Search results for: Soon Y. Chee
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Soon Y. Chee

29 An Intelligent Human-Computer Interaction System for Decision Support

Authors: Chee Siong Teh, Chee Peng Lim

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel architecture for developing decision support systems. Unlike conventional decision support systems, the proposed architecture endeavors to reveal the decision-making process such that humans' subjectivity can be incorporated into a computerized system and, at the same time, to preserve the capability of the computerized system in processing information objectively. A number of techniques used in developing the decision support system are elaborated to make the decisionmarking process transparent. These include procedures for high dimensional data visualization, pattern classification, prediction, and evolutionary computational search. An artificial data set is first employed to compare the proposed approach with other methods. A simulated handwritten data set and a real data set on liver disease diagnosis are then employed to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed approach. The results are analyzed and discussed. The potentials of the proposed architecture as a useful decision support system are demonstrated.

Keywords: Interactive evolutionary computation, multivariate data projection, pattern classification, topographic map.

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28 Compressive Stresses near Crack Tip Induced by Thermo-Electric Field

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, the thermo-electro-structural coupledfield in a cracked metal plate is studied using the finite element analysis. From the computational results, the compressive stresses reveal near the crack tip. This conclusion agrees with the past reference. Furthermore, the compressive condition can retard and stop the crack growth during the Joule heating process.

Keywords: Compressive stress, crack tip, Joule heating, finite element.

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27 Notes on Vibration Design for Piezoelectric Cooling Fan

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu, Yu-Shen Chen, Hsi-Yang Ho, Jyun-Ting Liu, Chih-Chun Lee

Abstract:

This paper discusses some notes on the vibration design for the piezoelectric cooling fan. After reviewing the fundamental formulas of the cantilever Euler beam, it is not easy to find the optimal design of the piezoelectric fan. The experiments also show the complicated results of the vibration behavior and air flow.

Keywords: Piezoelectric cooling fan, vibration, cantilever Euler beam, air flow.

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26 Finite Element Analysis of Composite Frames in Wheelchair under Upward Loading

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu, Jin-Wei Liang, Wei-Long Chen, Teng-Hui Chen

Abstract:

The finite element analysis is adopted in this primary study. Using the Tsai-Wu criterion and delamination criterion, the stacking sequence [45/04/-454/904]s is the final optimal design for the wheelchair frame. On the contrary, the uni-directional laminates, i.e. [9013]s, [4513]s and [-4513]s, are bad designs due to the higher failure indexes.

Keywords: Wheelchair frame, stacking sequence, failure index, finite element.

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25 Performance of Piezoelectric Cooling Fan with Rectangular Blade

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu, Yu-Shen Chen

Abstract:

Using the numerical and experimental methods, this paper discusses some primary studies on the vibration and cooling performances of the piezoelectric cooling fan with the rectangular blade. When the fan works at its natural frequency, the vibrating displacement is largest and the cooling performance is best. Due to the vibration behavior, the cooling performance is affected by the geometry, material property, and working frequency of the piezoelectric cooling fan. 

Keywords: Piezoelectric cooling fan, finite element, vibration, natural frequency.

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24 Low Power Digital System for Reconfigurable Neural Recording System

Authors: Peng Li, Jun Zhou, Xin Liu, Chee Keong Ho, Xiaodan Zou, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

A digital system is proposed for low power 100- channel neural recording system in this paper, which consists of 100 amplifiers, 100 analog-to-digital converters (ADC), digital controller and baseband, transceiver for data link and RF command link. The proposed system is designed in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and 65 nm CMOS process.

Keywords: multiplex, neural recording, synchronization, transceiver

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23 Fabricating Protruded Micro-features on AA6061 Substrates by Hot Embossing Method

Authors: Nhat Khoa Tran, Yee Cheong Lam, Chee Yoon Yue, Ming Jen Tan

Abstract:

Metallic micro parts are playing an important role in micro-fabrication industry. Recently, we have demonstrated a new deformation mechanism for micro-formability of polycrystalline materials. Different depressed micro-features smaller than the grain size have been successfully fabricated on 6061 aluminum alloy (AA6061) substrates with good fidelity. To further verify this proposed deformation mechanism that grain size is not a limiting factor, we demonstrate here that in addition of depressed features, protruded micro-features on a polycrystalline substrate can similarly be fabricated.

Keywords: Deformation mechanism, grain size, microfabrication, polycrystalline materials.

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22 Effects of Temperature-Dependent Material Properties on Stress and Temperature in Cracked Metal Plate under Electric Current Load

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

Using the finite element analyses, this paper discusses the effects of temperature-dependent material properties on the stress and temperature fields in a cracked metal plate under the electric current load. The practical and complicated results are obtained when the temperature-dependent material properties are adopted in the analysis. If the simplified (temperature-independent) material properties are used, incorrect results will be obtained.

Keywords: Joule heating, temperature-dependent, crack tip, finite element.

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21 Numerical and Experimental Studies of Joule Heating Effects around Crack and Notch Tips

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu, Ji-Fu Tseng, Yu-Shen Chen

Abstract:

This paper investigates the thermo-electric effects around the crack and notch tips under the electric current load. The research methods include the finite element analysis and thermal imaging experiment. The finite element solutions show that the electric current density field concentrates at the crack tip. Due to the Joule heating, this electric concentration causes the hot spot at the tip zone. From numerical and experimental results, this hot spot is identified. The temperature of the hot spot is affected by the electric load, operation time and geometry of the sample.

Keywords: Thermo-electric, Joule heating, crack tip, notch tip.

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20 Finite Element Analysis of Crack Welding Process

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

The numerical simulation of the crack welding process is reported in this paper. The thermo-electro-structural coupled-field finite element analysis is adopted to investigate the welding process of crack surfaces. In the simulation, the pressure-dependent and temperature-dependent electrical contact conditions are considered. From the results, the crack surfaces can melt and weld together under the compressive load and electric current. The contact pressure effect must be considered in the finite element analysis to obtain more practical results.

Keywords: Crack welding, contact pressure, Joule heating, finite element, coupled-field.

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19 Visualising Energy Efficiency Landscape

Authors: Hairulliza M. Judi, Soon Y. Chee

Abstract:

This paper discusses the landscape design that could increase energy efficiency in a house. By planting trees in a house compound, the tree shades prevent direct sunlight from heating up the building, and it enables cooling off the surrounding air. The requirement for air-conditioning could be minimized and the air quality could be improved. During the life time of a tree, the saving cost from the mentioned benefits could be up to US $ 200 for each tree. The project intends to visually describe the landscape design in a house compound that could enhance energy efficiency and consequently lead to energy saving. The house compound model was developed in three dimensions by using AutoCAD 2005, the animation was programmed by using LightWave 3D softwares i.e. Modeler and Layout to display the tree shadings in the wall. The visualization was executed on a VRML Pad platform and implemented on a web environment.

Keywords: Tree planting, tree shading, energy efficiency, visualization.

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18 Investigation of the Neutral Axis in the Positive Moment Region of Composite Beams

Authors: Su-Young Jeong, Won-Kee Hong, Seon-Chee Park, Gyun-Taek Lim, Eric Kim

Abstract:

Researchers investigate arious strategies to develop composite beams and maximize the structural advantages. This study attempted to conduct experiments and analysis of changes in the neutral axis of positive moments of a Green Beam. Strain compatibility analysis was used, and its efficiency was demonstrated by comparing experimental and analytical values. In the comparison of neutral axis, the difference between experimental and analytical values was found to range from 8.8~26.2%. It was determined that strain compatibility analysis can be useful for predicting the behaviors of composite beams, with the ability to predict the behavior of not only the elastic location of the composite member, but also of the plastic location

Keywords: Composite beam, Strain compatibility, Neutral axis, Green Beam

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17 The Application of an Ensemble of Boosted Elman Networks to Time Series Prediction: A Benchmark Study

Authors: Chee Peng Lim, Wei Yee Goh

Abstract:

In this paper, the application of multiple Elman neural networks to time series data regression problems is studied. An ensemble of Elman networks is formed by boosting to enhance the performance of the individual networks. A modified version of the AdaBoost algorithm is employed to integrate the predictions from multiple networks. Two benchmark time series data sets, i.e., the Sunspot and Box-Jenkins gas furnace problems, are used to assess the effectiveness of the proposed system. The simulation results reveal that an ensemble of boosted Elman networks can achieve a higher degree of generalization as well as performance than that of the individual networks. The results are compared with those from other learning systems, and implications of the performance are discussed.

Keywords: AdaBoost, Elman network, neural network ensemble, time series regression.

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16 Designing Early Warning System: Prediction Accuracy of Currency Crisis by Using k-Nearest Neighbour Method

Authors: Nor Azuana Ramli, Mohd Tahir Ismail, Hooy Chee Wooi

Abstract:

Developing a stable early warning system (EWS) model that is capable to give an accurate prediction is a challenging task. This paper introduces k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) method which never been applied in predicting currency crisis before with the aim of increasing the prediction accuracy. The proposed k-NN performance depends on the choice of a distance that is used where in our analysis; we take the Euclidean distance and the Manhattan as a consideration. For the comparison, we employ three other methods which are logistic regression analysis (logit), back-propagation neural network (NN) and sequential minimal optimization (SMO). The analysis using datasets from 8 countries and 13 macro-economic indicators for each country shows that the proposed k-NN method with k = 4 and Manhattan distance performs better than the other methods.

Keywords: Currency crisis, k-nearest neighbour method, logit, neural network.

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15 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Lubricant Adsorption and Thermal Depletion Instability

Authors: Bei Li, Qiu B. Chen, Chee H. Wong

Abstract:

In this work, we incorporated a quartic bond potential into a coarse-grained bead-spring model to study lubricant adsorption on a solid surface as well as depletion instability. The surface tension density and the number density profiles were examined to verify the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor interfaces during heat treatment. It was found that both the liquid-vapor interfacial thickness and the solid-vapor separation increase with the temperatureT* when T*is below the phase transition temperature Tc *. At high temperatures (T*>Tc *), the solid-vapor separation decreases gradually as the temperature increases. In addition, we evaluated the lubricant weight and bond loss profiles at different temperatures. It was observed that the lubricant desorption is favored over decomposition and is the main cause of the lubricant failure at the head disk interface in our simulations.

Keywords: Depletion instability, Lubricant film, Thermal adsorption, Molecular dynamics (MD).

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14 Learner Awareness Levels Questionnaire: Development and Preliminary Validation of the English and Malay Versions to Measure How and Why Students Learn

Authors: S. Chee Choy, Pauline Swee Choo Goh, Yow Lin Liew

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the English version and a Malay translation of the 21-item Learner Awareness Questionnaire for its application to assess student learning in higher education. The Learner Awareness Questionnaire, originally written in English, is a quantitative measure of how and why students learn. The questionnaire gives an indication of the process and motives to learn using four scales: survival, establishing stability, approval and loving to learn. Data in the present study came from 680 university students enrolled in various programmes in Malaysia. The Malay version of the questionnaire supported a similar four factor structure and internal consistency to the English version. The four factors of the Malay version also showed moderate to strong correlations with those of the English versions. The results suggest that the Malay version of the questionnaire is similar to the English version. However, further refinement to the questions is needed to strengthen the correlations between the two questionnaires.

Keywords: Student learning, learner awareness, instrument validation.

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13 Sparse Coding Based Classification of Electrocardiography Signals Using Data-Driven Complete Dictionary Learning

Authors: Fuad Noman, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Chee-Ming Ting, Hadri Hussain, Syed Rasul

Abstract:

In this paper, a data-driven dictionary approach is proposed for the automatic detection and classification of cardiovascular abnormalities. Electrocardiography (ECG) signal is represented by the trained complete dictionaries that contain prototypes or atoms to avoid the limitations of pre-defined dictionaries. The data-driven trained dictionaries simply take the ECG signal as input rather than extracting features to study the set of parameters that yield the most descriptive dictionary. The approach inherently learns the complicated morphological changes in ECG waveform, which is then used to improve the classification. The classification performance was evaluated with ECG data under two different preprocessing environments. In the first category, QT-database is baseline drift corrected with notch filter and it filters the 60 Hz power line noise. In the second category, the data are further filtered using fast moving average smoother. The experimental results on QT database confirm that our proposed algorithm shows a classification accuracy of 92%.

Keywords: Electrocardiogram, dictionary learning, sparse coding, classification.

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12 Evaluation of Service Continuity in a Self-organizing IMS

Authors: Satoshi Komorita, Tsunehiko Chiba, Hidetoshi Yokota, Ashutosh Dutta, Christian Makaya, Subir Das, Dana Chee, F. Joe Lin, Henning Schulzrinne

Abstract:

The NGN (Next Generation Network), which can provide advanced multimedia services over an all-IP based network, has been the subject of much attention for years. While there have been tremendous efforts to develop its architecture and protocols, especially for IMS, which is a key technology of the NGN, it is far from being widely deployed. However, efforts to create an advanced signaling infrastructure realizing many requirements have resulted in a large number of functional components and interactions between those components. Thus, the carriers are trying to explore effective ways to deploy IMS while offering value-added services. As one such approach, we have proposed a self-organizing IMS. A self-organizing IMS enables IMS functional components and corresponding physical nodes to adapt dynamically and automatically based on situation such as network load and available system resources while continuing IMS operation. To realize this, service continuity for users is an important requirement when a reconfiguration occurs during operation. In this paper, we propose a mechanism that will provide service continuity to users and focus on the implementation and describe performance evaluation in terms of number of control signaling and processing time during reconfiguration

Keywords: IMS, SIP, Service Continuity, Self-organizing, and Performance.

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11 Effect of Curing Profile to Eliminate the Voids / Black Dots Formation in Underfill Epoxy for Hi-CTE Flip Chip Packaging

Authors: Zainudin Kornain, Azman Jalar, Rozaidi Rasid, Fong Chee Seng

Abstract:

Void formation in underfill is considered as failure in flip chip manufacturing process. Void formation possibly caused by several factors such as poor soldering and flux residue during die attach process, void entrapment due moisture contamination, dispense pattern process and setting up the curing process. This paper presents the comparison of single step and two steps curing profile towards the void and black dots formation in underfill for Hi-CTE Flip Chip Ceramic Ball Grid Array Package (FC-CBGA). Statistic analysis was conducted to analyze how different factors such as wafer lot, sawing technique, underfill fillet height and curing profile recipe were affected the formation of voids and black dots. A C-Mode Scanning Aqoustic Microscopy (C-SAM) was used to scan the total count of voids and black dots. It was shown that the 2 steps curing profile provided solution for void elimination and black dots in underfill after curing process.

Keywords: black dots formation, curing profile, FC-CBGA, underfill, void formation,

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10 Multiple Peaks Tracking Algorithm using Particle Swarm Optimization Incorporated with Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Mei Shan Ngan, Chee Wei Tan

Abstract:

Due to the non-linear characteristics of photovoltaic (PV) array, PV systems typically are equipped with the capability of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) feature. Moreover, in the case of PV array under partially shaded conditions, hotspot problem will occur which could damage the PV cells. Partial shading causes multiple peaks in the P-V characteristic curves. This paper presents a hybrid algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) MPPT algorithm for the detection of global peak among the multiple peaks in order to extract the true maximum energy from PV panel. The PV system consists of PV array, dc-dc boost converter controlled by the proposed MPPT algorithm and a resistive load. The system was simulated using MATLAB/Simulink package. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs well to detect the true global peak power. The results of the simulations are analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV), Partial Shading, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

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9 Performance Study on Audio Codec and Session Transfer of Open Source VoIP applications

Authors: Cheng-Suan Lee, Khong Neng Choong, So Gean Koh, Chee Onn Chow, Mazlan Abbas

Abstract:

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) application or commonly known as softphone has been developing an increasingly large market in today-s telecommunication world and the trend is expected to continue with the enhancement of additional features. This includes leveraging on the existing presence services, location and contextual information to enable more ubiquitous and seamless communications. In this paper, we discuss the concept of seamless session transfer for real-time application such as VoIP and IPTV, and our prototype implementation of such concept on a selected open source VoIP application. The first part of this paper is about conducting performance evaluation and assessments across some commonly found open source VoIP applications that are Ekiga, Kphone, Linphone and Twinkle so as to identify one of them for implementing our design of seamless session transfer. Subjective testing has been carried out to evaluate the audio performance on these VoIP applications and rank them according to their Mean Opinion Score (MOS) results. The second part of this paper is to discuss on the performance evaluations of our prototype implementation of session transfer using Linphone.

Keywords: audio codec, softphone, session transfer.

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8 Experimental Studies on Treated Sub-base Soil with Fly Ash and Cement for Sustainable Design Recommendations

Authors: M. Jayakumar, Lau Chee Sing

Abstract:

The pavement constructions on soft and expansive soils are not durable and unable to sustain heavy traffic loading. As a result, pavement failures and settlement problems will occur very often even under light traffic loading due to cyclic and rolling effects. Geotechnical engineers have dwelled deeply into this matter, and adopt various methods to improve the engineering characteristics of soft fine-grained soils and expansive soils. The problematic soils are either replaced by good and better quality material or treated by using chemical stabilization with various binding materials. Increased the strength and durability are also the part of the sustainability drive to reduce the environment footprint of the built environment by the efficient use of resources and waste recycle materials. This paper presents a series of laboratory tests and evaluates the effect of cement and fly ash on the strength and drainage characteristics of soil in Miri. The tests were performed at different percentages of cement and fly ash by dry weight of soil. Additional tests were also performed on soils treated with the combinations of fly ash with cement and lime. The results of this study indicate an increase in unconfined compression strength and a decrease in hydraulic conductivity of the treated soil.

Keywords: Pavement failure, soft soil, sustainability, stabilization, fly ash, strength and permeability.

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7 An FPGA Implementation of Intelligent Visual Based Fall Detection

Authors: Peng Shen Ong, Yoong Choon Chang, Chee Pun Ooi, Ettikan K. Karuppiah, Shahirina Mohd Tahir

Abstract:

Falling has been one of the major concerns and threats to the independence of the elderly in their daily lives. With the worldwide significant growth of the aging population, it is essential to have a promising solution of fall detection which is able to operate at high accuracy in real-time and supports large scale implementation using multiple cameras. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a highly promising tool to be used as a hardware accelerator in many emerging embedded vision based system. Thus, it is the main objective of this paper to present an FPGA-based solution of visual based fall detection to meet stringent real-time requirements with high accuracy. The hardware architecture of visual based fall detection which utilizes the pixel locality to reduce memory accesses is proposed. By exploiting the parallel and pipeline architecture of FPGA, our hardware implementation of visual based fall detection using FGPA is able to achieve a performance of 60fps for a series of video analytical functions at VGA resolutions (640x480). The results of this work show that FPGA has great potentials and impacts in enabling large scale vision system in the future healthcare industry due to its flexibility and scalability.

Keywords: Fall detection, FPGA, hardware implementation.

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6 Some Mechanical Properties of Cement Stabilized Malaysian Soft Clay

Authors: Meei-Hoan Ho, Chee-Ming Chan

Abstract:

Soft clays are defined as cohesive soil whose water content is higher than its liquid limits. Thus, soil-cement mixing is adopted to improve the ground conditions by enhancing the strength and deformation characteristics of the soft clays. For the above mentioned reasons, a series of laboratory tests were carried out to study some fundamental mechanical properties of cement stabilized soft clay. The test specimens were prepared by varying the portion of ordinary Portland cement to the soft clay sample retrieved from the test site of RECESS (Research Centre for Soft Soil). Comparisons were made for both homogeneous and columnar system specimens by relating the effects of cement stabilized clay of for 0, 5 and 10 % cement and curing for 3, 28 and 56 days. The mechanical properties examined included one-dimensional compressibility and undrained shear strength. For the mechanical properties, both homogeneous and columnar system specimens were prepared to examine the effect of different cement contents and curing periods on the stabilized soil. The one-dimensional compressibility test was conducted using an oedometer, while a direct shear box was used for measuring the undrained shear strength. The higher the value of cement content, the greater is the enhancement of the yield stress and the decrease of compression index. The value of cement content in a specimen is a more active parameter than the curing period.

Keywords: Soft soil, Oedometer, Direct shear box, Cementstabilisedcolumn.

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5 An Overview of Islanding Detection Methods in Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Wei Yee Teoh, Chee Wei Tan

Abstract:

The issue of unintentional islanding in PV grid interconnection still remains as a challenge in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper discusses the overview of popularly used anti-islanding detection methods, practically applied in PV grid-connected systems. Anti-islanding methods generally can be classified into four major groups, which include passive methods, active methods, hybrid methods and communication base methods. Active methods have been the preferred detection technique over the years due to very small non-detected zone (NDZ) in small scale distribution generation. Passive method is comparatively simpler than active method in terms of circuitry and operations. However, it suffers from large NDZ that significantly reduces its performance. Communication base methods inherit the advantages of active and passive methods with reduced drawbacks. Hybrid method which evolved from the combination of both active and passive methods has been proven to achieve accurate anti-islanding detection by many researchers. For each of the studied anti-islanding methods, the operation analysis is described while the advantages and disadvantages are compared and discussed. It is difficult to pinpoint a generic method for a specific application, because most of the methods discussed are governed by the nature of application and system dependent elements. This study concludes that the setup and operation cost is the vital factor for anti-islanding method selection in order to achieve minimal compromising between cost and system quality.

Keywords: Active method, hybrid method, islanding detection, passive method, photovoltaic (PV), utility method

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4 Effect of Natural Fibres Inclusion in Clay Bricks: Physico-Mechanical Properties

Authors: Chee-Ming Chan

Abstract:

In spite of the advent of new materials, clay bricks remain, arguably, the most popular construction materials today. Nevertheless the low cost and versatility of clay bricks cannot always be associated with high environmental and sustainable values, especially in terms of raw material sources and manufacturing processes. At the same time, the worldwide agricultural footprint is fast growing, with vast agricultural land cultivation and active expansion of the agro-based industry. The resulting large quantities of agricultural wastes, unfortunately, are not always well managed or utilised. These wastes can be recycled, such as by retrieving fibres from disposed leaves and fruit bunches, and then incorporated in brick-making. This way the clay bricks are made a 'greener' building material and the discarded natural wastes can be reutilised, avoiding otherwise wasteful landfill and harmful open incineration. This study examined the physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks made by adding two natural fibres to a clay-water mixture, with baked and non-baked conditions. The fibres were sourced from pineapple leaves (PF) and oil palm fruit bunch (OF), and added within the range of 0.25-0.75 %. Cement was added as a binder to the mixture at 5-15 %. Although the two fibres had different effects on the bricks produced, cement appeared to dominate the compressive strength. The non-baked bricks disintegrated when submerged in water, while the baked ones displayed cement-dependent characteristics in water-absorption and density changes. Interestingly, further increase in fibre content did not cause significant density decrease in both the baked and non-baked bricks.

Keywords: natural fibres, clay bricks, strength, water absorption, density.

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3 Modeling of Pulsatile Blood Flow in a Weak Magnetic Field

Authors: Chee Teck Phua, Gaëlle Lissorgues

Abstract:

Blood pulse is an important human physiological signal commonly used for the understanding of the individual physical health. Current methods of non-invasive blood pulse sensing require direct contact or access to the human skin. As such, the performances of these devices tend to vary with time and are subjective to human body fluids (e.g. blood, perspiration and skin-oil) and environmental contaminants (e.g. mud, water, etc). This paper proposes a simulation model for the novel method of non-invasive acquisition of blood pulse using the disturbance created by blood flowing through a localized magnetic field. The simulation model geometry represents a blood vessel, a permanent magnet, a magnetic sensor, surrounding tissues and air in 2-dimensional. In this model, the velocity and pressure fields in the blood stream are described based on Navier-Stroke equations and the walls of the blood vessel are assumed to have no-slip condition. The blood assumes a parabolic profile considering a laminar flow for blood in major artery near the skin. And the inlet velocity follows a sinusoidal equation. This will allow the computational software to compute the interactions between the magnetic vector potential generated by the permanent magnet and the magnetic nanoparticles in the blood. These interactions are simulated based on Maxwell equations at the location where the magnetic sensor is placed. The simulated magnetic field at the sensor location is found to assume similar sinusoidal waveform characteristics as the inlet velocity of the blood. The amplitude of the simulated waveforms at the sensor location are compared with physical measurements on human subjects and found to be highly correlated.

Keywords: Blood pulse, magnetic sensing, non-invasive measurement, magnetic disturbance.

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2 A Multi-Modal Virtual Walkthrough of the Virtual Past and Present Based on Panoramic View, Crowd Simulation and Acoustic Heritage on Mobile Platform

Authors: Lim Chen Kim, Tan Kian Lam, Chan Yi Chee

Abstract:

This research presents a multi-modal simulation in the reconstruction of the past and the construction of present in digital cultural heritage on mobile platform. In bringing the present life, the virtual environment is generated through a presented scheme for rapid and efficient construction of 360° panoramic view. Then, acoustical heritage model and crowd model are presented and improvised into the 360° panoramic view. For the reconstruction of past life, the crowd is simulated and rendered in an old trading port. However, the keystone of this research is in a virtual walkthrough that shows the virtual present life in 2D and virtual past life in 3D, both in an environment of virtual heritage sites in George Town through mobile device. Firstly, the 2D crowd is modelled and simulated using OpenGL ES 1.1 on mobile platform. The 2D crowd is used to portray the present life in 360° panoramic view of a virtual heritage environment based on the extension of Newtonian Laws. Secondly, the 2D crowd is animated and rendered into 3D with improved variety and incorporated into the virtual past life using Unity3D Game Engine. The behaviours of the 3D models are then simulated based on the enhancement of the classical model of Boid algorithm. Finally, a demonstration system is developed and integrated with the models, techniques and algorithms of this research. The virtual walkthrough is demonstrated to a group of respondents and is evaluated through the user-centred evaluation by navigating around the demonstration system. The results of the evaluation based on the questionnaires have shown that the presented virtual walkthrough has been successfully deployed through a multi-modal simulation and such a virtual walkthrough would be particularly useful in a virtual tour and virtual museum applications.

Keywords: Boid algorithm, crowd simulation, mobile platform, Newtonian laws, virtual heritage.

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1 Reutilization of Organic and Peat Soils by Deep Cement Mixing

Authors: Bee-Lin Tang, Ismail Bakar, Chee - Ming Chan

Abstract:

Limited infrastructure development on peats and organic soils is a serious geotechnical issues common to many countries of the world especially Malaysia which distributed 1.5 mill ha of those problematic soil. These soils have high water content and organic content which exhibit different mechanical properties and may also change chemically and biologically with time. Constructing structures on peaty ground involves the risk of ground failure and extreme settlement. Nowdays, much efforts need to be done in making peatlands usable for construction due to increased landuse. Deep mixing method employing cement as binders, is generally used as measure again peaty/ organic ground failure problem. Where the technique is widely adopted because it can improved ground considerably in a short period of time. An understanding of geotechnical properties as shear strength, stiffness and compressibility behavior of these soils was requires before continues construction on it. Therefore, 1- 1.5 meter peat soil sample from states of Johor and an organic soil from Melaka, Malaysia were investigated. Cement were added to the soil in the pre-mixing stage with water cement ratio at range 3.5,7,14,140 for peats and 5,10,30 for organic soils, essentially to modify the original soil textures and properties. The mixtures which in slurry form will pour to polyvinyl chloride (pvc) tube and cured at room temperature 250C for 7,14 and 28 days. Laboratory experiments were conducted including unconfined compressive strength and bender element , to monitor the improved strength and stiffness of the 'stabilised mixed soils'. In between, scanning electron miscroscopic (SEM) were observations to investigate changes in microstructures of stabilised soils and to evaluated hardening effect of a peat and organic soils stabilised cement. This preliminary effort indicated that pre-mixing peat and organic soils contributes in gaining soil strength while help the engineers to establish a new method for those problematic ground improvement in further practical and long term applications.

Keywords: peat soils, organic soils, cement stabilisation, strength, stiffness.

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