Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2817

Search results for: Shaking table test

2817 Response Spectrum Transformation for Seismic Qualification Testing

Authors: Nouredine Bourahla, Farid Bouriche, Yacine Benghalia

Abstract:

Seismic qualification testing for equipments to be mounted on upper storeys of buildings is very demanding in terms of floor spectra. The latter is characterized by high accelerations amplitudes within a narrow frequency band. This article presents a method which permits to cover specified required response spectra beyond the shaking table capability by amplifying the acceleration amplitudes at an appropriate frequency range using a physical intermediate mounted on the platform of the shaker.

Keywords: floor spectra, response spectrum, seismicqualification testing, shaking table

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2816 A Procedure for Post-Earthquake Damage Estimation Based on Detection of High-Frequency Transients

Authors: Aleksandar Zhelyazkov, Daniele Zonta, Helmut Wenzel, Peter Furtner

Abstract:

In the current research structural health monitoring is considered for addressing the critical issue of post-earthquake damage detection. A non-standard approach for damage detection via acoustic emission is presented - acoustic emissions are monitored in the low frequency range (up to 120 Hz). Such emissions are termed high-frequency transients. Further a damage indicator defined as the Time-Ratio Damage Indicator is introduced. The indicator relies on time-instance measurements of damage initiation and deformation peaks. Based on the time-instance measurements a procedure for estimation of the maximum drift ratio is proposed. Monitoring data is used from a shaking-table test of a full-scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. Damage of the experimental column is successfully detected and the proposed damage indicator is calculated.

Keywords: Acoustic emission, Damage detection, Shaking table test, Structural health monitoring, High-frequency transients.

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2815 The Influence of Strengthening on the Fundamental Frequency and Stiffness of a Confined Masonry Wall with an Opening for а Door

Authors: Emin Z. Mahmud

Abstract:

This paper presents the observations from a series of shaking-table tests done on a 1:1 scaled confined masonry wall model, with opening for a door – specimens CMDuS (confined masonry wall with opening for a door before strengthening) and CMDS (confined masonry wall with opening for a door after strengthening). Frequency and stiffness changes before and after GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) wall strengthening are analyzed. Definition of dynamic properties of the models was the first step of the experimental testing, which enabled acquiring important information about the achieved stiffness (natural frequencies) of the model. The natural frequency was defined in the Y direction of the model by applying resonant frequency search tests. It is important to mention that both specimens CMDuS and CMDS are subjected to the same effects. The tests are realized in the laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS), Skopje. The specimens were examined separately on the shaking table, with uniaxial, in-plane excitation. After testing, samples were strengthened with GFRP and re-tested. The initial frequency of the undamaged model CMDuS is 13.55 Hz, while at the end of the testing, the frequency decreased to 6.38 Hz. This emphasizes the reduction of the initial stiffness of the model due to damage, especially in the masonry and tie-beam to tie-column connection. After strengthening of the damaged wall, the natural frequency increases to 10.89 Hz. This highlights the beneficial effect of the strengthening. After completion of dynamic testing at CMDS, the natural frequency is reduced to 6.66 Hz.

Keywords: Behavior of masonry structures, Eurocode, fundamental frequency, masonry, shaking table test, strengthening.

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2814 Experimental Investigation on Excess Pore Water Pressure in Soft Soil-Foundations under Minor Shocks

Authors: Zhiying Zhang, Chongdu Cho, Qiang Pan, Xilin Lu

Abstract:

In this study, shaking table tests are performed to investigate the behavior of excess pore water pressure in different soft soil-foundations of soil-structure interaction (SSI) system. The variation of the behaviors under cycled minor shock is observed. Moreover, The generation and variation mechanism of excess pore water pressure under earthquake excitation in different soft soilfoundations are analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: Excess pore water pressure, shaking table tests, soft soil foundation, SSI system.

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2813 Experimental Simulation of Soil Boundary Condition for Dynamic Studies

Authors: Omar.S. Qaftan, T. T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

This paper studies the free-field response by adopting a flexible membrane container as soil boundary for experimental shaking table tests. The influence of the soil container boundary on the soil behaviour and the dynamic soil properties under seismic effect were examined. A flexible container with 1/50 scale factor was adopted in the experimental tests, including construction, instrumentation, and determination of the results of dynamic tests on a shaking table. Horizontal face displacements and accelerations were analysed to determine the influence of the container boundary on the performance of the soil. The outputs results show that the flexible boundary container allows more displacement and larger accelerations. The soil in a rigid wall container cannot deform as similar as the soil in the real field does. Therefore, the response of flexible container tested is believed to be more reliable for soil boundary than that in the rigid container.

Keywords: Soil, boundary, seismic, earthquake, ground motion.

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2812 Shear Modulus Degradation of a Liquefiable Sand Deposit by Shaking Table Tests

Authors: Henry Munoz, Muhammad Mohsan, Takashi Kiyota

Abstract:

Strength and deformability characteristics of a liquefiable sand deposit including the development of earthquake-induced shear stress and shear strain as well as soil softening via the progressive degradation of shear modulus were studied via shaking table experiments. To do so, a model of a liquefiable sand deposit was constructed and densely instrumented where accelerations, pressures, and displacements at different locations were continuously monitored. Furthermore, the confinement effects on the strength and deformation characteristics of the liquefiable sand deposit due to an external surcharge by placing a heavy concrete slab (i.e. the model of an actual structural rigid pavement) on the ground surface were examined. The results indicate that as the number of seismic-loading cycles increases, the sand deposit softens progressively as large shear strains take place in different sand elements. Liquefaction state is reached after the combined effects of the progressive degradation of the initial shear modulus associated with the continuous decrease in the mean principal stress, and the buildup of the excess of pore pressure takes place in the sand deposit. Finally, the confinement effects given by a concrete slab placed on the surface of the sand deposit resulted in a favorable increasing in the initial shear modulus, an increase in the mean principal stress and a decrease in the softening rate (i.e. the decreasing rate in shear modulus) of the sand, thus making the onset of liquefaction to take place at a later stage. This is, only after the sand deposit having a concrete slab experienced a higher number of seismic loading cycles liquefaction took place, in contrast to an ordinary sand deposit having no concrete slab.

Keywords: Liquefaction, shaking table, shear modulus degradation, earthquake.

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2811 Damage Localization of Deterministic-Stochastic Systems

Authors: Yen-Po Wang, Ming-Chih Huang, Ming-Lian Chang

Abstract:

A scheme integrated with deterministic–stochastic subspace system identification and the method of damage localization vector is proposed in this study for damage detection of structures based on seismic response data. A series of shaking table tests using a five-storey steel frame has been conducted in National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE), Taiwan. Damage condition is simulated by reducing the cross-sectional area of some of the columns at the bottom. Both single and combinations of multiple damage conditions at various locations have been considered. In the system identification analysis, either full or partial observation conditions have been taken into account. It has been shown that the damaged stories can be identified from global responses of the structure to earthquakes if sufficiently observed. In addition to detecting damage(s) with respect to the intact structure, identification of new or extended damages of the as-damaged (ill-conditioned) counterpart has also been studied. The proposed scheme proves to be effective.

Keywords: Damage locating vectors, deterministic-stochastic subspace system, shaking table tests, system identification.

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2810 Shaking Force Balancing of Mechanisms: An Overview

Authors: Vigen Arakelian

Abstract:

The balancing of mechanisms is a well-known problem in the field of mechanical engineering because the variable dynamic loads cause vibrations, as well as noise, wear and fatigue of the machines. A mechanical system with unbalance shaking force and shaking moment transmits substantial vibration to the frame. Therefore, the objective of the balancing is to cancel or reduce the variable dynamic reactions transmitted to the frame. The resolution of this problem consists in the balancing of the shaking force and shaking moment. It can be fully or partially, by internal mass redistribution via adding counterweights or by modification of the mechanism's architecture via adding auxiliary structures. The balancing problems are of continue interest to researchers. Several laboratories around the world are very active in this area and new results are published regularly. However, despite its ancient history, mechanism balancing theory continues to be developed and new approaches and solutions are constantly being reported. Various surveys have been published that disclose particularities of balancing methods. The author believes that this is an appropriate moment to present a state of the art of the shaking force balancing studies completed by new research results. This paper presents an overview of methods devoted to the shaking force balancing of mechanisms, as well as the historical aspects of the origins and the evolution of the balancing theory of mechanisms.

Keywords: Inertia forces, shaking forces, balancing, dynamics.

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2809 The Effect of Static Balance Enhance by Table Tennis Training Intervening on Deaf Children

Authors: Yi-Chun Chang, Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho, Yueh-Tung Kuo

Abstract:

Children with hearing impairment have deficits of balance and motors. Although most of parents teach deaf children communication skills in early life, but rarely teach the deficits of balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether static balance improved after table tennis training. Table tennis training was provided four times a week for eight weeks to two 12-year-old deaf children. The table tennis training included crossover footwork, sideway attack, backhand block-sideways-flutter forehand attack, and one-on-one tight training. Data were gathered weekly and statistical comparisons were made with a paired t-test. We observed that the dominant leg is better than the non-dominant leg in static balance and girl balance ability is better than boy. The final result shows that table tennis training significantly improves the deaf children’s static balance performance. It indicates that table tennis training on deaf children helps the static balance ability.

Keywords: Deaf children, static balance, table tennis, vestibular structure.

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2808 Lookup Table Reduction and Its Error Analysis of Hall Sensor-Based Rotation Angle Measurement

Authors: Young-San Shin, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

Hall sensor is widely used to measure rotation angle. When the Hall voltage is measured for linear displacement, it is converted to angular displacement using arctangent function, which requires a large lookup table. In this paper, a lookup table reduction technique is presented for angle measurement. When the input of the lookup table is small within a certain threshold, the change of the outputs with respect to the change of the inputs is relatively small. Thus, several inputs can share same output, which significantly reduce the lookup table size. Its error analysis was also performed, and the threshold was determined so as to maintain the error less than 1°. When the Hall voltage has 11-bit resolution, the lookup table size is reduced from 1,024 samples to 279 samples.

Keywords: Hall sensor, angle measurement, lookup table, arctangent.

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2807 A Note on Penalized Power-Divergence Test Statistics

Authors: Aylin Alin

Abstract:

In this paper, penalized power-divergence test statistics have been defined and their exact size properties to test a nested sequence of log-linear models have been compared with ordinary power-divergence test statistics for various penalization, λ and main effect values. Since the ordinary and penalized power-divergence test statistics have the same asymptotic distribution, comparisons have been only made for small and moderate samples. Three-way contingency tables distributed according to a multinomial distribution have been considered. Simulation results reveal that penalized power-divergence test statistics perform much better than their ordinary counterparts.

Keywords: Contingency table, Log-linear models, Penalization, Power-divergence measure, Penalized power-divergence measure.

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2806 Pulsation Suppression Device Design for Reciprocating Compressor

Authors: Amin Almasi

Abstract:

Design and evaluation of reciprocating compressors should include a pulsation study. The object is to ensure that predicted pulsation levels meet guidelines to limit vibration, shaking forces, noise, associated pressure drops, horsepower losses and fabrication cost and time to acceptable levels. This paper explains procedures and recommendations to select and size pulsation suppression devices to obtain optimum arrangement in terms of pulsation, vibration, shaking forces, performance, reliability, safety, operation, maintenance and commercial conditions. Model and advanced formulations for pulsation study are presented. The effect of the full fluid dynamic model on the prediction of pulsation waves and resulting frequency spectrum distributions are discussed. Advanced and optimum methods of controlling pulsations are highlighted. Useful recommendations and guidelines for pulsation control, piping pulsation analysis, pulsation vessel design, shaking forces, low pressure drop orifices, pulsation study report and devices to mitigate pulsation and shaking problems are discussed.

Keywords: Pulsation, Reciprocating Compressor.

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2805 Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

Authors: Loke Mun Sei

Abstract:

Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, Robot Framework, and Jenkins.

Keywords: Test automation tools, test case, test execution, test reporting.

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2804 The Electronic and Computer-Aided Periodic Table Prepared for the Visually Impaired Individuals

Authors: Ayşe Eldem, Fatih Başçiftçi

Abstract:

Visually impaired individuals cannot lead their lives as comfortable as others. Therefore, new applications are being developed every passing day in order to make their lives easier. In this study, an electronic and computer-aided audio device was developed with the aim of making the learning of the periodic table easier for the visually impaired. In this device, a board includes buttons for each element of the periodic table. After pressing a button, the visually impaired individual not only hears the name of the element but also feels with his/her hands where that specific element is located.

Keywords: Periodic Table, PIC16F877, Serial port, Visually Impaired Individual.

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2803 Numerical Investigation on Damage Evolution of Piles inside Liquefied Soil Foundation - Dynamic-Loading Experiments -

Authors: Ahmed Mohammed Youssef Mohammed, Mohammad Reza Okhovat, Koichi Maekawa

Abstract:

The large and small-scale shaking table tests, which was conducted for investigating damage evolution of piles inside liquefied soil, are numerically simulated and experimental verified by the3D nonlinear finite element analysis. Damage evolution of elasto-plastic circular steel piles and reinforced concrete (RC) one with cracking and yield of reinforcement are focused on, and the failure patterns and residual damages are captured by the proposed constitutive models. The superstructure excitation behind quay wall is reproduced as well.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, Piles, Soil Liquefaction.

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2802 Masonry CSEB Building Models under Shaketable Testing-An Experimental Study

Authors: Lakshmi Keshav, V. G. Srisanthi

Abstract:

In this experimental investigation shake table tests were conducted on two reduced models that represent normal single room building constructed by Compressed Stabilized Earth Block (CSEB) from locally available soil. One model was constructed with earthquake resisting features (EQRF) having sill band, lintel band and vertical bands to control the building vibration and another one was without Earthquake Resisting Features. To examine the seismic capacity of the models particularly when it is subjected to long-period ground motion by large amplitude by many cycles of repeated loading, the test specimen was shaken repeatedly until the failure. The test results from Hi-end Data Acquisition system show that model with EQRF behave better than without EQRF. This modified masonry model with new material combined with new bands is used to improve the behavior of masonry building.

Keywords: Earth Quake Resisting Features, Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks, Masonry structures, Shake table testing, Horizontal and vertical bands.

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2801 Uncertainty Analysis of ROSA/LSTF Test on Pressurized Water Reactor Cold Leg Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident without Scram

Authors: Takeshi Takeda

Abstract:

The author conducted post-test analysis with the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code for an experiment using the ROSA/LSTF (rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility) that simulated a 1% cold leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident under the failure of scram in a pressurized water reactor. The LSTF test assumed total failure of high-pressure injection system of emergency core cooling system. In the LSTF test, natural circulation contributed to maintain core cooling effect for a relatively long time until core uncovery occurred. The post-test analysis result confirmed inadequate prediction of the primary coolant distribution. The author created the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) for each component. The author investigated the influences of uncertain parameters determined by the PIRT on the cladding surface temperature at a certain time during core uncovery within the defined uncertain ranges.

Keywords: LSTF, LOCA, scram, RELAP5.

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2800 Efficacy of Selected Mobility Exercises and Participation in Special Games on Psychomotor Abilities, Functional Abilities and Game Performance among Intellectually Disabled Children of Under 14 Age

Authors: J. Samuel Jesudoss

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to find out the efficacy of selected mobility exercises and participation in special games on psychomotor abilities, functional abilities and skill performance among intellectually disabled children of age group under 14. Thirty male students who were studying in Balar Kalvi Nilayam and YMCA College Special School, Chennai, acted as subjects for the study. They were only mild and moderate in intellectual disability. These students did not undergo any special training or coaching programme apart from their regular routine physical activity classes as a part of the curriculum in the school. They were attached at random, based on age in which 30 belonged to under 14 age group, which was divided into three equal group of ten for each experimental treatment. 10 students (Treatment group I) underwent calisthenics and special games participation, 10 students (Treatment group II) underwent aquatics and special games participation, 10 students (Treatment group III) underwent yoga and special games participation. The subjects were tested on selected criterion variables prior (pre test) and after twelve weeks of training (post test). The pre and post test data collected from three groups on functional abilities(self care, learning, capacity for independent living), psychomotor variables(static balance, eye hand coordination, simple reaction time test) and skill performance (bocce skill, badminton skill, table tennis skill) were statistically examined for significant difference, by applying the analysis ANACOVA. Whenever an 'F' ratio for adjusted test was found to be significant for adjusted post test means, Scheffe-s test was followed as a post-hoc test to determine which of the paired mean differences was significant. The result of the study showed that among under 14 age groups there was a significant improvement on selected criterion variables such as, Balance, Coordination, self-care and learning and also in Bocce, Badminton & Table Tennis skill performance, due to mobility exercises and participation in special games. However there were no significant differences among the groups.

Keywords: Functional ability, intellectually disabled, Mobility exercises, Psychomotor ability.

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2799 Join and Meet Block Based Default Definite Decision Rule Mining from IDT and an Incremental Algorithm

Authors: Chen Wu, Jingyu Yang

Abstract:

Using maximal consistent blocks of tolerance relation on the universe in incomplete decision table, the concepts of join block and meet block are introduced and studied. Including tolerance class, other blocks such as tolerant kernel and compatible kernel of an object are also discussed at the same time. Upper and lower approximations based on those blocks are also defined. Default definite decision rules acquired from incomplete decision table are proposed in the paper. An incremental algorithm to update default definite decision rules is suggested for effective mining tasks from incomplete decision table into which data is appended. Through an example, we demonstrate how default definite decision rules based on maximal consistent blocks, join blocks and meet blocks are acquired and how optimization is done in support of discernibility matrix and discernibility function in the incomplete decision table.

Keywords: rough set, incomplete decision table, maximalconsistent block, default definite decision rule, join and meet block.

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2798 Effect of Shallow Groundwater Table on the Moisture Depletion Pattern in Crop Root Zone

Authors: Vijay Shankar

Abstract:

Different techniques for estimating seasonal water use from soil profile water depletion frequently do not account for flux below the root zone. Shallow water table contribution to supply crop water use may be important in arid and semi-arid regions. Development of predictive root uptake models, under influence of shallow water table makes it possible for planners to incorporate interaction between water table and root zone into design of irrigation projects. A model for obtaining soil moisture depletion from root zone and water movement below it is discussed with the objective to determine impact of shallow water table on seasonal moisture depletion patterns under water table depth variation, up to the bottom of root zone. The role of different boundary conditions has also been considered. Three crops: Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Corn (Zea mays) and Potato (Solanum tuberosum), common in arid & semi-arid regions, are chosen for the study. Using experimentally obtained soil moisture depletion values for potential soil moisture conditions, moisture depletion patterns using a non linear root uptake model have been obtained for different water table depths. Comparative analysis of the moisture depletion patterns under these conditions show a wide difference in percent depletion from different layers of root zone particularly top and bottom layers with middle layers showing insignificant variation in moisture depletion values. Moisture depletion in top layer, when the water table rises to root zone increases by 19.7%, 22.9% & 28.2%, whereas decrease in bottom layer is 68.8%, 61.6% & 64.9% in case of wheat, corn & potato respectively. The paper also discusses the causes and consequences of increase in moisture depletion from top layers and exceptionally high reduction in bottom layer, and the possible remedies for the same. The numerical model developed for the study can be used to help formulating irrigation strategies for areas where shallow groundwater of questionable quality is an option for crop production.

Keywords: Moisture Depletion, crop root zone, ground water table, irrigation.

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2797 Studies of Rule Induction by STRIM from the Decision Table with Contaminated Attribute Values from Missing Data and Noise — In the Case of Critical Dataset Size —

Authors: Tetsuro Saeki, Yuichi Kato, Shoutarou Mizuno

Abstract:

STRIM (Statistical Test Rule Induction Method) has been proposed as a method to effectively induct if-then rules from the decision table which is considered as a sample set obtained from the population of interest. Its usefulness has been confirmed by simulation experiments specifying rules in advance, and by comparison with conventional methods. However, scope for future development remains before STRIM can be applied to the analysis of real-world data sets. The first requirement is to determine the size of the dataset needed for inducting true rules, since finding statistically significant rules is the core of the method. The second is to examine the capacity of rule induction from datasets with contaminated attribute values created by missing data and noise, since real-world datasets usually contain such contaminated data. This paper examines the first problem theoretically, in connection with the rule length. The second problem is then examined in a simulation experiment, utilizing the critical size of dataset derived from the first step. The experimental results show that STRIM is highly robust in the analysis of datasets with contaminated attribute values, and hence is applicable to real-world data

Keywords: Rule induction, decision table, missing data, noise.

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2796 CDM Controller Order and Disturbance Rejection Ability

Authors: Jo˜ao Paulo Coelho, Wojciech Giernacki, Jos´e Boaventura-Cunha

Abstract:

The coefficient diagram method is primarily an algebraic control design method whose objective is to easily obtain a good controller with minimum user effort. As a matter of fact, if a system model, in the form of linear differential equations, is known, the user only need to define a time-constant and the controller order. The later can be established regarding the expected disturbance type via a lookup table first published by Koksal and Hamamci in 2004. However an inaccuracy in this table was detected and pointed-out in the present work. Moreover the above mentioned table was expanded in order to enclose any k order type disturbance.

Keywords: Coefficient diagram method, control system design, disturbance rejection.

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2795 A PWM Controller with Multiple-Access Table Look-up for DC-DC Buck Conversion

Authors: Steve Hung-Lung Tu, Chu-Tse Lee

Abstract:

A new power regulator controller with multiple-access PID compensator is proposed, which can achieve a minimum memory requirement for fully table look-up. The proposed regulator controller employs hysteresis comparators, an error process unit (EPU) for voltage regulation, a multiple-access PID compensator and a lowpower- consumption digital PWM (DPWM). Based on the multipleaccess mechanism, the proposed controller can alleviate the penalty of large amount of memory employed for fully table look-up based PID compensator in the applications of power regulation. The proposed controller has been validated with simulation results.

Keywords: Multiple access, PID compensator, PWM, Buck conversion.

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2794 Disturbance Observer-Based Predictive Functional Critical Control of a Table Drive System

Authors: Toshiyuki Satoh, Hiroki Hara, Naoki Saito, Jun-ya Nagase, Norihiko Saga

Abstract:

This paper addresses a control system design for a table drive system based on the disturbance observer (DOB)-based predictive functional critical control (PFCC). To empower the previously developed DOB-based PFC to handle constraints on controlled outputs, we propose to take a critical control approach. To this end, we derive the transfer function representation of the PFC controller and yield a detailed design procedure. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed through an experimental evaluation.

Keywords: Critical control, disturbance observer, mechatronics, motion control, predictive functional control, table drive systems.

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2793 Spatial Data Mining by Decision Trees

Authors: S. Oujdi, H. Belbachir

Abstract:

Existing methods of data mining cannot be applied on spatial data because they require spatial specificity consideration, as spatial relationships. This paper focuses on the classification with decision trees, which are one of the data mining techniques. We propose an extension of the C4.5 algorithm for spatial data, based on two different approaches Join materialization and Querying on the fly the different tables. Similar works have been done on these two main approaches, the first - Join materialization - favors the processing time in spite of memory space, whereas the second - Querying on the fly different tables- promotes memory space despite of the processing time. The modified C4.5 algorithm requires three entries tables: a target table, a neighbor table, and a spatial index join that contains the possible spatial relationship among the objects in the target table and those in the neighbor table. Thus, the proposed algorithms are applied to a spatial data pattern in the accidentology domain. A comparative study of our approach with other works of classification by spatial decision trees will be detailed.

Keywords: C4.5 Algorithm, Decision trees, S-CART, Spatial data mining.

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2792 Effect of Landfill Leachate on Engineering Properties of Test Soil

Authors: S. A. Nta, M. J. Ayotamuno, I. J. Udom

Abstract:

The work presents result of laboratory analysis of the effects of landfill leachate on engineering properties of test soil. The soil used for the present study was a sandy loam soil and acidic in nature. It was collected at a depth of 0.9 m. The landfill leachate used was collected from a hole dug some meters away from dumped solid waste and analyzed to identify the pollutants and its effect on engineering properties of the test soil. The test soil applied with landfill leachate was collected at 0.25 and 0.50 m radial distances at a depth of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60 m from the point of application of leachate after 50 days were the application of the leachate end and 80 days from the start of the experiment for laboratory analysis. Engineering properties such as particle size distribution, specific gravity, optimum moisture content, maximum dry density, unconfined compressive strength, liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit were considered. The concentration of various chemicals at 0.25 and 0.50 radial distances and 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.6 m depth from the point of application of leachate were different. This study founds the effect of landfill leachate on the engineering properties of soil. It can be concluded that, the type of soil, chemical composition of the leachate, infiltration rate, aquifers, ground water table etc., will have a major role on the area of influence zone of the pollutants in a landfill.

Keywords: Engineering properties of test soil, landfill leachate, Municipal solid waste.

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2791 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee

Abstract:

Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.

Keywords: Accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor test.

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2790 Equipment Design for Lunar Lander Landing-Impact Test

Authors: Xiaohuan Li, Wangmin Yi, Xinghui Wu

Abstract:

In order to verify the performance of lunar lander structure, landing-impact test is urgently needed. And the test equipment is necessary for the test. The functions and the key points of the equipment are presented to satisfy the requirements of the test, and the design scheme is proposed. The composition, the major function and the critical parts’ design of the equipment are introduced. By the load test of releasing device and single-beam hoist, and the compatibility test of landing-impact testing system, the rationality and reliability of the equipment is proved.

Keywords: Landing-impact test, lunar lander, releasing device, test equipment.

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2789 Mechanical Characteristics and Modeling of Multiple Trench Friction Pendulum System with Multi-intermediate Sliding Plates

Authors: C. S. Tsai, Yung-Chang Lin

Abstract:

In order to upgrade the seismic resistibility of structures and enhance the functionality of an isolator, a new base isolator called the multiple trench friction pendulum system (MTFPS) is proposed in this study. The proposed MTFPS isolator is composed of a trench concave surface and several intermediate sliding plates in two orthogonal directions. Mathematical formulations have been derived to examine the characteristics of the proposed MTFPS isolator possessing multiple intermediate sliding plates. By means of mathematical formulations, it can be inferred that the natural period and damping effect of the MTFPS isolator with several intermediate sliding plates can be altered continually and controllably during earthquakes. Furthermore, results obtained from shaking table tests demonstrate that the proposed isolator provides good protection to structures for prevention of damage from strong earthquakes.

Keywords: Friction Pendulum System, Multiple Friction Pendulum System, Base Isolation, Earthquake Engineering

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2788 How Valid Are Our Language Test Interpretations? A Demonstrative Example

Authors: Masoud Saeedi, Shirin Rahimi Kazerooni, Vahid Parvaresh

Abstract:

Validity is an overriding consideration in language testing. If a test score is intended for a particular purpose, this must be supported through empirical evidence. This article addresses the validity of a multiple-choice achievement test (MCT). The test is administered at the end of each semester to decide about students' mastery of a course in general English. To provide empirical evidence pertaining to the validity of this test, two criterion measures were used. In so doing, a Cloze test and a C-test which are reported to gauge general English proficiency were utilized. The results of analyses show that there is a statistically significant correlation among participants' scores on the MCT, Cloze, and Ctest. Drawing on the findings of the study, it can be cautiously deduced that these tests measure the same underlying trait. However, allowing for the limitations of using criterion measures to validate tests, we cannot make any absolute claim as to the validity of this MCT test.

Keywords: C-test, cloze test, multiple-choice test, validity argument.

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