable Viscosity

**Authors:**
Rana Khalid Naeem,
Waseem Ahmed Khan,
Muhammad Akhtar,
Asif Mansoor

**Abstract:**

The Navier Stokes Equations (NSE) for an incompressible fluid of variable viscosity in the presence of an unknown external force in Von-Mises system x,\ are transformed, and some new exact solutions for a class of flows characterized by equation y f x a\b for an arbitrary state equation are determined, where f x is a function, \ the stream function, a z 0 and b are the arbitrary constants. In three, out of four cases, the function f x is arbitrary, and the solutions are the solutions of the flow equations for all the flows characterized by the equationy f x a\b. Streamline patterns for some forms of f x in unbounded and bounded regions are given.

**Keywords:**
Bounded and unbounded region,
Exact solution,
Navier Stokes equations,
Streamline pattern,
Variable viscosity,
Von- Mises system

##### 155 Analysis and Simulation of TM Fields in Waveguides with Arbitrary Cross-Section Shapes by Means of Evolutionary Equations of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Theory

**Authors:**
Ömer Aktaş,
Olga A. Suvorova,
Oleg Tretyakov

**Abstract:**

_{2}. This equation can be solved numerically for desired accuracy by using truncation method. The parameters as cut-off wavenumber and cut-off frequency are used in waveguide evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory in time-domain to illustrate the real-valued TM fields with lossy and lossless media.

**Keywords:**
Arbitrary cross section waveguide,
analytical regularization method,
evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory of time-domain,
TM field.

##### 154 Performance Enhancement of Analog Voltage Inverter with Adaptive Gain Control for Capacitive Load

**Authors:**
Sun-Ki Hong,
Yong-Ho Cho,
Ki-Seok Kim,
Tae-Sam Kang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Analog voltage inverter,
Capacitive load,
Gain
control,
DC-DC converter,
Piezoelectric,
Voltage waveform.

##### 153 In-Plane Responses of Axially Moving Plates Subjected to Arbitrary Edge Excitations

**Authors:**
T. H. Young,
Y. S. Ciou

**Abstract:**

The free and forced in-plane vibrations of axially moving plates are investigated in this work. The plate possesses an internal damping of which the constitutive relation obeys the Kelvin-Voigt model, and the excitations are arbitrarily distributed on two opposite edges. First, the equations of motion and the boundary conditions of the axially moving plate are derived. Then, the extended Ritz method is used to obtain discretized system equations. Finally, numerical results for the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the in-plane vibration and the in-plane response of the moving plate subjected to arbitrary edge excitations are presented. It is observed that the symmetry class of the mode shapes of the in-plane vibration disperses gradually as the moving speed gets higher, and the u- and v-components of the mode shapes belong to different symmetry class. In addition, large response amplitudes having shapes similar to the mode shapes of the plate can be excited by the edge excitations at the resonant frequencies and with the same symmetry class of distribution as the u-components.

**Keywords:**
Arbitrary edge excitations,
axially moving plates,
in-plane vibration,
extended Ritz method.

##### 152 On a Discrete-Time GIX/Geo/1/N Queue with Single Working Vacation and Partial Batch Rejection

**Authors:**
Shan Gao

**Abstract:**

This paper treats a discrete-time finite buffer batch arrival queue with a single working vacation and partial batch rejection in which the inter-arrival and service times are, respectively, arbitrary and geometrically distributed. The queue is analyzed by using the supplementary variable and the imbedded Markov-chain techniques. We obtain steady-state system length distributions at prearrival, arbitrary and outside observer-s observation epochs. We also present probability generation function (p.g.f.) of actual waiting-time distribution in the system and some performance measures.

**Keywords:**
Discrete-time,
finite buffer,
single working vacation,
batch arrival,
partial rejection.

##### 151 Exact Solutions of Steady Plane Flows of an Incompressible Fluid of Variable Viscosity Using (ξ, ψ)- Or (η, ψ)- Coordinates

**Authors:**
Rana Khalid Naeem,
Asif Mansoor,
Waseem Ahmed Khan,
Aurangzaib

**Abstract:**

The exact solutions of the equations describing the steady plane motion of an incompressible fluid of variable viscosity for an arbitrary state equation are determined in the (ξ,ψ) − or (η,ψ )- coordinates where ψ(x,y) is the stream function, ξ and η are the parts of the analytic function, ϖ =ξ( x,y )+iη( x,y ). Most of the solutions involve arbitrary function/ functions indicating that the flow equations possess an infinite set of solutions.

**Keywords:**
Exact solutions,
Fluid of variable viscosity,
Navier-Stokes equations,
Steady plane flows

##### 150 3D Mesh Coarsening via Uniform Clustering

**Authors:**
Shuhua Lai,
Kairui Chen

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Coarsening,
mesh clustering,
shape approximation,
mesh simplification.

##### 149 Limit Analysis of FGM Circular Plates Subjected to Arbitrary Rotational Symmetric Loads

**Authors:**
Kargarnovin M.H.,
Faghidian S. A,
Arghavani J.

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Circular plate,
FGM circular plate,
Limit analysis,
Lower and Upper bound theorems.

##### 148 Reducing the Need for Multi-Input Multi-Output in Multi-Beam Base Transceiver Station Antennas Using Orthogonally-Polarized Feeds with an Arbitrary Number of Ports

**Authors:**
Mohamed Sanad,
Noha Hassan

**Abstract:**

A multi-beam BTS (Base Transceiver Station) antenna has been developed using dual parabolic cylindrical reflectors. The ±45° polarization feeds are used in spatial diversity MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output). They can be replaced by single-port orthogonally polarized feeds. Then, with two sets of beams generated above each other, the ± 45° polarization ports of any conventional transceiver can be connected to two of these beam sets. Thus, with two-port transceivers, the system will be equivalent to 4x4 MIMO, instead of 2x2. Radio Frequency (RF) power combiners/splitters can also be used to combine the multiple beams into a single beam or any arbitrary number of beams/ports. The gain of the combined-beam will be more than 20-24 dBi instead of 17-18 dBi of conventional wide-beam antennas. Furthermore, the gain of the combined beam will be high over the whole beam angle. Moreover, the users will always be close to the peak gain value of the combined beam regardless of their location within the combined beam angle. The frequency bands of all the combined beams are adjusted such that they all have the same frequency band. Different configurations of RF power splitter/combiners can be used to provide any arbitrary number of beams/ports according to the requirements of any existing base station configuration.

**Keywords:**
5G mobile communications,
BTS antennas,
MIMO,
orthogonally polarized antennas,
multi-beam antennas.

##### 147 Obtain the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) in a Medium Containing a Penny-Shaped Crack by the Ritz Method

**Authors:**
A. Tavangari,
N. Salehzadeh

**Abstract:**

In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) of three-dimensional penny- Shaped crack is obtained in an isotropic elastic cylindrical medium with arbitrary dimensions under arbitrary loading at the top of the cylinder, by the semi-analytical method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method. This method that is based on minimizing the potential energy amount of the whole of the system, gives a very close results to the previous studies. Defining the displacements (elastic fields) by hypothetical functions in a defined coordinate system is the base of this research. So for creating the singularity conditions at the tip of the crack the appropriate terms should be found.

**Keywords:**
Penny-shaped crack,
Stress intensity factor,
Fracture
mechanics,
Ritz method.

##### 146 Exact Evaluation Method for Error Performance Analysis of Arbitrary 2-D Modulation OFDM Systems with CFO

**Authors:**
Jaeyoon Lee,
Dongweon Yoon,
Hoon Yoo,
Sanggoo Kim

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Carrier frequency offset,
Probability of error,
Inter-channel interference,
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

##### 145 Arbitrary Amplitude Ion-Acoustic Solitary Waves in Electron-Ion-Positron Plasma with Nonthermal Electrons

**Authors:**
Basudev Ghosh,
Sreyasi Banerjee

**Abstract:**

Using pseudo potential method arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves have been theoretically studied in a collisionless plasma consisting of warm drifting positive ions, Boltzmann positrons and nonthermal electrons. Ion-acoustic solitary wave solutions have been obtained and the dependence of the solitary wave profile on different plasma parameters has been studied numerically. Lower and higher order compressive and rarefactive solitary waves are observed in presence of positrons, nonthermal electrons, ion drift velocity and finite ion temperature. Inclusion of higher order nonlinearity is shown to have significant correction to the solitary wave profile for the same values of plasma parameters.

**Keywords:**
Ion-acoustic waves,
Nonthermal electrons,
Sagdeev potential,
Solitary waves.

##### 144 Performance of Dual MRC Receiver for M-ary Modulations over Correlated Nakagami-m Fading Channels with Non-identical and Arbitrary Fading Parameter

**Authors:**
Rupaban Subadar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
MRC,
correlated Nakagami-m fading,
non-identicalfading statistics,
average symbol error rate

##### 143 On the Wave Propagation in Layered Plates of General Anisotropic Media

**Authors:**
K. L. Verma

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Anisotropic,
layered,
dispersion,
elastic waves,
frequency equations.

##### 142 A Note on the Minimum Cardinality of Critical Sets of Inertias for Irreducible Zero-nonzero Patterns of Order 4

**Authors:**
Ber-Lin Yu,
Ting-Zhu Huang

**Abstract:**

If there exists a nonempty, proper subset S of the set of all (n+1)(n+2)/2 inertias such that S Ôèå i(A) is sufficient for any n×n zero-nonzero pattern A to be inertially arbitrary, then S is called a critical set of inertias for zero-nonzero patterns of order n. If no proper subset of S is a critical set, then S is called a minimal critical set of inertias. In [Kim, Olesky and Driessche, Critical sets of inertias for matrix patterns, Linear and Multilinear Algebra, 57 (3) (2009) 293-306], identifying all minimal critical sets of inertias for n×n zero-nonzero patterns with n ≥ 3 and the minimum cardinality of such a set are posed as two open questions by Kim, Olesky and Driessche. In this note, the minimum cardinality of all critical sets of inertias for 4 × 4 irreducible zero-nonzero patterns is identified.

**Keywords:**
Zero-nonzero pattern,
inertia,
critical set of inertias,
inertially arbitrary.

##### 141 Minimal Critical Sets of Inertias for Irreducible Zero-nonzero Patterns of Order 3

**Authors:**
Ber-Lin Yu,
Ting-Zhu Huang

**Abstract:**

If there exists a nonempty, proper subset S of the set of all (n + 1)(n + 2)/2 inertias such that S Ôèå i(A) is sufficient for any n × n zero-nonzero pattern A to be inertially arbitrary, then S is called a critical set of inertias for zero-nonzero patterns of order n. If no proper subset of S is a critical set, then S is called a minimal critical set of inertias. In [3], Kim, Olesky and Driessche identified all minimal critical sets of inertias for 2 × 2 zero-nonzero patterns. Identifying all minimal critical sets of inertias for n × n zero-nonzero patterns with n ≥ 3 is posed as an open question in [3]. In this paper, all minimal critical sets of inertias for 3 × 3 zero-nonzero patterns are identified. It is shown that the sets {(0, 0, 3), (3, 0, 0)}, {(0, 0, 3), (0, 3, 0)}, {(0, 0, 3), (0, 1, 2)}, {(0, 0, 3), (1, 0, 2)}, {(0, 0, 3), (2, 0, 1)} and {(0, 0, 3), (0, 2, 1)} are the only minimal critical sets of inertias for 3 × 3 irreducible zerononzero patterns.

**Keywords:**
Permutation digraph,
zero-nonzero pattern,
irreducible pattern,
critical set of inertias,
inertially arbitrary.

##### 140 Mobile Robot Control by Von Neumann Computer

**Authors:**
E. V. Larkin,
T. A. Akimenko,
A. V. Bogomolov,
A. N. Privalov

**Abstract:**

The digital control system of mobile robots (MR) control is considered. It is shown that sequential interpretation of control algorithm operators, unfolding in physical time, suggests the occurrence of time delays between inputting data from sensors and outputting data to actuators. Another destabilizing control factor is presence of backlash in the joints of an actuator with an executive unit. Complex model of control system, which takes into account the dynamics of the MR, the dynamics of the digital controller and backlash in actuators, is worked out. The digital controller model is divided into two parts: the first part describes the control law embedded in the controller in the form of a control program that realizes a polling procedure when organizing transactions to sensors and actuators. The second part of the model describes the time delays that occur in the Von Neumann-type controller when processing data. To estimate time intervals, the algorithm is represented in the form of an ergodic semi-Markov process. For an ergodic semi-Markov process of common form, a method is proposed for estimation a wandering time from one arbitrary state to another arbitrary state. Example shows how the backlash and time delays affect the quality characteristics of the MR control system functioning.

**Keywords:**
Mobile robot,
backlash,
control algorithm,
Von Neumann controller,
semi-Markov process,
time delay.

##### 139 An Approach to the Solving Non-Steiner Minimum Link Path Problem

**Authors:**
V. Tereshchenko,
A. Tregubenko

**Abstract:**

In this study we survey the method for fast finding a minimum link path between two arbitrary points within a simple polygon, which can pass only through the vertices, with preprocessing.

**Keywords:**
Minimum link path,
simple polygon,
Steiner points,
optimal algorithm.

##### 138 A Performance Comparison of Golay and Reed-Muller Coded OFDM Signal for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction

**Authors:**
Sanjay Singh,
M Sathish Kumar,
H. S Mruthyunjaya

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
OFDM,
PAPR,
Perfect Codes,
Golay Codes,
Reed-Muller Codes

##### 137 On Graded Semiprime Submodules

**Authors:**
Farkhonde Farzalipour,
Peyman Ghiasvand

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
graded semiprime,
graded weakly semiprime,
graded secondary

##### 136 Non Approximately Inner Tensor Product of C*—Algebras

**Authors:**
Rasoul Abazari

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we show that C*-tensor product of an arbitrary C*-algebra A, (not unital necessary) and C*-algebra B without ground state, have no approximately inner strongly continuous one-parameter group of *-automorphisms.

**Keywords:**
One–parameter group,
C*– tensor product,
Approximately inner,
Ground state.

##### 135 Capacity Optimization for Local and Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

**Authors:**
Ayman A. El-Saleh,
Mahamod Ismail,
Mohd. A. M. Ali,
Ahmed N. H. Alnuaimy

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Capacity,
cognitive radio,
optimization,
spectrumsensing.

##### 134 The Pell Equation x2 − (k2 − k)y2 = 2t

**Authors:**
Ahmet Tekcan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Pell equation,
solutions of Pell equation.

##### 133 Outdoor Anomaly Detection with a Spectroscopic Line Detector

**Authors:**
O. J. G. Somsen

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Anomaly detection,
spectroscopic line imaging,
image analysis.