Search results for: High-frequency transients.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: High-frequency transients.

42 Characterisation and Classification of Natural Transients

Authors: Ernst D. Schmitter

Abstract:

Monitoring lightning electromagnetic pulses (sferics) and other terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial transient radiation signals is of considerable interest for practical and theoretical purposes in astro- and geophysics as well as meteorology. Managing a continuous flow of data, automisation of the detection and classification process is important. Features based on a combination of wavelet and statistical methods proved efficient for analysis and characterisation of transients and as input into a radial basis function network that is trained to discriminate transients from pulse like to wave like.

Keywords: transient signals, statistics, wavelets, neural networks

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41 A Procedure for Post-Earthquake Damage Estimation Based on Detection of High-Frequency Transients

Authors: Aleksandar Zhelyazkov, Daniele Zonta, Helmut Wenzel, Peter Furtner

Abstract:

In the current research structural health monitoring is considered for addressing the critical issue of post-earthquake damage detection. A non-standard approach for damage detection via acoustic emission is presented - acoustic emissions are monitored in the low frequency range (up to 120 Hz). Such emissions are termed high-frequency transients. Further a damage indicator defined as the Time-Ratio Damage Indicator is introduced. The indicator relies on time-instance measurements of damage initiation and deformation peaks. Based on the time-instance measurements a procedure for estimation of the maximum drift ratio is proposed. Monitoring data is used from a shaking-table test of a full-scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. Damage of the experimental column is successfully detected and the proposed damage indicator is calculated.

Keywords: Acoustic emission, Damage detection, Shaking table test, Structural health monitoring, High-frequency transients.

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40 Cloud Effect on Power Generation of Grid Connected Small PV Systems

Authors: Yehya Abdellatif, Ahmed Alsalaymeh, Iyad Muslih, Ali Alshduifat

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, mainly small scale, are rapidly being deployed in Jordan. The impact of these systems on the grid has not been studied or analyzed. These systems can cause many technical problems such as reverse power flows and voltage rises in distribution feeders, and real and reactive power transients that affect the operation of the transmission system. To fully understand and address these problems, extensive research, simulation, and case studies are required. To this end, this paper studies the cloud shadow effect on the power generation of a ground mounted PV system installed at the test field of the Renewable Energy Center at the Applied Science University.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, cloud effect, MPPT, power transients.

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39 System Overflow/Blocking Transients For Queues with Batch Arrivals Using a Family of Polynomials Resembling Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Vitalice K. Oduol, C. Ardil

Abstract:

The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to note is the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component, which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significance of transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.

Keywords: batch arrivals, blocking probability, generalizedChebyshev polynomials, overflow probability, queue transientanalysis

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38 A Novel Technique for Ferroresonance Identification in Distribution Networks

Authors: G. Mokryani, M. R. Haghifam, J. Esmaeilpoor

Abstract:

Happening of Ferroresonance phenomenon is one of the reasons of consuming and ruining transformers, so recognition of Ferroresonance phenomenon has a special importance. A novel method for classification of Ferroresonance presented in this paper. Using this method Ferroresonance can be discriminate from other transients such as capacitor switching, load switching, transformer switching. Wavelet transform is used for decomposition of signals and Competitive Neural Network used for classification. Ferroresonance data and other transients was obtained by simulation using EMTP program. Using Daubechies wavelet transform signals has been decomposed till six levels. The energy of six detailed signals that obtained by wavelet transform are used for training and trailing Competitive Neural Network. Results show that the proposed procedure is efficient in identifying Ferroresonance from other events.

Keywords: Competitive Neural Network, Ferroresonance, EMTP program, Wavelet transform.

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37 Computer-based Alarm Processing and Presentation Methods in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Jung-Woon Lee, Jung-Taek Kim, Jae-Chang Park, In-Koo Hwang, Sung-Pil Lyu

Abstract:

Computerized alarm systems have been applied increasingly to nuclear power plants. For existing plants, an add-on computer alarm system is often installed to the control rooms. Alarm avalanches during the plant transients are major problems with the alarm systems in nuclear power plants. Computerized alarm systems can process alarms to reduce the number of alarms during the plant transients. This paper describes various alarm processing methods, an alarm cause tracking function, and various alarm presentation schemes to show alarm information to the operators effectively which are considered during the development of several computerized alarm systems for Korean nuclear power plants and are found to be helpful to the operators.

Keywords: Alarm processing, Alarm presentation, Alarm causetracking, Alarm logic diagram computerization, Alarm patternrecognition.

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36 Sizing the Protection Devices to Control Water Hammer Damage

Authors: I. Abuiziah, A. Oulhaj, K. Sebari, D. Ouazar

Abstract:

The primary objectives of transient analysis are to determine the values of transient pressures that can result from flow control operations and to establish the design criteria for system equipment and devices (such as control devices and pipe wall thickness) so as to provide an acceptable level of protection against system failure due to pipe collapse or bursting. Because of the complexity of the equations needed to describe transients, numerical computer models are used to analyze transient flow hydraulics. An effective numerical model allows the hydraulic engineer to analyze potential transient events and to identify and evaluate alternative solutions for controlling hydraulic transients, thereby protecting the integrity of the hydraulic system. This paper presents the influence of using the protection devices to control the adverse effects due to excessive and low pressure occurs in the transient.

Keywords: Flow Transient, Water hammer, Pipeline System, Surge Tank, Simulation Model, Protection Devices.

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35 Detection of Sags, Swells, and Transients Using Windowing Technique Based On Continuous S-Transform (CST)

Authors: K. Daud, A. F. Abidin, N. Hamzah, H. S. Nagindar Singh

Abstract:

This paper produces a new approach for power quality analysis using a windowing technique based on Continuous S-transform (CST). This half-cycle window technique approach can detect almost correctly for initial detection of disturbances i.e. voltage sags, swells, and transients. Samples in half cycle window has been analyzed based continuous S-transform for entire disturbance waveform. The modified parameter has been produced by MATLAB programming m-file based on continuous s-transform. CST has better time frequency and localization property than traditional and also has ability to detect the disturbance under noisy condition correctly. The excellent time-frequency resolution characteristic of the CST makes it the most an attractive candidate for analysis of power system disturbances signals.

Keywords: Power quality disturbances, initial detection, half cycle windowing, continuous S-transform.

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34 Decoupled, Reduced Order Model for Double Output Induction Generator Using Integral Manifolds and Iterative Separation Theory

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper presents a technique for developing the computational efficiency in simulating double output induction generators (DOIG) with two rotor circuits where stator transients are to be included. Iterative decomposition is used to separate the flux– Linkage equations into decoupled fast and slow subsystems, after which the model order of the fast subsystems is reduced by neglecting the heavily damped fast transients caused by the second rotor circuit using integral manifolds theory. The two decoupled subsystems along with the equation for the very slowly changing slip constitute a three time-scale model for the machine which resulted in increasing computational speed. Finally, the proposed method of reduced order in this paper is compared with the other conventional methods in linear and nonlinear modes and it is shown that this method is better than the other methods regarding simulation accuracy and speed.

Keywords: DOIG, Iterative separation, Integral manifolds, Reduced order.

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33 Estimation of Synchronous Machine Synchronizing and Damping Torque Coefficients

Authors: Khaled M. EL-Naggar

Abstract:

Synchronizing and damping torque coefficients of a synchronous machine can give a quite clear picture for machine behavior during transients. These coefficients are used as a power system transient stability measurement. In this paper, a crow search optimization algorithm is presented and implemented to study the power system stability during transients. The algorithm makes use of the machine responses to perform the stability study in time domain. The problem is formulated as a dynamic estimation problem. An objective function that minimizes the error square in the estimated coefficients is designed. The method is tested using practical system with different study cases. Results are reported and a thorough discussion is presented. The study illustrates that the proposed method can estimate the stability coefficients for the critical stable cases where other methods may fail. The tests proved that the proposed tool is an accurate and reliable tool for estimating the machine coefficients for assessment of power system stability.

Keywords: Optimization, estimation, synchronous, machine, crow search.

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32 Effects of Mobile Phone Generated High Frequency Electromagnetic Field on the Viability and Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Zaini Mohd-Zain, Mohd-Saufee A.F. Mohd-Ismail, Norlida Buniyamin

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus, one of the microflora in a human external auditory canal (EAC) is frequently exposed to highfrequency electromagnetic field (HF-EMF) generated by mobile phones. It is normally non-pathogenic but in certain circumstances, it can cause infections. This study investigates the changes in the physiology of S. aureus when exposed to HF-EMF of a mobile phone. Exponentially grown S. aureus were exposed to two conditions of EMF irradiation (standby-mode and on-call mode) at four durations; 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Changes in the viability and biofilm production of the S. aureus were compared between the two conditions of exposure. EMF from the standby-mode has enhanced the growth of S. aureus but during on-call, the growth was suppressed. No significant difference in the amount of biofilm produced in both modes of exposure was observed. Thus, HF-EMF of mobile phone affects the viability of S. aureus but not its ability to produce biofilm.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field, mobile phone, biofilm, Staphylococcus aureus

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31 A Normalization-based Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Using SVD and DCT

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

Digital watermarking is one of the techniques for copyright protection. In this paper, a normalization-based robust image watermarking scheme which encompasses singular value decomposition (SVD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) techniques is proposed. For the proposed scheme, the host image is first normalized to a standard form and divided into non-overlapping image blocks. SVD is applied to each block. By concatenating the first singular values (SV) of adjacent blocks of the normalized image, a SV block is obtained. DCT is then carried out on the SV blocks to produce SVD-DCT blocks. A watermark bit is embedded in the highfrequency band of a SVD-DCT block by imposing a particular relationship between two pseudo-randomly selected DCT coefficients. An adaptive frequency mask is used to adjust local watermark embedding strength. Watermark extraction involves mainly the inverse process. The watermark extracting method is blind and efficient. Experimental results show that the quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Results also show that the proposed scheme is robust against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Image normalization, Singularvalue decomposition, Discrete cosine transform, Robustness.

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30 Simulating Flow Transients in Conveying Pipeline Systems by Rigid Column and Full Elastic Methods: Pump Combined with Air Chamber

Authors: I. Abuiziah, A. Oulhaj, K. Sebari, D. Ouazar, A. A. Saber

Abstract:

In water pipeline systems, the flow control is an integrated part of the operation, for instance, opening and closing the valves, starting and stopping the pumps, when these operations very quickly performed, they shall cause the hydraulic transient phenomena, which may cause pump and, valve failures and catastrophic pipe ruptures. Fluid transient analysis is one of the more challenging and complicated flow problems in the design and the operation of water pipeline systems. Transient control has become an essential requirement for ensuring safe operation of water pipeline systems. An accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used to protect water pipeline systems. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to solve the dynamic and continuity equations in the rigid column method, while the characteristics method used to solve these equations in the full elastic methods. This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulating of transient phenomena in conveying pipeline systems based on the rigid column and full elastic methods. Also, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to protect the pipeline systems from damaging due to the gain pressure which occur in the transient state. The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for flow transient analysis and provide approximately identical results by using these two methods. Moreover; using the closed surge tank reduces the unfavorable effects of transients.

Keywords: Flow transient, Pipeline, Air chamber, Numerical model, Protection devices, Elastic method, Rigid column method.

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29 Adaptive Transient and CW RF Interference Mitigation in HF OTH Radar: Experimental Results

Authors: Pavel Turcaj, Yuri I. Abramovich, Gordon J. Frazer

Abstract:

We introduce an adaptive technique for the joint mitigation of transients and continuous-wave radio-frequency co-channel interference (CW RFI) in high-frequency (HF) over-the-horizon radars (OTHRs). The performance of this technique is illustrated using data from an operational surface-wave radar (SECAR) and from recent experimental trials with sky-wave (SW) and sky-wave–line-of-sight (SKYLOS) HF OTHRs.

Keywords:

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28 Model of Controled Six Phase Induction Motor

Authors: R. Rinkeviciene, B. Kundrotas, S. Lisauskas

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors take a look at advantages of multiphase induction motors comparing them with three phase ones and present the applications where six-phase induction motors are used. They elaborate the mathematical model of six-phase induction motor with two similar stator three phase winding, shifted by 30 degrees in space and three phase winding in rotor, in synchronous reference frame for soft starting and scalar control. The authors simulate and discuss results of speed and torque starting transients.

Keywords: Model, scalar control, six-phase induction motor.

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27 Analysing and Classifying VLF Transients

Authors: Ernst D. Schmitter

Abstract:

Monitoring lightning electromagnetic pulses (sferics) and other terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial transient radiation signals is of considerable interest for practical and theoretical purposes in astro- and geophysics as well as meteorology. Managing a continuous flow of data, automation of the analysis and classification process is important. Features based on a combination of wavelet and statistical methods proved efficient for this task and serve as input into a radial basis function network that is trained to discriminate transient shapes from pulse like to wave like. We concentrate on signals in the Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3 -30 kHz) range in this paper, but the developed methods are independent of this specific choice.

Keywords: Transient signals, statistics, wavelets, neural networks

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26 Effects of ECCS on the Cold-Leg Fluid Temperature during SGTR Accidents

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The LSTF experiment simulating the SGTR accident at the Mihama Unit-2 reactor is analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In the accident, and thus in the experiment, the ECC water was injected not only into the cold legs but into the upper plenum. Overall transients during the experiment such as pressures and fluid temperatures are simulated well by the code. The cold-leg fluid temperatures are shown to decrease if the upper plenum injection system is connected to the cold leg. It is found that the cold-leg fluid temperatures also decrease if the upper-plenum injection is not used and the cold-leg injection alone is actuated.

Keywords: SGTR, LSTF, RELAP5, ECCS.

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25 Detection of Power Quality Disturbances using Wavelet Transform

Authors: Sudipta Nath, Arindam Dey, Abhijit Chakrabarti

Abstract:

This paper presents features that characterize power quality disturbances from recorded voltage waveforms using wavelet transform. The discrete wavelet transform has been used to detect and analyze power quality disturbances. The disturbances of interest include sag, swell, outage and transient. A power system network has been simulated by Electromagnetic Transients Program. Voltage waveforms at strategic points have been obtained for analysis, which includes different power quality disturbances. Then wavelet has been chosen to perform feature extraction. The outputs of the feature extraction are the wavelet coefficients representing the power quality disturbance signal. Wavelet coefficients at different levels reveal the time localizing information about the variation of the signal.

Keywords: Power quality, detection of disturbance, wavelet transform, multiresolution signal decomposition.

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24 Analysis of Partially Shaded PV Modules Using Piecewise Linear Parallel Branches Model

Authors: Yaw-Juen Wang, Po-Chun Hsu

Abstract:

This paper presents an equivalent circuit model based on piecewise linear parallel branches (PLPB) to study solar cell modules which are partially shaded. The PLPB model can easily be used in circuit simulation software such as the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). This PLPB model allows the user to simulate several different configurations of solar cells, the influence of partial shadowing on a single or multiple cells, the influence of the number of solar cells protected by a bypass diode and the effect of the cell connection configuration on partial shadowing.

Keywords: Cell Connection Configurations, EMTP, Equivalent Circuit, Partial Shading, Photovoltaic Module

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23 Application of Boost Converter for Ride-through Capability of Adjustable Speed Drives during Sag and Swell Conditions

Authors: S. S. Deswal, Ratna Dahiya, D. K. Jain

Abstract:

Process control and energy conservation are the two primary reasons for using an adjustable speed drive. However, voltage sags are the most important power quality problems facing many commercial and industrial customers. The development of boost converters has raised much excitement and speculation throughout the electric industry. Now utilities are looking to these devices for performance improvement and reliability in a variety of areas. Examples of these include sags, spikes, or transients in supply voltage as well as unbalanced voltages, poor electrical system grounding, and harmonics. In this paper, simulations results are presented for the verification of the proposed boost converter topology. Boost converter provides ride through capability during sag and swell. Further, input currents are near sinusoidal. This eliminates the need of braking resistor also.

Keywords: Adjustable speed drive, power quality, boost converter, ride through capabilities.

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22 The Fundamental Reliance of Iterative Learning Control on Stability Robustness

Authors: Richard W. Longman

Abstract:

Iterative learning control aims to achieve zero tracking error of a specific command. This is accomplished by iteratively adjusting the command given to a feedback control system, based on the tracking error observed in the previous iteration. One would like the iterations to converge to zero tracking error in spite of any error present in the model used to design the learning law. First, this need for stability robustness is discussed, and then the need for robustness of the property that the transients are well behaved. Methods of producing the needed robustness to parameter variations and to singular perturbations are presented. Then a method involving reverse time runs is given that lets the world behavior produce the ILC gains in such a way as to eliminate the need for a mathematical model. Since the real world is producing the gains, there is no issue of model error. Provided the world behaves linearly, the approach gives an ILC law with both stability robustness and good transient robustness, without the need to generate a model.

Keywords: Iterative learning control, stability robustness, monotonic convergence.

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21 High Quality Speech Coding using Combined Parametric and Perceptual Modules

Authors: M. Kulesza, G. Szwoch, A. Czyżewski

Abstract:

A novel approach to speech coding using the hybrid architecture is presented. Advantages of parametric and perceptual coding methods are utilized together in order to create a speech coding algorithm assuring better signal quality than in traditional CELP parametric codec. Two approaches are discussed. One is based on selection of voiced signal components that are encoded using parametric algorithm, unvoiced components that are encoded perceptually and transients that remain unencoded. The second approach uses perceptual encoding of the residual signal in CELP codec. The algorithm applied for precise transient selection is described. Signal quality achieved using the proposed hybrid codec is compared to quality of some standard speech codecs.

Keywords: CELP residual coding, hybrid codec architecture, perceptual speech coding, speech codecs comparison.

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20 Quality Factor Variation with Transform Order in Fractional Fourier Domain

Authors: Sukrit Shankar, Chetana Shanta Patsa, K. Pardha Saradhi, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

Fractional Fourier Transform is a powerful tool, which is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform. This paper provides a mathematical relation relating the span in Fractional Fourier domain with the amplitude and phase functions of the signal, which is further used to study the variation of quality factor with different values of the transform order. It is seen that with the increase in the number of transients in the signal, the deviation of average Fractional Fourier span from the frequency bandwidth increases. Also, with the increase in the transient nature of the signal, the optimum value of transform order can be estimated based on the quality factor variation, and this value is found to be very close to that for which one can obtain the most compact representation. With the entire mathematical analysis and experimentation, we consolidate the fact that Fractional Fourier Transform gives more optimal representations for a number of transform orders than Fourier transform.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, Quality Factor, Fractional Fourier span, transient signals.

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19 Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Evolutionary Fuzzy PID Controller

Authors: M. Umabharathi, S. Vijayabaskar

Abstract:

Evolutionary Fuzzy PID Speed Controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is developed to achieve the Speed control of PMSM in Closed Loop operation and to deal with the existence of transients. Consider a Fuzzy PID control design problem, based on common control Engineering Knowledge. If the transient error is big, that Good transient performance can be obtained by increasing the P and I gains and decreasing the D gains. To autotune the control parameters of the Fuzzy PID controller, the Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are developed. EA based Fuzzy PID controller provides better speed control and guarantees the closed loop stability. The Evolutionary Fuzzy PID controller can be implemented in real time Applications without any concern about instabilities that leads to system failure or damage.

Keywords: Evolutionary Algorithm (EA), Fuzzy system, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Membership, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM).

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18 Detection of Voltage Sag and Voltage Swell in Power Quality Using Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Nor Asrina Binti Ramlee

Abstract:

Voltage sag, voltage swell, high-frequency noise and voltage transients are kinds of disturbances in power quality. They are also known as power quality events. Equipment used in the industry nowadays has become more sensitive to these events with the increasing complexity of equipment. This leads to the importance of distributing clean power quality to the consumer. To provide better service, the best analysis on power quality is very vital. Thus, this paper presents the events detection focusing on voltage sag and swell. The method is developed by applying time domain signal analysis using wavelet transform approach in MATLAB. Four types of mother wavelet namely Haar, Dmey, Daubechies, and Symlet are used to detect the events. This project analyzed real interrupted signal obtained from 22 kV transmission line in Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The signals will be decomposed through the wavelet mothers. The best mother is the one that is capable to detect the time location of the event accurately.

Keywords: Power quality, voltage sag, voltage swell, wavelet transform.

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17 Intelligent Automatic Generation Control of Two Area Interconnected Power System using Hybrid Neuro Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Sathans, A. Swarup

Abstract:

This paper presents the development and application of an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based intelligent hybrid neuro fuzzy controller for automatic generation control (AGC) of two-area interconnected thermal power system with reheat non linearity. The dynamic response of the system has been studied for 1% step load perturbation in area-1. The performance of the proposed neuro fuzzy controller is compared against conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller, state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller and fuzzy gain scheduled proportionalintegral (FGSPI) controller. Comparative analysis demonstrates that the proposed intelligent neuro fuzzy controller is the most effective of all in improving the transients of frequency and tie-line power deviations against small step load disturbances. Simulations have been performed using Matlab®.

Keywords: Automatic generation control, ANFIS, LQR, Hybrid neuro fuzzy controller

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16 Wind Farm Modeling for Steady State and Dynamic Analysis

Authors: G.Kabashi, K.Kadriu, A.Gashi, S.Kabashi, G, Pula, V.Komoni

Abstract:

This paper focuses on PSS/E modeling of wind farms of Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) type and their impact on issues of power system operation. Since Wind Turbine Generators (WTG) don-t have the same characteristics as synchronous generators, the appropriate modeling of wind farms is essential for transmission system operators to analyze the best options of transmission grid reinforcements as well as to evaluate the wind power impact on reliability and security of supply. With the high excepted penetration of wind power into the power system a simultaneous loss of Wind Farm generation will put at risk power system security and reliability. Therefore, the main wind grid code requirements concern the fault ride through capability and frequency operation range of wind turbines. In case of grid faults wind turbines have to supply a definite reactive power depending on the instantaneous voltage and to return quickly to normal operation.

Keywords: Power System transients, PSS/E dynamic simulationDouble-fed Induction Generator.

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15 Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Dynamic Neural Networks

Authors: E. Sobhani-Tehrani, K. Khorasani, N. Meskin

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel integrated hybrid approach for fault diagnosis (FD) of nonlinear systems. Unlike most FD techniques, the proposed solution simultaneously accomplishes fault detection, isolation, and identification (FDII) within a unified diagnostic module. At the core of this solution is a bank of adaptive neural parameter estimators (NPE) associated with a set of singleparameter fault models. The NPEs continuously estimate unknown fault parameters (FP) that are indicators of faults in the system. Two NPE structures including series-parallel and parallel are developed with their exclusive set of desirable attributes. The parallel scheme is extremely robust to measurement noise and possesses a simpler, yet more solid, fault isolation logic. On the contrary, the series-parallel scheme displays short FD delays and is robust to closed-loop system transients due to changes in control commands. Finally, a fault tolerant observer (FTO) is designed to extend the capability of the NPEs to systems with partial-state measurement.

Keywords: Hybrid fault diagnosis, Dynamic neural networks, Nonlinear systems.

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14 Forming the Differential-Algebraic Model of Radial Power Systems for Simulation of both Transient and Steady-State Conditions

Authors: Saleh A. Al-Jufout

Abstract:

This paper presents a procedure of forming the mathematical model of radial electric power systems for simulation of both transient and steady-state conditions. The research idea has been based on nodal voltages technique and on differentiation of Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) applied to each non-reference node of the radial system, the result of which the nodal voltages has been calculated by solving a system of algebraic equations. Currents of the electric power system components have been determined by solving their respective differential equations. Transforming the three-phase coordinate system into Cartesian coordinate system in the model decreased the overall number of equations by one third. The use of Cartesian coordinate system does not ignore the DC component during transient conditions, but restricts the model's implementation for symmetrical modes of operation only. An example of the input data for a four-bus radial electric power system has been calculated.

Keywords: Mathematical Modelling, Radial Power System, Steady-State, Transients

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13 Graphical Environment for Modeling Control Systems in Full Scope Training Simulators

Authors: Guillermo Romero-Jiménez, Víctor Jiménez-Sánchez, Edgardo J. Roldán-Villasana

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a control system model using a graphical software tool. This control system is part of an operator training simulator developed for the National Training Center for Operators of Ixtapantongo (CNCAOI, acronym according to its name in Spanish language) of the Mexico-s Federal Commission of Electricity, CFE). The Department of Simulation of the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) developed this simulator using as reference the Unit I of the Combined Cycle Power Plant El Sauz, located at the centre of Mexico. The first step in the project was the developing of the Gas Turbine System and its control system simulator. The Turbo Gas simulator was finished and delivered to CNCAOI in March 2007 for commercial operation. This simulator is a high-fidelity real time dynamic simulator built and tested for accurate operation over the entire load range. The simulator was used primarily for operator training although it has been used for procedure development and evaluation of plant transients.

Keywords: Operators training, Power plant simulator, simulation environment.

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