Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 323

Search results for: cement stabilisation

323 The Utilisation of Two Types of Fly Ashes Used as Cement Replacement in Soft Soil Stabilisation

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, W. Atherton, F. Ruddock, E. Loffill

Abstract:

This study represents the results of an experimental work using two types of fly ashes as a cement replacement in soft soil stabilisation. The fly ashes (FA1 and FA2) used in this study are by-products resulting from an incineration processes between 800 and 1200 ˚C. The stabilised soil in this study was an intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content. The experimental works were initially conducted on soil treated with different percentages of FA1 (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15%) to identify the optimum FA1 content. Then FA1 was chemically activated by FA2 which has high alkalinity by blending the optimum content of FA1 with different portions of FA2. The improvement levels were evaluated dependent on the results obtained from consistency limits and compaction tests along with the results of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests which were conducted on specimens of soil treated with FA1 and FA2 and exposed to different periods of curing (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days). The results indicated that the FA1 and FA2 used in this study effectively improved the physical and geotechnical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly from 21 to 13.17 with 12% of FA1; however, there was a slight increase in IP with the use of FA2. Meanwhile, 12% of FA1 was identified as the optimum percentage improving the UCS of stabilised soil significantly. Furthermore, FA2 was found effective as a chemical activator to FA1 where the UCS was improved significantly after using FA2.

Keywords: Soft soil stabilisation, waste materials, unconfined compressive strength.

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322 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Cement Manufactured with Artificial Pozzolan (Waste Brick)

Authors: A. Naceri, M. Chikouche Hamina, P. Grosseau

Abstract:

The effect of artificial pozzolan (waste brick) on the physico-chemical properties of cement manufactured was investigated. The waste brick is generated by the manufacture of bricks. It was used in the proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass of cement to study its effect on the physico-chemical properties of cement incorporating artificial pozzolan. The physicochemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state (chemical composition, specific weight, fineness, consistency of the cement paste and setting times) were studied. The experimental results obtained show that the quantity of pozzolanic admixture (waste brick) of cement manufactured is the principal parameter who influences on the variation of the physico-chemical properties of the cement tested.

Keywords: Artificial pozzolan, waste brick, cement, physicochemicalcharacteristics.

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321 Mineral Activator and Physical Characteristics of Slag Cement at Anhydrous and Hydrated States

Authors: A. Naceri, M. S. Bouglada, P. Grosseau

Abstract:

The setting agent Ca(OH)2 for activation of slag cement is used in the proportions of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by various methods (substitution and addition by mass of slag cement). The physical properties of slag cement activated by the calcium hydroxide at anhydrous and hydrated states (fineness, particle size distribution, consistency of the cement pastes and setting times) were studied. The activation method by the mineral activator of slag cement (latent hydraulicity) accelerates the hydration process and reduces the setting times of the cement activated.

Keywords: Mineral activator, slag cement, Anhydrous and hydrated states, physical characteristics.

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320 Effect of the Portland-Limestone Cement Grades on the Compressive Strength of Hollow Sandcrete Blocks

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Gbenga. M. Ayininula, Wasiu O. Ajagbe, Olabisi Akinade

Abstract:

The commercial sandcrete block makers in Nigeria use the same cement-sand mix ratio for sandcrete blocks production irrespective of the cement grade. Investigation revealed that the compressive strengths of hollow sandcrete blocks produced with Portland-limestone cement grade 42.5 are higher than the sandcrete blocks produced with cement grade 32.5. The use of stronger sandcrete blocks produced with cement grade 42.5 will ensure the construction of stronger buildings and other sandcrete blocks-based infrastructures and reduce the incessant failure of building and other sandcrete blocks-based infrastructures in Nigeria at no additional cost as both cement grades cost the same amount in Nigeria. It is recommended that the Standards Organisation of Nigeria should create grassroots awareness on the different cement grades in Nigeria and specify that Portland-limestone cement grade 42.5 be used for sandcrete blocks production.

 

Keywords: Cement grades, Compressive strength, Sandcrete blocks, Portland-limestone cement, Nigerian cement market.

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319 A Statistical Model for the Geotechnical Parameters of Cement-Stabilised Hightown’s Soft Soil: A Case Stufy of Liverpool, UK

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, Khalid S. Hashim, W. Atherton, Ali W. Alattabi

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of two important parameters (length of curing period and percentage of the added binder) on the strength of soil treated with OPC. An intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic content was used in this study. This soft soil was treated with different percentages of a commercially available cement type 32.5-N. laboratory experiments were carried out on the soil treated with 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12% OPC by the dry weight to determine the effect of OPC on the compaction parameters, consistency limits, and the compressive strength. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test was carried out on cement-treated specimens after exposing them to different curing periods (1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 90 days). The results of UCS test were used to develop a non-linear multi-regression model to find the relationship between the predicted and the measured maximum compressive strength of the treated soil (qu). The results indicated that there was a significant improvement in the index of plasticity (IP) by treating with OPC; IP was decreased from 20.2 to 14.1 by using 12% of OPC; this percentage was enough to increase the UCS of the treated soil up to 1362 kPa after 90 days of curing. With respect to the statistical model of the predicted qu, the results showed that the regression coefficients (R2) was equal to 0.8534 which indicates a good reproducibility for the constructed model.

Keywords: Cement admixtures, soft soil stabilisation, geotechnical parameters, unconfined compressive strength, multi-regression model.

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318 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek

Abstract:

The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: Alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate.

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317 Soil Improvement using Cement Dust Mixture

Authors: Mohie Eldin Mohamed Afifiy Elmashad

Abstract:

Day by day technology increases and problems associated with this technology also increase. Several researches were carried out to investigate the deployment of such material safely in geotechnical engineering in particular and civil engineering in general. However, different types of waste material have such as cement duct, fly ash and slag been proven to be suitable in several applications. In this research cement dust mixed with different percentages of sand will be used in some civil engineering application as will be explained later in this paper throughout filed and laboratory test. The used mixer (waste material with sand) prove high performance, durability to environmental condition, low cost and high benefits. At higher cement dust ratio, small cement ratio is valuable for compressive strength and permeability. Also at small cement dust ratio higher cement ratio is valuable for compressive strength.

Keywords: cement dust, cement, soil improvement, permeability

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316 Utilization of Glycerol Derived from Jatropha-s Biodiesel Production as a Cement Grinding Aid

Authors: O. Farobie, S S. Achmadi, L K. Darusman

Abstract:

Biodiesel production results in glycerol production as the main by-product in biodiesel industry.One of the utilizations of glycerol obtained from biodiesel production is as a cement grinding aid (CGA). Results showed that crude glycerol content was 40.19% whereas pure glycerol content was 82.15%. BSS value of the cement with CGA supplementation was higher than that of nonsupplemented cement (blank) indicating that CGA-supplemented cement had higher fineness than the non-supplemented one. It was also found that pure glycerol 95% and TEA 5% at 80ºC was the optimum CGA used to result in finest cement with BSS value of 4.836 cm2/g. Residue test showed that the smallest percent residue value (0.11%) was obtained in cement with supplementation of pure glycerol 95% and TEA 5%. Results of residue test confirmed those of BSS test showing that cement with supplementation of pure glycerol 95% and TEA 5% had the finest particle size.

Keywords: biodiesel, cement grinding aid, glycerol, Jatropha curcas

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315 Effect of Nigerian Portland-Limestone Cement Grades on Concrete Compressive Strength

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Festus. A. Olutoge, Hamzat Habib

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of grades 32.4 and 42.5 Portland-limestone cements generally used for concrete production in Nigeria on concrete compressive strength is investigated. Investigation revealed that the compressive strength of concrete produced with Portland-limestone cement grade 42.5 is generally higher than that produced with cement grade 32.5. The percentage difference between the compressive strengths of the concrete cubes produced with Portland-limestone cement grades 42.5 and 32.5 is inversely proportional to the richness of the concrete with the highest and the least percentage difference associated with the 1:2:4 and 1:1:2 mix ratios respectively. It is recommended that cement grade 42.5 be preferred for construction in Nigeria as this will lead to the construction of stronger concrete structures, which will reduce the incidence of failure of building and other concrete structures at no additional cost since the cost of both cement grades are the same.

Keywords: Cement grades, Concrete, Compressive strength, Portland-limestone cement, Ordinary Portland cement.

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314 Assessing the Potential of a Waste Material for Cement Replacement and the Effect of Its Fineness in Soft Soil Stabilisation

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, W. Atherton, F. Ruddock, E. Loffil

Abstract:

This paper represents the results of experimental work to investigate the suitability of a waste material (WM) for soft soil stabilisation. In addition, the effect of particle size distribution (PSD) of the waste material on its performance as a soil stabiliser was investigated. The WM used in this study is produced from the incineration processes in domestic energy power plant and it is available in two different grades of fineness (coarse waste material (CWM) and fine waste material (FWM)). An intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content has been used in this study. The suitability of the CWM and FWM to improve the physical and engineering properties of the selected soil was evaluated dependant on the results obtained from the consistency limits, compaction characteristics (optimum moisture content (OMC) and maximum dry density (MDD)); along with the unconfined compressive strength test (UCS). Different percentages of CWM were added to the soft soil (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15%) to produce various admixtures. Then the UCS test was carried out on specimens under different curing periods (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days) to find the optimum percentage of CWM. The optimum and other two percentages (either side of the optimum content) were used for FWM to evaluate the effect of the fineness of the WM on UCS of the stabilised soil. Results indicated that both types of the WM used in this study improved the physical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly. IP was decreased from 21 to 13.64 and 13.10 with 12% of CWM and 15% of FWM respectively. The results of the unconfined compressive strength test indicated that 12% of CWM was the optimum and this percentage developed the UCS value from 202kPa to 500kPa for 28 days cured samples, which is equal, approximately 2.5 times the UCS value for untreated soil. Moreover, this percentage provided 1.4 times the value of UCS for stabilized soil-CWA by using FWM which recorded just under 700kPa after 28 days curing. 

Keywords: Soft soil stabilisation, waste materials, fineness, and unconfined compressive strength.

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313 Oil Palm Shell Ash - Cement Mortar Mixture and Modification of Mechanical Properties

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya

Abstract:

The waste agriculture materials cause environment pollution, recycle of these materials help sustainable development. This study focused on the impact of used oil palm shell ash on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar. Two different cement mortar mixes have been designed to investigate the impact of oil palm shell ash on strengths of cement mortar. Quantity of 4% oil palm shell ash has been replaced in cement mortar. The main objective of this paper is, to modify mechanical properties of cement mortar by replacement of oil palm ash in it at early age of 7 days. The results have been revealed optimum quantity of oil palm ash for replacement in cement mortar. The deflection, load to failure, time to failure of compressive strength and flexural strength of all specimens have significantly been improved. The stress-strain behavior has been indicated ability of modified cement mortar in control stress path and strain. The micro property of cement paste has not been investigated.

Keywords: Minerals, additive, flexural strength, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity.

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312 ILMI Approach for Robust Output Feedback Control of Induction Machine

Authors: Abdelwahed Echchatbi, Adil Rizki, Ali Haddi, Nabil Mrani, Noureddine Elalami

Abstract:

In this note, the robust static output feedback stabilisation of an induction machine is addressed. The machine is described by a non homogenous bilinear model with structural uncertainties, and the feedback gain is computed via an iterative LMI (ILMI) algorithm.

Keywords: Induction machine, Static output feedback, robust stabilisation.

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311 Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

Authors: Fazeera Ujin, Kamran Shavarebi Ali, Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith

Abstract:

This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement. Chemical properties of both eggshells ash and cement are compared. From the results obtained, both eggshells ash and cement have the same chemical composition and primary composition which is the calcium compounds. Results from the setting time show that by adding the eggshells ash to the cement, the setting time of the cement decreases. In short, the higher amount of eggshells ash, the faster the rate of setting and apply to all percentage of eggshells ash that were used in this investigation. Both initial and final setting times fulfill the setting time requirements by Malaysian Standard. Hence, it is suggested that eggshells ash can be used as an admixture in concrete mix.

Keywords: Construction Materials, Eggshells Ash, Solid Waste, Setting Time.

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310 The Use of Secondary Crystallization in Cement-Based Composites

Authors: Nikol Žižková, Šárka Keprdová, Rostislav Drochytka

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the study of the properties of cement-based composites produced using secondary crystallization (crystalline additive). In this study, cement mortar made with secondary crystallization was exposed to an aggressive environment and the influence of secondary crystallization on the degradation of the cementitious composite was investigated. The results indicate that the crystalline additive contributed to increasing the resistance of the cement-based composite to the attack of the selected environments (sodium sulphate solution and ammonium chloride solution).

Keywords: Secondary crystallization, cement-based composites, durability.

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309 Reutilization of Organic and Peat Soils by Deep Cement Mixing

Authors: Bee-Lin Tang, Ismail Bakar, Chee - Ming Chan

Abstract:

Limited infrastructure development on peats and organic soils is a serious geotechnical issues common to many countries of the world especially Malaysia which distributed 1.5 mill ha of those problematic soil. These soils have high water content and organic content which exhibit different mechanical properties and may also change chemically and biologically with time. Constructing structures on peaty ground involves the risk of ground failure and extreme settlement. Nowdays, much efforts need to be done in making peatlands usable for construction due to increased landuse. Deep mixing method employing cement as binders, is generally used as measure again peaty/ organic ground failure problem. Where the technique is widely adopted because it can improved ground considerably in a short period of time. An understanding of geotechnical properties as shear strength, stiffness and compressibility behavior of these soils was requires before continues construction on it. Therefore, 1- 1.5 meter peat soil sample from states of Johor and an organic soil from Melaka, Malaysia were investigated. Cement were added to the soil in the pre-mixing stage with water cement ratio at range 3.5,7,14,140 for peats and 5,10,30 for organic soils, essentially to modify the original soil textures and properties. The mixtures which in slurry form will pour to polyvinyl chloride (pvc) tube and cured at room temperature 250C for 7,14 and 28 days. Laboratory experiments were conducted including unconfined compressive strength and bender element , to monitor the improved strength and stiffness of the 'stabilised mixed soils'. In between, scanning electron miscroscopic (SEM) were observations to investigate changes in microstructures of stabilised soils and to evaluated hardening effect of a peat and organic soils stabilised cement. This preliminary effort indicated that pre-mixing peat and organic soils contributes in gaining soil strength while help the engineers to establish a new method for those problematic ground improvement in further practical and long term applications.

Keywords: peat soils, organic soils, cement stabilisation, strength, stiffness.

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308 Numerical Simulation of CNT Incorporated Cement

Authors: B. S. Sindu, Saptarshi Sasmal, Smitha Gopinath

Abstract:

Cement, the most widely used construction material is very brittle and characterized by low tensile strength and strain capacity. Macro to nano fibers are added to cement to provide tensile strength and ductility to it. Carbon Nanotube (CNT), one of the nanofibers, has proven to be a promising reinforcing material in the cement composites because of its outstanding mechanical properties and its ability to close cracks at the nano level. The experimental investigations for CNT reinforced cement is costly, time consuming and involves huge number of trials. Mathematical modeling of CNT reinforced cement can be done effectively and efficiently to arrive at the mechanical properties and to reduce the number of trials in the experiments. Hence, an attempt is made to numerically study the effective mechanical properties of CNT reinforced cement numerically using Representative Volume Element (RVE) method. The enhancement in its mechanical properties for different percentage of CNTs is studied in detail.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Cement composites, Representative Volume Element, Numerical simulation

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307 Properties of Cement Pastes with Different Particle Size Fractions of Metakaolin

Authors: M. Boháč, R. Novotný, F. Frajkorová, R. S. Yadav, T. Opravil, M. Palou

Abstract:

Properties of Portland cement mixtures with various fractions of metakaolin were studied. 10% of Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R was replaced by different fractions of high reactivity metakaolin with defined chemical and mineralogical properties. Various fractions of metakaolin were prepared by jet mill classifying system. There is a clear trend between fineness of metakaolin and hydration heat development. Due to metakaolin presence in mixtures the compressive strength development of mortars is rather slower for coarser fractions but 28-day flexural strengths are improved for all fractions of metakaoline used in mixtures compared to reference sample of pure Portland cement. Yield point, plastic viscosity and adhesion of fresh pastes are considerably influenced by fineness of metakaolin used in cement pastes.

Keywords: Calorimetry, cement, metakaolin fineness, rheology, strength.

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306 Influence of Gum Acacia Karroo on Some Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortars and Concrete

Authors: Rose Mbugua, Ramadhan Wanjala, Julius Ndambuki

Abstract:

Natural admixtures provide concrete with enhanced properties but their processing end up making them very expensive resulting in increase to cost of concrete. In this study the effect of Gum from Acacia Karroo (GAK) as set-retarding admixture in cement pastes was studied. The possibility of using GAK as water reducing admixture both in cement mortar concrete was also investigated. Cement pastes with different dosages of GAK were prepared to measure the setting time using different dosages. Compressive strength of cement mortars with 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9% weight of cement and w/c ratio of 0.5 were compared to those with water cement (w/c) ratio of 0.44 but same dosage of GAK. Concrete samples were prepared using higher dosages of GAK (1, 2 and 3% wt of cement) and a water bidder (w/b) of 0.61 were compared to those with the same GAK dosage but with reduced w/b ratio. There was increase in compressive strength of 9.3% at 28 days for cement mortar samples with 0.9% dosage of GAK and reduced w/c ratio.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Gum Acacia Karroo, retarding admixture, setting time, water-reducing admixture.

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305 A Study of Combined Mechanical and Chemical Stabilisation of Fine Grained Dredge Soil of River Jhelum

Authors: Adnan F. Sheikh, Fayaz A. Mir

Abstract:

After the recent devastating flood in Kashmir in 2014, dredging of the local water bodies, especially Jhelum River has become a priority for the government. Local government under the project name of 'Comprehensive Flood Management Programme' plans to undertake an increase in discharge of existing flood channels by removal of encroachments and acquisition of additional land, dredging and other works of the water bodies. The total quantity of soil to be dredged will be 16.15 lac cumecs. Dredged soil is a major component that would result from the project which requires disposal/utilization. This study analyses the effect of cement and sand on the engineering properties of soil. The tests were conducted with variable additions of sand (10%, 20% and 30%), whereas cement was added at 12%. Samples with following compositions: soil-cement (12%) and soil-sand (30%) were tested as well. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the engineering characteristics of soil, i.e., compaction, strength, and CBR characteristics. The strength characteristics of the soil were determined by unconfined compressive strength test and direct shear test. Unconfined compressive strength of the soil was tested immediately and for a curing period of seven days. CBR test was performed for unsoaked, soaked (worst condition- 4 days) and cured (4 days) samples.

Keywords: Comprehensive flood management programme, dredge soil, strength characteristics, flood.

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304 Proposal of Solidification/Stabilisation Process of Chosen Hazardous Waste by Cementation

Authors: Bozena Dohnalkova

Abstract:

This paper presents a part of the project solving which is dedicated to the identification of the hazardous waste with the most critical production within the Czech Republic with the aim to study and find the optimal composition of the cement matrix that will ensure maximum content disposal of chosen hazardous waste. In the first stage of project solving – which represents this paper – a specific hazardous waste was chosen, its properties were identified and suitable solidification agents were chosen. Consequently solidification formulas and testing methodology was proposed.

Keywords: Cementation, solidification, waste, binder.

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303 Chemical Analysis of Available Portland Cement in Libyan Market Using X-Ray Fluorescence

Authors: M. A. Elbagermia, A. I. Alajtala, M. Alkerzab

Abstract:

This study compares the quality of different brands of Portland Cement (PC) available in Libyan market. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3 and Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) were determined in accordance with Libyan (L.S.S) and Amrican (A.S.S) Standard Specifications. All the cement studies were found to be good for concrete work especially where no special property is required. The chemical and mineralogical analyses for studied clinker samples show that the dominant phases composition are C3S and C2S while the C3A and C4AF are less abundant.

Keywords: Portland cement, Chemical Composition, Libyan market, X-ray fluorescence.

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302 Supplementary Cementitious Materials as Sustainable Partial Replacement for Cement in the Building Industry

Authors: Nwakaego C. Onyenokporo

Abstract:

Cement is the most extensively used construction material due to its strength and versatility of use. However, the production of Portland cement has become unsustainable because of high energy usage, reduction of natural non-renewable resources and emissions of greenhouse gases. Production of cement contributes to anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions annually. The growing concerns for the environment resulting from this constant and excessive use of cement has therefore raised the need for more green materials and technology. The use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) is considered as one of the many alternatives suited to address this issue and serve as a sustainable partial replacement for cement in construction. This paper will examine the reuse of these waste materials to partially replace Portland cement. It provides a critical review of literature analysing various supplementary cementitious materials which are applicable in the building industry as either partial replacement for cement or aggregates. These materials have been grouped based on source into industrial wastes, domestic/general wastes, and agricultural wastes. The reuse of these waste materials could potentially reduce the negative effects of cement production and reduce landfills which constitute an environmental nuisance. This paper seeks to inform building industry professionals and researchers in the field on the applicability of these waste materials in construction.

Keywords: cement, greenhouse gases, landfills, sustainable, waste materials

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301 A Multiple Linear Regression Model to Predict the Price of Cement in Nigeria

Authors: Kenneth M. Oba

Abstract:

This study investigated factors affecting the price of cement in Nigeria, and developed a mathematical model that can predict future cement prices. Cement is key in the Nigerian construction industry. The changes in price caused by certain factors could affect economic and infrastructural development; hence there is need for proper proactive planning. Secondary data were collected from published information on cement between 2014 and 2019. In addition, questionnaires were sent to some domestic cement retailers in Port Harcourt in Nigeria, to obtain the actual prices of cement between the same periods. The study revealed that the most critical factors affecting the price of cement in Nigeria are inflation rate, population growth rate, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate. With the use of data from United Nations, International Monetary Fund, and Central Bank of Nigeria databases, amongst others, a Multiple Linear Regression model was formulated. The model was used to predict the price of cement for 2020-2025. The model was then tested with 95% confidence level, using a two-tailed t-test and an F-test, resulting in an R2 of 0.8428 and R2 (adj.) of 0.6069. The results of the tests and the correlation factors confirm the model to be fit and adequate. This study will equip researchers and stakeholders in the construction industry with information for planning, monitoring, and management of present and future construction projects that involve the use of cement.

Keywords: Cement price, multiple linear regression model, Nigerian Construction Industry, price prediction.

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300 Identification of Nonlinear Predictor and Simulator Models of a Cement Rotary Kiln by Locally Linear Neuro-Fuzzy Technique

Authors: Masoud Sadeghian, Alireza Fatehi

Abstract:

One of the most important parts of a cement factory is the cement rotary kiln which plays a key role in quality and quantity of produced cement. In this part, the physical exertion and bilateral movement of air and materials, together with chemical reactions take place. Thus, this system has immensely complex and nonlinear dynamic equations. These equations have not worked out yet. Only in exceptional case; however, a large number of the involved parameter were crossed out and an approximation model was presented instead. This issue caused many problems for designing a cement rotary kiln controller. In this paper, we presented nonlinear predictor and simulator models for a real cement rotary kiln by using nonlinear identification technique on the Locally Linear Neuro- Fuzzy (LLNF) model. For the first time, a simulator model as well as a predictor one with a precise fifteen minute prediction horizon for a cement rotary kiln is presented. These models are trained by LOLIMOT algorithm which is an incremental tree-structure algorithm. At the end, the characteristics of these models are expressed. Furthermore, we presented the pros and cons of these models. The data collected from White Saveh Cement Company is used for modeling.

Keywords: Cement rotary kiln, nonlinear identification, Locally Linear Neuro-Fuzzy model.

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299 Effect of Nanofibers on the Behavior of Cement Mortar and Concrete

Authors: Mostafa Osman, Ata El-kareim Shoeib

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is study the influence of carbon nano-tubes fibers and nano silica fibers on the characteristic compressive strength and flexural strength on concrete and cement mortar. Twelve tested specimens were tested with square section its dimensions (4040 160) mm, divided into four groups. The first and second group studied the effect of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fibers with different percentage equal to 0.0, 0.11%, 0.22%, and 0.33% by weight of cement and effect of nano-silica (nS) fibers with different percentages equal to 0.0, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by weight of cement on the cement mortar. The third and fourth groups studied the effect of CNTs fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0%, 0.11%, and 0.22% by weight of cement, and effect of nS fibers with different percentages were equal to 0.0%, 1.0%, and 2.0% by weight of cement on the concrete. The compressive strength and flexural strength at 7, 28, and 90 days is determined. From analysis of tested results concluded that the nano-fibers is more effective when used with cement mortar more than used with concrete because of increasing the surface area, decreasing the pore and the collection of nano-fibers. And also by adding nano-fibers the improvement of flexural strength of concrete and cement mortar is more than improvement of compressive strength.

Keywords: Carbon nano-tubes fibers, nano-silica (nS) fibers, compressive strength, flexural.

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298 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya

Abstract:

Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: Compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection.

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297 Mechanical Properties of Cement Slurry by Partially Substitution of Industry Waste Natural Pozzolans

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, S. P. Emadoleslami Oskoei, S. D. Beladi Mousavi, A. Taleb Beydokhti

Abstract:

There have been many reports of the destructive effects of cement on the environment in recent years. In the present research, it has been attempted to reduce the destructive effects of cement by replacing silica fume as adhesive materials instead of cement. The present study has attempted to improve the mechanical properties of cement slurry by using waste material from a glass production factory, located in Qazvin city of Iran, in which accumulation volume has become an environmental threat. The chemical analysis of the waste material indicates that this material contains about 94% of SiO2 and AL2O3 and has a close structure to silica fume. Also, the particle grain size test was performed on the mentioned waste. Then, the unconfined compressive strength test of the slurry was performed by preparing a mixture of water and adhesives with different percentages of cement and silica fume. The water to an adhesive ratio of this mixture is 1:3, and the curing process last 28 days. It was found that the sample had an unconfined compressive strength of about 300 kg/cm2 in a mixture with equal proportions of cement and silica fume. Besides, the sample had a brittle fracture in the slurry sample made of pure cement, however, the fracture in cement-silica fume slurry mixture is flexible and the structure of the specimen remains coherent after fracture. Therefore, considering the flexibility that is achieved by replacing this waste, it can be used to stabilize soils with cracking potential.

Keywords: Cement replacement, cement slurry, environmental threat, natural pozzolan, silica fume, waste material.

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296 Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Cement Based Mortars Containing Two Biopolymers

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, M. Kheradmand, F. Pacheco-Torgal

Abstract:

The use of bio-based admixtures on construction materials is a recent trend that is gaining momentum. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported concerning the use of biopolymers on hybrid cement based mortars. This paper reports experimental results regarding the study of the influence of mix design of 43 hybrid cement mortars containing two different biopolymers on its mechanical performance. The results show that the use of the biopolymer carrageenan is much more effective than the biopolymer xanthan concerning the increase in compressive strength. An optimum biopolymer content was found.

Keywords: Waste reuse, fly ash, waste glass, hybrid cement, biopolymers, mechanical strength.

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295 Effect of Bentonite on the Rheological Behavior of Cement Grout in Presence of Superplasticizer

Authors: K. Benyounes, A. Benmounah

Abstract:

Cement-based grouts has been used successfully to repair cracks in many concrete structures such as bridges, tunnels, buildings and to consolidate soils or rock foundations. In the present study the rheological characterization of cement grout with water/binder ratio (W/B) is fixed at 0.5. The effect of the replacement of cement by bentonite (2 to 10% wt) in presence of superplasticizer (0.5% wt) was investigated. Several rheological tests were carried out by using controlled-stress rheometer equipped with vane geometry in temperature of 20°C. To highlight the influence of bentonite and superplasticizer on the rheological behavior of grout cement, various flow tests in a range of shear rate from 0 to 200 s-1 were observed. Cement grout showed a non-Newtonian viscosity behavior at all concentrations of bentonite. Three parameter model Herschel- Bulkley was chosen for fitting of experimental data. Based on the values of correlation coefficients of the estimated parameters, The Herschel-Bulkley law model well described the rheological behavior of the grouts. Test results showed that the dosage of bentonite increases the viscosity and yield stress of the system and introduces more thixotropy. While the addition of both bentonite and superplasticizer with cement grout improve significantly the fluidity and reduced the yield stress due to the action of dispersion of SP.

Keywords: Cement grout, bentonite, superplasticizer, viscosity, yield stress.

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294 Effect of Fine-Ground Ceramic Admixture on Early Age Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Z. Pavlík, M. Pavlíková, P. Volfová, M. Keppert, R. Černý

Abstract:

Properties of cement pastes with fine-ground ceramics used as an alternative binder replacing Portland cement up to 20% of its mass are investigated. At first, the particle size distribution of cement and fine-ground ceramics is measured using laser analyser. Then, the material properties are studied in the early hardening period up to 28 days. The hydration process of studied materials is monitored by electrical conductivity measurement using TDR sensors. The changes of materials- structures within the hardening are observed using pore size distribution measurement. The compressive strength measurements are done as well. Experimental results show that the replacement of Portland cement by fine-ground ceramics in the amount of up to 20% by mass is acceptable solution from the mechanical point of view. One can also assume similar physical properties of designed materials to the reference material with only Portland cement as binder.

Keywords: Fine-ground ceramics, cement pastes, early age properties, mechanical properties, pore size distribution, electrical conductivity measurement.

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