Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 468

Search results for: Piezoelectric cooling fan

468 Performance of Piezoelectric Cooling Fan with Rectangular Blade

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu, Yu-Shen Chen

Abstract:

Using the numerical and experimental methods, this paper discusses some primary studies on the vibration and cooling performances of the piezoelectric cooling fan with the rectangular blade. When the fan works at its natural frequency, the vibrating displacement is largest and the cooling performance is best. Due to the vibration behavior, the cooling performance is affected by the geometry, material property, and working frequency of the piezoelectric cooling fan. 

Keywords: Piezoelectric cooling fan, finite element, vibration, natural frequency.

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467 Notes on Vibration Design for Piezoelectric Cooling Fan

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu, Yu-Shen Chen, Hsi-Yang Ho, Jyun-Ting Liu, Chih-Chun Lee

Abstract:

This paper discusses some notes on the vibration design for the piezoelectric cooling fan. After reviewing the fundamental formulas of the cantilever Euler beam, it is not easy to find the optimal design of the piezoelectric fan. The experiments also show the complicated results of the vibration behavior and air flow.

Keywords: Piezoelectric cooling fan, vibration, cantilever Euler beam, air flow.

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466 Transfer Function of Piezoelectric Material

Authors: C. Worakitjaroenphon, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

The study of piezoelectric material in the past was in T-Domain form; however, no one has studied piezoelectric material in the S-Domain form. This paper will present the piezoelectric material in the transfer function or S-Domain model. S-Domain is a well known mathematical model, used for analyzing the stability of the material and determining the stability limits. By using S-Domain in testing stability of piezoelectric material, it will provide a new tool for the scientific world to study this material in various forms.

Keywords: Piezoelectric, Stability, S-Domain, Transfer function

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465 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: Matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine.

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464 Climatic Range for Comfort Evaporative Cooling

Authors: Zahra Ghiabaklou

Abstract:

This paper presents the climatic range calculations for comfort evaporative cooling for Tehran. In this study the minimum climatic conditions required to achieve an appropriate comfort zone will be presented. Physiologically uncomfortable conditions in arid climates are mainly caused by the extreme heat and dryness. Direct evaporative cooling adds moisture to the air stream until the air stream is close to saturation. The dry bulb temperature is reduced, while the wet bulb temperature stays the same. Evaporative cooling is economical, effective, environmentally friendly, and healthy. Comfort cooling by direct evaporative cooling (passive or fan forced) in the 35. 41 N (such as Tehran) latitude requires design wet-bulb temperature not over 25.4 C. Evaporative cooling outside this limit cannot achieve the required 26.7 ET, and is recommended for relief cooling only.

Keywords: Evaporative cooling, Comfort temperature, Climaticdesign, Comfort cooling

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463 Functionally Graded MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Magnetic Tip Mass

Authors: M. Derayatifar, M. Packirisamy, R.B. Bhat

Abstract:

Role of piezoelectric energy harvesters has gained interest in supplying power for micro devices such as health monitoring sensors. In this study, in order to enhance the piezoelectric energy harvesting in capturing energy from broader range of excitation and to improve the mechanical and electrical responses, bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester beam with magnetic mass attached at the end is presented. In view of overcoming the brittleness of piezo-ceramics, functionally graded piezoelectric layers comprising of both piezo-ceramic and piezo-polymer is employed. The nonlinear equations of motions are derived using energy method and then solved analytically using perturbation scheme. The frequency responses of the forced vibration case are obtained for the near resonance case. The nonlinear dynamic responses of the MEMS scaled functionally graded piezoelectric energy harvester in this paper may be utilized in different design scenarios to increase the efficiency of the harvester.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, functionally graded piezoelectric material, magnetic force, MEMS piezoelectric, perturbation method.

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462 Defect Modes in Multilayered Piezoelectric Structures

Authors: D. G. Piliposyan

Abstract:

Propagation of electro-elastic waves in a piezoelectric waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer is studied using a modified transfer matrix method. The dispersion equation for a periodic structure consisting of unit cells made up from two piezoelectric materials with metallized interfaces is obtained. An analytical expression, for the transmission coefficient for a waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer, that is found can be used to accurately detect and control the position of the passband within a stopband. The result can be instrumental in constructing a tunable waveguide made of layers of different or identical piezoelectric crystals and separated by metallized interfaces.

Keywords: Defect mode, Bloch waves, periodic phononic crystal, piezoelectric composite waveguide.

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461 Prediction of the Performance of a Bar-Type Piezoelectric Vibration Actuator Depending on the Frequency Using an Equivalent Circuit Analysis

Authors: J. H. Kim, J. H. Kwon, J. S. Park, K. J. Lim

Abstract:

This paper has been investigated a technique that predicts the performance of a bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency. This paper has been proposed an equivalent circuit that can be easily analyzed for the bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator. In the dynamic analysis, rigidity and resonance frequency, which are important mechanical elements, were derived using the basic beam theory. In the equivalent circuit analysis, the displacement and bandwidth of the piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency were predicted. Also, for the reliability of the derived equations, the predicted performance depending on the shape change was compared with the result of a finite element analysis program.

Keywords: Actuator, performance, piezoelectric, unimorph.Actuator, performance, piezoelectric, unimorph.

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460 Study of Characteristics of Multi-Layer Piezoelectric Transformers by using 3-D Finite Element Method

Authors: C. Panya-Isara, T. Kulworawanichpong, P. Pao-La-Or

Abstract:

Piezoelectric transformers are electronic devices made from piezoelectric materials. The piezoelectric transformers as the name implied are used for changing voltage signals from one level to another. Electrical energy carried with signals is transferred by means of mechanical vibration. Characterizing in both electrical and mechanical properties leads to extensively use and efficiency enhancement of piezoelectric transformers in various applications. In this paper, study and analysis of electrical and mechanical properties of multi-layer piezoelectric transformers in forms of potential and displacement distribution throughout the volume, respectively. This paper proposes a set of quasi-static mathematical model of electromechanical coupling for piezoelectric transformer by using a set of partial differential equations. Computer-based simulation utilizing the three-dimensional finite element method (3-D FEM) is exploited as a tool for visualizing potentials and displacements distribution within the multi-layer piezoelectric transformer. This simulation was conducted by varying a number of layers. In this paper 3, 5 and 7 of the circular ring type were used. The computer simulation based on the use of the FEM has been developed in MATLAB programming environment.

Keywords: Multi-layer Piezoelectric Transformer, 3-D Finite Element Method (3-D FEM), Electro-mechanical Coupling, Mechanical Vibration

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459 A Failure Analysis Tool for HDD Analysis

Authors: C. Kumjeera, T. Unchim, B. Marungsri, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

The study of piezoelectric material in the past was in T-Domain form; however, no one has studied piezoelectric material in the S-Domain form. This paper will present the piezoelectric material in the transfer function or S-Domain model. S-Domain is a well known mathematical model, used for analyzing the stability of the material and determining the stability limits. By using S-Domain in testing stability of piezoelectric material, it will provide a new tool for the scientific world to study this material in various forms.

Keywords: Hard disk drive, failure analysis, tool, time

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458 Enhancing the Performance of a Photovoltaic Module Using Different Cooling Methods

Authors: Ahmed Amine Hachicha, Chaouki Ghenai, Abdul Kadir Hamid

Abstract:

Temperature effect on the performance of a photovoltaic module is one of the main concerns that face this renewable energy, especially in hot arid region, e.g. United Arab Emirates. Overheating of the PV modules reduces the open circuit voltage and the efficiency of the modules dramatically. In this work, water-cooling is developed to enhance the performance of PV modules. Different scenarios are tested under UAE weather conditions: front, back and double cooling. A spraying system is used for the front cooling whether a direct contact water system is used for the back cooling. The experimental results are compared to non-cooling module and the performance of the PV module is determined for different situations. The experimental results show that the front cooling is more effective than the back cooling and may decrease the temperature of the PV module significantly. 

Keywords: PV cooling, solar energy, cooling methods, electrical efficiency, temperature effect.

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457 A Survey on Hyperbolic Cooling Towers

Authors: E. Asadzadeh, M. Alam

Abstract:

This study offers a comprehensive review of the research papers published in the field of cooling towers and gives an insight into the latest developments of the natural draught cooling towers. Different modeling, analysis and design techniques are summarized and the challenges are discussed. The 118 references included in this paper are mostly concentrated on the review of the published papers after 2005. The present paper represents a complete collection of the studies done for cooling towers and would give an updated material for the researchers and design engineers in the field of hyperbolic cooling towers.

Keywords: Hyperbolic cooling towers, earthquakes, wind, nonlinear behavior, buckling, collapse, interference.

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456 Mechanical Buckling of Engesser-Timoshenko Beams with a Pair of Piezoelectric Layers

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Karami Khorramabadi

Abstract:

This paper presents the elastic buckling of homogeneous beams with a pair of piezoelectric layers surface bonded on both sides of the beams. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on the Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the equilibrium equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, dimensionless geometrical parameter and piezoelectric thickness on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Mechanical Buckling, Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory - Piezoelectric layer.

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455 Fuzzy Logic Based Active Vibration Control of Piezoelectric Stewart Platform

Authors: Arian Bahrami, Mojtaba Tafaoli-Masoule, Mansour Nikkhah Bahrami

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the potential of applying PD-like fuzzy logic controller for active vibration control of piezoelectric Stewart platforms. Through simulation, the control authority of the piezo stack actuators for effectively damping the Stewart platform vibration can be evaluated for further implementation of the system. Each leg of the piezoelectric Stewart platform consists of a linear piezo stack actuator, a collocated velocity sensor, a collocated displacement sensor and flexible tips for the connections with the two end plates. The piezoelectric stack is modeled as a bar element and the electro-mechanical coupling property is simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. Then, the open loop and closed loop dynamic responses are performed for the system to characterize the effect of the control on the vibration of the piezoelectric Stewart platform. A significant improvement in the damping of the structure can be observed by using the PD-like fuzzy controller.

Keywords: Active vibration control, Fuzzy controller, Piezoelectric stewart platform.

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454 Research and Development of Intelligent Cooling Channels Design System

Authors: Q. Niu, X. H. Zhou, W. Liu

Abstract:

The cooling channels of injection mould play a crucial role in determining the productivity of moulding process and the product quality. It’s not a simple task to design high quality cooling channels. In this paper, an intelligent cooling channels design system including automatic layout of cooling channels, interference checking and assembly of accessories is studied. Automatic layout of cooling channels using genetic algorithm is analyzed. Through integrating experience criteria of designing cooling channels, considering the factors such as the mould temperature and interference checking, the automatic layout of cooling channels is implemented. The method of checking interference based on distance constraint algorithm and the function of automatic and continuous assembly of accessories are developed and integrated into the system. Case studies demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the intelligent design system.

Keywords: Injection mould, cooling channel, automatic layout, interference checking.

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453 Dynamic Stability of Beams with Piezoelectric Layers Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Karami Khorramabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies dynamic stability of homogeneous beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to periodic axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing dynamic equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, foundation coefficient and piezoelectric thickness on the unstable regions are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Dynamic stability, Homogeneous graded beam-Piezoelectric layer, Harmonic balance method.

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452 TACS : Thermo Acoustic Cooling System

Authors: Z. Zarid, C. Gamba, A. Brusseaux, C. Laborie, K. Briens

Abstract:

Cooling with sound is a physical phenomenon allowed by Thermo-Acoustics in which acoustic energy is transformed into a negative heat transfer, in other words: into cooling! Without needing any harmful gas, the transformation is environmentally friendly and can respond to many needs in terms of air conditioning, food refrigeration for domestic use, and cooling medical samples for example. To explore the possibilities of this cooling solution on a small scale, the TACS prototype has been designed, consisting of a low cost thermoacoustic refrigerant “pipe” able to lower the temperature by a few degrees. The obtained results are providing an interesting element for possible future of thermo-acoustic refrigeration.

Keywords: Domestic Scale Cooling System, Thermoacoustic, Environmental Friendly Refrigeration.

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451 Thermodynamic Analysis of Activated Carbon- CO2 based Adsorption Cooling Cycles

Authors: Skander Jribi, Anutosh Chakraborty, Ibrahim I. El-Sharkawy, Bidyut Baran Saha, Shigeru Koyama

Abstract:

Heat powered solid sorption is a feasible alternative to electrical vapor compression refrigeration systems. In this paper, activated carbon (powder type Maxsorb and fiber type ACF-A10)- CO2 based adsorption cooling cycles are studied using the pressuretemperature- concentration (P-T-W) diagram. The specific cooling effect (SCE) and the coefficient of performance (COP) of these two cooling systems are simulated for the driving heat source temperatures ranging from 30 ºC to 90 ºC in terms of different cooling load temperatures with a cooling source temperature of 25 ºC. It is found from the present analysis that Maxsorb-CO2 couple shows higher cooling capacity and COP. The maximum COPs of Maxsorb-CO2 and ACF(A10)-CO2 based cooling systems are found to be 0.15 and 0.083, respectively. The main innovative feature of this cooling cycle is the ability to utilize low temperature waste heat or solar energy using CO2 as the refrigerant, which is one of the best alternative for applications where flammability and toxicity are not allowed.

Keywords: Activated carbon, Adsorption cooling system, Carbon dioxide, Performance evaluation.

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450 Thermal Performance and Environmental Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Systems: Case of Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. Alharbi, R. Boukhanouf, T. Habeebullah, H. Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper presents a detailed description of evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia. The thermal performance and environmental impact of the evaporative coolers were evaluated. It was found that the evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in pilgrims’ accommodations and in the train stations could reduce energy consumption by as much as 75% and cut carbon dioxide emission by 78% compared to traditional vapour compression systems.

Keywords: Evaporative cooling, vapour compression, electricity consumption and CO2 emission.

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449 The Effects of Various Boundary Conditions on Thermal Buckling of Functionally Graded Beamwith Piezoelectric Layers Based on Third order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: O. Miraliyari

Abstract:

This article attempts to analyze functionally graded beam thermal buckling along with piezoelectric layers applying based on the third order shearing deformation theory considering various boundary conditions. The beam properties are assumed to vary continuously from the lower surface to the upper surface of the beam. The equilibrium equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, Euler equations, piezoelectric material constitutive equations and third order shear deformation theory assumptions. In order to fulfill such an aim, at first functionally graded beam with piezoelectric layers applying the third order shearing deformation theory along with clamped -clamped boundary conditions are thoroughly analyzed, and then following making sure of the correctness of all the equations, the very same beam is analyzed with piezoelectric layers through simply-simply and simply-clamped boundary conditions. In this article buckling critical temperature for functionally graded beam is derived in two different ways, without piezoelectric layer and with piezoelectric layer and the results are compared together. Finally, all the conclusions obtained will be compared and contrasted with the same samples in the same and distinguished conditions through tables and charts. It would be noteworthy that in this article, the software MAPLE has been applied in order to do the numeral calculations.

Keywords: Thermal buckling, functionally graded beam, piezoelectric layer, various boundary conditions.

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448 3D CFD Modelling of the Airflow and Heat Transfer in Cold Room Filled with Dates

Authors: Zina Ghiloufi, Tahar Khir

Abstract:

A transient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to determine the velocity and temperature distribution in different positions cold room during pre-cooling of dates. The turbulence model used is the k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) with the standard wall function, the air. The numerical results obtained show that cooling rate is not uniform inside the room; the product at the medium of room has a slower cooling rate. This cooling heterogeneity has a large effect on the energy consumption during cold storage.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, CFD, k-ω (SST), cold room, dates, cooling rate.

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447 Piezoelectric Micro-generator Characterization for Energy Harvesting Application

Authors: José E. Q. Souza, Marcio Fontana, Antonio C. C. Lima

Abstract:

This paper presents analysis and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-generator for energy harvesting application. A low-cost experimental prototype was designed to operate as piezoelectric micro-generator in the laboratory. An input acceleration of 9.8m/s2 using a sine signal (peak-to-peak voltage: 1V, offset voltage: 0V) at frequencies ranging from 10Hz to 160Hz generated a maximum average power of 432.4μW (linear mass position = 25mm) and an average power of 543.3μW (angular mass position = 35°). These promising results show that the prototype can be considered for low consumption load application as an energy harvesting micro-generator.

Keywords: Piezoelectric, microgenerator, energy harvesting, cantilever beam.

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446 Stability of Functionally Graded Beams with Piezoelectric Layers Based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi

Abstract:

Stability of functionally graded beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends is studied in this paper. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on first order shear deformation beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, dimensionless geometrical parameter, functionally graded index and piezoelectric thickness on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Stability, Functionally graded beam, First order shear deformation theory, Piezoelectric layer.

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445 Piezoelectric Polarization Effect on Debye Frequency and Temperature in Nitride Wurtzites

Authors: Bijay Kumar Sahoo, Ashok Kumar Srivastav

Abstract:

We have investigated the effect of piezoelectric (PZ) polarization property in binary as well as in ternary wurtzite nitrides. It is found that with the presence of PZ polarization property, the phonon group velocity is modified. The change in phonon group velocity due to PZ polarization effect directly depends on piezoelectric tensor value. Using different piezoelectric tensor values recommended by different workers in the literature, percent change in group velocities of phonons has been estimated. The Debye temperatures and frequencies of binary nitrides GaN, AlN and InN are also calculated using the modified group velocities. For ternary nitrides AlxGa(1-x)N, InxGa(1-x)N and InxAl(1-x)N, the phonon group velocities have been calculated as a functions of composition. A small positive bowing is observed in phonon group velocities of ternary alloys. Percent variations in phonon group velocities are also calculated for a straightforward comparison among ternary nitrides. The results are expected to show a change in phonon relaxation rates and thermal conductivity of III-nitrides when piezoelectric polarization property is taken into consideration.

Keywords: Wirtzite nitrides, piezoelectric polarization, Phonon group velocity, Debye frequency and Debye temperature.

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444 Optimal Water Conservation in a Mechanical Cooling Tower Operations

Authors: M. Boumaza, Y. Bakhabkhi

Abstract:

Water recycling represents an important challenge for many countries, in particular in countries where this natural resource is rare. On the other hand, in many operations, water is used as a cooling medium, as a high proportion of water consumed in industry is used for cooling purposes. Generally this water is rejected directly to the nature. This reject will cause serious environment damages as well as an important waste of this precious element.. On way to solve these problems is to reuse and recycle this warm water, through the use of natural cooling medium, such as air in a heat exchanger unit, known as a cooling tower. A poor performance, design or reliability of cooling towers will result in lower flow rate of cooling water an increase in the evaporation of water, an hence losses of water and energy. This paper which presents an experimental investigate of thermal and hydraulic performances of a mechanical cooling tower, enables to show that the water evaporation rate, Mev, increases with an increase in the air and water flow rates, as well as inlet water temperature and for fixed air flow rates, the pressure drop (ΔPw/Z) increases with increasing , L, due to the hydrodynamic behavior of the air/water flow.

Keywords: water, recycle, performance, cooling tower

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443 Design and Fabrication of an Array Microejector Driven by a Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Actuator

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, Hong-Yih Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Tung-Hsun Hsu

Abstract:

This paper reports a novel actuating design that uses the shear deformation of a piezoelectric actuator to deflect a bulge-diaphragm for driving an array microdroplet ejector. In essence, we employed a circular-shaped actuator poled radial direction with remnant polarization normal to the actuating electric field for inducing the piezoelectric shear effect. The array microdroplet ejector consists of a shear type piezoelectric actuator, a vibration plate, two chamber plates, two channel plates and a nozzle plate. The vibration, chamber and nozzle plate components are fabricated using nickel electroforming technology, whereas the channel plate is fabricated by etching of stainless steel. The diaphragm displacement was measured by the laser two-dimensional scanning vibrometer. The ejected droplets of the microejector were also observed via an optic visualization system.

Keywords: Actuator, nozzle, microejector, piezoelectric.

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442 Cooling Turbine Blades using Exciting Boundary Layer

Authors: Ali Ghobadi, Seyed Mohammad Javadi, Behnam Rahimi

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the effect of exciting boundary layer on cooling process in a gas-turbine blades. The cooling process is numerically investigated. Observations show cooling the first row of moving or stable blades leads to increase their life-time. Results show that minimum temperature in cooling line with exciting boundary layer is lower than without exciting. Using block in cooling line of turbines' blade causes flow pattern and stability in boundary layer changed that causes increase in heat transfer coefficient. Results show at the location of block, temperature of turbines' blade is significantly decreased. The k-ε turbulence model is used.

Keywords: Cooling, Exciting Boundary Layer, Heat Transfer, Turbine Blade.

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441 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Linear Motor Based on Rigid Clamping

Authors: Chao Yi, Cunyue Lu, Lingwei Quan

Abstract:

Piezoelectric linear motors have the characteristics of great electromagnetic compatibility, high positioning accuracy, compact structure and no deceleration mechanism, which make it promising to applicate in micro-miniature precision drive systems. However, most piezoelectric motors are employed by flexible clamping, which has insufficient rigidity and is difficult to use in rapid positioning. Another problem is that this clamping method seriously affects the vibration efficiency of the vibrating unit. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a piezoelectric stack linear motor based on double-end rigid clamping. First, a piezoelectric linear motor with a length of only 35.5 mm is designed. This motor is mainly composed of a motor stator, a driving foot, a ceramic friction strip, a linear guide, a pre-tightening mechanism and a base. This structure is much simpler and smaller than most similar motors, and it is easy to assemble as well as to realize precise control. In addition, the properties of piezoelectric stack are reviewed and in order to obtain the elliptic motion trajectory of the driving head, a driving scheme of the longitudinal-shear composite stack is innovatively proposed. Finally, impedance analysis and speed performance testing were performed on the piezoelectric linear motor prototype. The motor can measure speed up to 25.5 mm/s under the excitation of signal voltage of 120 V and frequency of 390 Hz. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric stacked linear motor obtains great performance. It can run smoothly in a large speed range, which is suitable for various precision control in medical images, aerospace, precision machinery and many other fields.

Keywords: Elliptical trajectory, linear motor, piezoelectric stack, rigid clamping.

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440 Computational Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of HP Stage Turbine Blade Cooling: Effect of Turbulator Geometry in Helicoidal Cooling Duct

Authors: Chandrakant R Kini, Satish Shenoy B, Yagnesh Sharma N.

Abstract:

In a bid to improve turbine entry temperature for maximizing the thermal efficiency of the HP stage gas turbine blade, an attempt is made in this paper to compare the performance of helicoidal ducted blade cooling with turbulator of different geometric proportion. It is found from analysis that there is significant improvement in cooling characteristics for turbine blade with turbulator geometry having larger e/D ratio. Also it is found from analysis, performance is vastly improved for greater thickness of turbulator geometry.

Keywords: Conjugate heat transfer, turbine blade cooling, helicoidal cooling duct, turbulator.

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439 Experimental Investigation of the Transient Cooling Characteristics of an Industrial Glass Tempering Unit

Authors: Hilmi Yazici, Mehmet Akcay, Mustafa Golcu, Mehmet F. Koseoglu, Yakup Sekmen

Abstract:

Energy consumption rate during the cooling process of industrial glass tempering process is considerably high. In this experimental study the effect of dimensionless jet to jet distance (S/D) and jet to plate distance (H/D) on the cooling time have been investigated. In the experiments 4 mm thick glass samples have been used. Cooling unit consists of 16 mutually placed seamless aluminum nozzles of 8 mm in diameter and 80 mm in length. Nozzles were in staggered arrangement. Experiments were conducted with circular jets for H/D values between 1 and 10, and for S/D values between 2 and 10. During the experiments Reynolds number has been kept constant at 30000. Experimental results showed that the longest cooling time with 87 seconds has been observed in the experiments for S/D=10 and H/D=10 values, while the shortest cooling time with 42.5 seconds has been measured in the experiments for S/D=2 and H/D=4 values.

Keywords: Glass tempering, cooling, Reynolds number, nozzle

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