Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31532
A Multi-Modal Virtual Walkthrough of the Virtual Past and Present Based on Panoramic View, Crowd Simulation and Acoustic Heritage on Mobile Platform

Authors: Lim Chen Kim, Tan Kian Lam, Chan Yi Chee


This research presents a multi-modal simulation in the reconstruction of the past and the construction of present in digital cultural heritage on mobile platform. In bringing the present life, the virtual environment is generated through a presented scheme for rapid and efficient construction of 360° panoramic view. Then, acoustical heritage model and crowd model are presented and improvised into the 360° panoramic view. For the reconstruction of past life, the crowd is simulated and rendered in an old trading port. However, the keystone of this research is in a virtual walkthrough that shows the virtual present life in 2D and virtual past life in 3D, both in an environment of virtual heritage sites in George Town through mobile device. Firstly, the 2D crowd is modelled and simulated using OpenGL ES 1.1 on mobile platform. The 2D crowd is used to portray the present life in 360° panoramic view of a virtual heritage environment based on the extension of Newtonian Laws. Secondly, the 2D crowd is animated and rendered into 3D with improved variety and incorporated into the virtual past life using Unity3D Game Engine. The behaviours of the 3D models are then simulated based on the enhancement of the classical model of Boid algorithm. Finally, a demonstration system is developed and integrated with the models, techniques and algorithms of this research. The virtual walkthrough is demonstrated to a group of respondents and is evaluated through the user-centred evaluation by navigating around the demonstration system. The results of the evaluation based on the questionnaires have shown that the presented virtual walkthrough has been successfully deployed through a multi-modal simulation and such a virtual walkthrough would be particularly useful in a virtual tour and virtual museum applications.

Keywords: Boid algorithm, crowd simulation, mobile platform, Newtonian laws, virtual heritage.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1181


[1] A.B. Juliana, S. Chew, W. Ooi, C. Pang, H.A. Hafizatul, L.H. Hazarotul, Development of virtual traditional house for interactive real-time navigation, Jurnal Teknologi, (2015), vol. 75(3), pp. 35-40.
[2] M. Deegan, B.E. Musa, Preserving the cultural heritage of Sudan through digitization: developing digital Sudan, International Congress in Digital Heritage, 2013, vol.2, pp. 485-487.
[3] F.-C. Isabelle, D. Dalbera, J. Zoller, F. Bertrand, Digital restitution of architectural and urban heritage in south of France, International Congress in Digital Heritage, 2013, vol. 1, pp. 751-751.
[4] P. Nguonphan, 3D modelling of the temples of Angkor based on religious conceptions. Archaeologizing Heritage, Springer, 2013, pp. 127-140.
[5] T. Daniel, M. Barbara, M. Jonathan, Geometric issues in reconstruction of virtual heritage involving large populations, 3D Research Challenges in Cultural Heritage, Springer, 2014, pp. 78-92.
[6] P. Christophe, Smart cities in a digital nation: are Swedish cities enough innovative?, Smarter as the New Urban Agenda, Springer, 2015, pp. 207-224.
[7] G. Cimadomo, Documentation and dissemination of cultural heritage: current solutions and considerations about its digital implementation, International Conference in Digital Heritage, 2013, vol. 1, pp. 555-562.
[8] S. Rizvic, V. Okanovic, A. Sadzak, Visualization and multimedia presentation of cultural heritage, International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics, 2015, pp. 348-351.
[9] B. Letiza, D.P. Rinaldo, N. Rossela, Walking into the past: design mobile app for the geo–referred and the multimodal user experience in the context of cultural heritage, Computational Science and Its Applications, Springer, 2013, pp. 481-492.
[10] R. Stan, R. Milena, S. Stefan, Visual interface design for digital cultural heritage: a guide to rich-prospect browsing, Ashgate, 2011.
[11] P. Panagiotis, P. Daniel, M. Katerina, W. Martin, The EPOCH multimodal interface for interacting with digital heritage artefacts, 12th International Conference on Interactive Technologies and Sociotechnical System, 2006, Springer, pp. 408-417.
[12] U. Branislav, T. Daniel, Crowd simulation for virtual heritage, 1st International Workshop on 3D Virtual, 2002, pp. 28-32.
[13] H. Simon, P. Muller, V.G. Luc, Procedural modeling for digital cultural heritage, Journal Image Video Process, 2009, pp. 7(4)-7(4).
[14] T. Daniel, R.M. Soraia, Challenges in crowd simulation, Springer, 2013.
[15] J. Jeffrey, H. Lynn, The virtual Egyptian temple, Proceedings of EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, 2005, pp. 4531-4536.
[16] Z. Noh, M.S. Sunar, Z. Pan, A review on augmented reality for virtual heritage system, 4th International Conference on E-Learning and Games: Learning by Playing. Game-based Education System Design and Development, 2009, Springer, pp. 50-61.
[17] F.P. Tasse, K.R. Glass, S. Bangay, Simulating crowd phenomena in African markets, 6th International Conference on Computer Graphics, Virtual Reality, Visualisation and Interaction, 2009, ACM, pp. 47-52
[18] S. Rodriguez, J. Denny, T. Zourntos, N.M. Amato, Toward simulating realistic pursuit-evasion using a roadmap-based approach, 3rd International Conference on Motion in Games, 2010, Springer, pp. 82-93.
[19] S.J. Guy, S. Kim, M.C. Lin, D. Manocha, Simulating heterogeneous crowd behaviors using personality trait theory, Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/ Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, 2011, ACM, 43-52.
[20] W. Shao, D. Terzopoulos, Autonomous pedestrians, Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/ Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, 2005, ACM, pp. 19-28.
[21] J. Maim, S. Haegler, B. Yersin, P. Mueller, D. Thalmann, L.V. Gool, Populating ancient Pompeii with crowds of virtual romans, 8th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Intelligent Cultural Heritage, 2007, Eurographics Association, pp. 109-116.
[22] B. Ulicny, P.D.H. Ciechomski, D. Thalmann, Crowdbush: interactive author-ing of real-time crowd scenes, Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/ Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, 2004, Eurographics Association, pp. 243-252.
[23] A. Bogdanovych, K. Ijaz, S. Simoff, The city of uruk: teaching ancient history in a virtual world, 12th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, 2012, Springer, pp. 28-35.
[24] C. Marcello, B. Massimo, Beyond virtual museums: experiencing immersive virtual reality in real museums, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2010, vol. 11(4), pp. 452-458.
[25] H. Jane, G. Anna, Harvesting community annotations on 3D models of museum artefacts to enhance knowledge, discovery and re-use, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2010, vol. 11(1), pp. 81-90
[26] M. Michela, E.C. Chiara, B. Francesco, F. Giusy, H.-P, Minica, P. Panagiotis, Learning cultural heritage by serious games, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2014, vol. 15(3), pp. 318-325
[27] S. Sylaiou, F. Liarokapis, K. Kotsakis, P. Patias, Virtual museums, a survey and some issues for consideration, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2009, vol. 10(4), pp. 520-528.
[28] C.K. Lim, K.L. Tan, A.Z. Talib, Low-cost methods for generating panoramic view for a mobile virtual heritage application and its application to the heritage zone of George Town, Malaysia, International Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2011, vol. 2(4), pp. 58-73
[29] K.L. Tan, C.K. Lim, A.Z. Talib, Tile-based panoramic view in mobile device, 2nd International Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation, 2012, vol. 284-287, pp. 3487-3491.
[30] X. Liu, J. Qiao, Research on Chinese museum design based on virtual reality, International Workshop on Modelling, Simulation, and Optimization, 2008, pp. 372-374.