Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30077
An Appraisal of Coal Fly Ash Soil Amendment Technology (FASAT) of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (CIMFR)

Authors: L.C. Ram, R.E. Masto, Smriti Singh, R.C. Tripathi, S.K. Jha, N.K. Srivastava, A.K. Sinha, V.A. Selvi, A. Sinha

Abstract:

Coal will continue to be the predominant source of global energy for coming several decades. The huge generation of fly ash (FA) from combustion of coal in thermal power plants (TPPs) is apprehended to pose the concerns of its disposal and utilization. FA application based on its typical characteristics as soil ameliorant for agriculture and forestry is the potential area, and hence the global attempt. The inferences drawn suffer from the variations of ash characteristics, soil types, and agro-climatic conditions; thereby correlating the effects of ash between various plant species and soil types is difficult. Indian FAs have low bulk density, high water holding capacity and porosity, rich silt-sized particles, alkaline nature, negligible solubility, and reasonable plant nutrients. Findings of the demonstrations trials for more than two decades from lab/pot to field scale long-term experiments are developed as FA soil amendment technology (FASAT) by Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (CIMFR), Dhanbad. Performance of different crops and plant species in cultivable and problematic soils, are encouraging, eco-friendly, and being adopted by the farmers. FA application includes ash alone and in combination with inorganic/organic amendments; combination treatments including bio-solids perform better than FA alone. Optimum dose being up to 100 t/ha for cultivable land and up to/ or above 200 t/ha of FA for waste/degraded land/mine refuse, depending on the characteristics of ash and soil. The elemental toxicity in Indian FA is usually not of much concern owing to alkaline ashes, oxide forms of elements, and elemental concentration within the threshold limits for soil application. Combating toxicity, if any, is possible through combination treatments with organic materials and phytoremediation. Government initiatives through extension programme involving farmers and ash generating organizations need to be accelerated

Keywords: Fly ash, soil quality, CIMFR, FASAT, agriculture, forestry, toxicity, remediation

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1058315

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2581

References:


[1] CIL (Coal India Ltd. Coal Reserves in India), 2007. (http//www.coalindia.nic.in/coalreserve.htm).
[2] L.C. Ram, R.E. Masto, "Review: An appraisal of the potential use of fly ash for reclaiming coal mine spoil," J. of Environmental Management, vol. 91, pp. 603-617, 2010.
[3] D.N.Tewari, "Review of forest management and policies," in Advances in Land Resource Management for 21st Century: Soil Conservation Society of India, 2000, pp. 415- 422.
[4] J. Veron, K. Horko, R. Kneipp, G. Rogers, "The Demography of South Asia from the 1950s to the 2000s," 2008.
[5] D.K. Bhumbla, R.N. Singh, R.F. Keeker, Water quality from surface mined land reclaimed with fly ash, in Proceedings of the Nineth Ash Use Symposium American Coal Ash Association," vol. 57, pp. 1-22, Academic Press, Orlando, FL., 1991.
[6] L.C. Ram, N.K. Srivastava, R.C. Tripathi, , S.K. Jha, A.K. Sinha, G.Singh, V. Manoharan, "Management of mine spoil for crop productivity with lignite fly ash and biological amendments,"J. Environ Management, vol. 79, pp. 173-187, 2006a.
[7] L.C. Ram, N.K. Srivastava, S.K. Jha, A.K. Sinha, R.E. Masto, V.A. Selvi, "Management of lignite fly ash through its bulk use via biological amendments for improving the fertility and crop productivity of soil," Environmental Management, vol. 40, pp. 438-452, 2007b.
[8] S. Karmakar, B.N. Mittra, B.C. Ghosh, "Enriched coal ash utilization for augmenting production of rice under acid lateritic soil," Coal Combustion and Gasification Products, vol. 2, pp. 45-50, 2010,
[9] V. Vijayan, S.N. Behera, "Studies on heavy elements and radioactivity of crops grown in soils treated with fly ash, in L.C. Ram et al., editor.," Proc. National Seminar ÔÇÿUtilization of Fly Ash in Agriculture and for Value Added Products- (ISBN 81-7525-184-0), Technical Session II, CFRI, Dhanbad, India, 1999, pp. 61.
[10] O.E. Manz, "Coal fly ash: a retrospective and future look," Fuel, vol. 78, pp. 133-136, 1999.
[11] ASTM C618-99, "Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as Mineral Admixture in Concrete," ASTM International/10-Jun-1999/3 pages.
[12] G.R. Dewey, L.L. Sutter, J.F. Sandell, "Reactivity based approach for classifying fly ash," in American Power Conference. Chicago: IL, 1996 6, pp.1-4.
[13] S.V. Vassilev, C.G. Vassileva, "Anewapproach for the classification of coalflyashes based on their origin, composition, properties, and behavior," Fuel, vol. 86, pp. 1490-1512, 2006.
[14] A.L. Page, A.A. Elseevi, I.R. Straughan, "Physical and chemical properties of fly ash from coal fired power plants with reference to environmental impact," Residue Review, vol. 71, pp. 83-120, 1979 .
[15] U. Bhattacharjee, T.C. Kandpal, "Potential of fly ash utilisation in India," Energy, vol. 27, pp. 151-166, 2002.
[16] U.R. Khandkar, M.S. Gangwar, P.C. Srivastava, M. Singh, "Edaphological characteristics of unweathered and weathered fly ashes from Gondwana and lignite coal," Environmental Pollution, vol.79, pp. 297-302,1993.
[17] A. Sarkar, R. Rano, K.K. Mishra, I.N. Sinha, "Particle size distribution profile of some Indian fly ash: a comparative study to assess their possible uses," Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 86, pp. 1221-1238, 2005.
[18] A. Sarkar, R. Rano, "Water holding capacities of fly ashes: effect of size fractionation," Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, vol. 29, pp. 471-482, 2007. 19] A.W. Schumann, M.E. Sumner, "Chemical evaluation of nutrient supply from fly ash-biosolids mixtures," Soil Science Society of America J. vol. 64, pp. 419-426, 2000.
[20] R.L. Aitken, L.C. Bell, "Plant uptake and phytotoxicity of boron in Australian fly ashes," Plant and Soil, vol. 84, pp. 245-257, 1985.
[21] J. Jankowski, C.R. Ward, D. French, S. Groves, "Mobility of trace elements from selected Australian fly ashes and its potential impact on aquatic ecosystems," , vol. 85, pp. 243-256, 2006.
[22] D. El-Mogazi, D.J. Lisk, L.H. Weinstein, "A review of physical, chemical, and biological properties of fly ash and effects on agricultural ecosystems," Sci Total Environ, vol. 74, pp. 1-37, 1988.
[23] D.C. Adriano, A.L. Page, A.A. Elseewi, A.Chang, I.A. Straughan, "Utilization and disposal of fly ash and other coal residues in terrestrial ecosystem: a review," J. of Environmental Quality, vol. 9, pp. 333-344, 1980.
[24] L.C. Mishra, K.N. Shukla, "Effect of fly ash deposition on growth, metabolism and dry matter production of maize and soybean," Environmental Pollution, vol. 42, pp. 1-13, 1986a.
[25] L.C. Mishra, K.N. Shukla, "Elemental concentration of corn and soybean grown on fly ash amended soil," Environmental Pollution Series B: Chemical and Physical, vol. 12, pp. 313-321, 1986b.
[26] Jr.E.M. Taylor, G.E. Schuman, "Fly ash and lime amendment of acidic coal spoil to aid revegetation," J. of Environmental Quality, vol. 17, pp. 120-124, 1988.
[27] W.E. Sopper, "Re-vegetation of a contaminated zinc smelter site," Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 17, pp. 241-250, 1989.
[28] V.C. Pandey, N. Singh, "Review: Impact of fly ash incorporation in soil systems, Agriculture," Ecosystems & Environment, vol. 136 no. 1-2, pp. 16-27, 2010.
[29] L.C. Ram, R.E. Masto, S.K. Jha, V.A. Selvi, N.K. Srivastava, A.K. Sinha, "Reclamation of coal mine spoil using fly ash: a synoptic review," in 2007a Proc. of the 1st International Conference on Managing the Social and Environmental Consequences of Coal Mining in India (MSECCMI), pp. 771 - 801.
[30] L.C. Ram, N.K. Srivastava, S.K. Jha, A.K. Sinha, "Eco-friendly reclamation of mine spoil for agro-forestry through fly ash and biological amendments," in 2006b Proc. of the 23rd Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conf., Session 52, pp. 1-25.
[31] L.C. Ram, "Moessbauer Spectroscopic and Gamma Radiolytic Studies of Some Indian Coals. PhD Thesis (unpublished)," Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, 1992.
[32] L.C. Ram, P.S.M. Tripathi, S.P. Mishra, "Iron-bearing minerals in bituminous and semianthracitic Indian coals: Moessbauer spectroscopic characterization and studies on their transformations during ashing and carbonization/devolatilisation in K.S. Narsimhan, S. Sen, editors.," Proc. Golden Jubilee Int. Symposium," Coal Science Technology Industry Business and Environment: Coal-96-, 1995a, pp. 38-57.
[33] L.C. Ram, P.S.M.Tripathi, S.P.Mishra, "Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on the transformations of Fe-bearing minerals during combustion of coal: Correlation with fouling and slagging," Fuel Process Technology, vol. 42, pp. 47-60, 1995b.
[34] CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute), "Bulk Scale Utilisation of Coal Ash in Agricultural Lands of Birbhum District in West Bengal," CFRI, Dhanbad, Jharkhand. CFRI Report No. CFRI/3.03/1999-2000, 2000a.
[35] CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute), "Bulk Scale Utilization of Coal Ash in Agriculture and for Reclamation of Waste/Degraded Lands of Murshidabad District in West Bengal," CFRI, Dhanbad, Jharkhand. CFRI Report No. TR/CFRI/ 3.04/1999-2000, 2000b.
[36] CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute), "Utilization of Fly Ash from Chandrapur and Bhusawal TPPs in Agriculture and for Reclamation of Degraded Land," CFRI, Dhanbad, Jharkhand. CFRI Report No. TR/CFRI/1.01/2000-2001, 2001a.
[37] CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute), "Utilisation of Fly Ash in Agriculture at Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Neyveli," CFRI, Dhanbad, Jharkhand. CFRI Report No. TR/CFRI/3.01/2000-2001, 2001b.
[38] CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute), "Role of Riparian Vegetation in Ecosystem Recovery on Fast Deteriorating Riparian Wetland Under Anthropogenic Stress," CFRI, Dhanbad, Jharkhand. CFRI Report No. TR/CFRI/3.01/2001-2002, 2002a.
[39] CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute). Technical Reports Nos. TR/CFRI/2.05/88; 1988.
[40] CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute), "Utilization of Fly ash in Agriculture, at Bakreswar Thermal Power Project, Bakreswar (West Bengal)," CFRI, Dhanbad, Jharkhand. CFRI Report No. TR/C.F.R.I./1.01/96, 1996a.
[41] CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute), "Utilization of Fly Ash in Agriculture, at Farakka Super Thermal Power Project Farakka (West Bengal)" CFRI, Dhanbad, Jharkhand. CFRI Report No. TR/C.F.R.I./1.02/96, 1996b.
[42] L.C. Ram, S.K.Jha, G.K. Jha, M.C. Das, G. Singh, "Effect of fly ash from FSTPP on the cultivation of wheat and paddy crops in alluvial soil of Murshidabad district. In: L.C. Ram, (Ed.)," Proceedings of the National Seminar on Bulk Utilization of Fly Ash in Agriculture and for Value-added Products. Technical Session V. CFRI, Dhanbad, India, 1999a, pp. 200-210.
[43] CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute), "Bulk Utilisation of Fly Ash from Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Project in Agriculture and for Reclamation of Waste/Degraded Land," CFRI. CFRI Report No. TR/CFRI/1.15/2001-2002, 2002b.
[44] CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute), "Demonstration trials in Farmer-s Field for the Popularization of Bulk Use of Fly-ash from Anpara, Obra and Hardugang TPPs of UPRVUNL in Agriculture and for Reclamation of Degraded/Wasteland," CFRI, Dhanbad, Jharkhand. CFRI TR/CFRI/1.08/2002-2003, 2003a.
[45] CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute), "Bio-restoration of O.B. Dumps Through the Plantation of Selected Efficient Photosynthetic/Soil Conserver Species in Eastern Jharia Coalfields (Sponsored by SSRC, Dept. of Coal)," CFRI, Dhanbad, Jharkhand. CFRI Report No.TR/CFRI/1.01/2002-2003, 2003b.
[46] N.K. Srivastava, L.C. Ram, S.K. Jha, R.C. Tripathi, G. Singh, "Role of CFRI-s fly ash soil amendment technology (FASAT) in improving the socio-economic condition of farmers via improvement in soil fertility and crop productivity," J. Ecophy Occup Hlth, vol. 3, pp. 127-142, 2003.
[47] L.C. Ram, N.K. Srivastava, S.K. Jha, M.K. Singh, N.K. Vaishya, K.C. Gupta, G. Singh, "Agro-forestry a potential area for sustainable bulk use of fly ash," in Proc. Fly Ash India, 2005, International Congress. Fly Ash Utilization Programme. Session XII. TIFAC, Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, 2005, pp. 1-14.
[48] L.C. Ram, N.K. Srivastava, S.K. Jha, M.K. Singh, N.K. Vaishya, K.C. Gupta, G.Singh,. "Agro-forestry a potential area for sustainable bulk use of fly ash," in Proc. International Congress on Fly Ash India: Fly Ash Utilization Programme, Technical Session XII. TIFAC, Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, 2005, pp. 14.1-14.15.
[49] N.K. Srivastava, L.C. Ram, S.K. Jha, R.C. Tripathi, A.K. Sinha, "Biorestoration of wastelands/abandoned ash ponds/OB dumps in the vicinity of TPPs/coalfields on sustainable basis, in A.K. Singh, A. Sinha, S.K. Hazra, editors," Proc. Int. Seminar Global Coal 2005 ÔÇÿCoal Science and TechnologyÔÇöEmerging Global Dimensions:- (ISBN 81-7764-818-7), New Delhi, Allied Publishers, 2005a, pp. 614-626.
[50] N.K. Srivastava, L.C. Ram, A.K. Sinha, "Sustainable improvement of mining environment through selective plantation," in Proc. International Symposium on Advances in mining Technology and Management, IIT Kharaghpur, 2005b, pp. 505-512.
[51] R.C. Tripathi, L.C. Ram, A.K. Sinha, S.K. Jha, N.K. Srivastava, P.S.M. Tripathi, G. Singh, "Popularisation of bulk use of pond ash in agriculture through demonstration trials in farmers- fields in the vicinity of TPPs of UPRVUNL in A.K. Singh, K. Sen, A. Sinha, S.K. Hazra, (Eds.)," International Seminar on Coal Science & TechnologydEmerging Global Dimensions, Proceedings of Global Coal 2005. Allied Publishers, New Delhi, 2005a, pp. 586-590.
[52] R.C. Tripathi, L.C. Ram, A.K. Sinha, S.K. Jha, N.K. Srivastava, "Bulk use of pond ash for reclamation of waste/alkaline land for agriculture purposes," in Proc. International Congress on Fly Ash India, Fly Ash Utilization Programme, Technical Session XII, TIFAC, DST, New Delhi, 2005b, pp. 15.1-15.18.
[53] L.C. Ram, "Fly Ash: A Resource Material for Reclamation of Coal Mine Spoil. In Sustainable Rehabilitatiohukla of Degraded Ecosystems (Eds: OP Choubey, Vijay Bahadur, PK Shukla)," Published by Avishkar Publishers, Distributors (ISBN 978-81-7910-288-6), Jaipur (Rajsthan), 2009, Ch. 4, pp.14-45.
[54] N.K. Srivastava, L.C. Ram, "Bio-restoration of coal mine spoil with fly ash and biological amendments. In Sustainable Rehabilitation of Degraded Ecosystems, Editors: O.P. Chaubey, Vijay Bahadur, P.K. Shukla," published by Avishkar Publishers, Distributors (ISBN 978-81- 7910-288-6), Jaipur (Rajsthan), 2009, Ch 7, pp 77-91.
[55] N.K. Srivastava, L.C. Ram,. "Reclamation of coal mine spoil dump through fly ash and biological amendments," International J. Ecology & Development, 2010a, vol.17 no. F10, pp. 17-33.
[56] N.K. Srivastava, L.C. Ram, 2010b. "Reclamation of mine over-burden and low-lying area with coal fly ash, a sustainable ecological approach," Proc. 4th International Conference on "Sustainable Energy & Environmental Protection (SEEP-2010) ÔÇÿEnvironmental Protection in the New Era- Part-2 (ISBN: 978-88-905185-2-2), DIMeG, Politecnico di Bari, BARI - ITALY. Edited by: Michele Dassisti, Abdul Ghani Olabi, Michele De Nicolo, Michela Chimienti (http://seep2010.poliba.it)
[57] R.C. Tripathi, R.E. Masto, L.C. Ram, "Bulk use of pond ash for cultivation of wheat-maize-eggplant crops in sequence on a fallow land, Resources, Conservation and Recycling," vol. 54, pp. 134-139, 2009.
[58] R.C. Tripathi, S.K. Jha, L.C. Ram, "Impact of fly ash application on trace metal content in some root crops," Energy sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, vol. 32, pp. 576-589, 2010.
[59] L.C. Ram, S. Singh, R.E. Masto, S.K. Jha, R.C. Tripathi, A.K. Sinha, N.K. Srivastava, V.A. Selvi, "Potential of Indian Fly ashes as Soil Ameliorant: State-of-the-Art," Twenty-Fifth International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Philadelphia USA, 2010, Session 3C, pp 710-721.
[60] M.K. Mahato, R.E. Masto, V.A. Selvi, L.C. Ram, N.K. Srivastava, R.C.Tripathi, S.K. Jha, A.K. Sinha,. "Phosphorus adsorption, fixation and fractions in fly ash and ash amended soil," in Proc. of the International Congress on fly ash India, 2005, pp. 12.1-12.8.
[61] V. Kandlakuntha, R. Punna, U. Paruchuri, B. Sangras, K. Krishnaswamy, S.Qadri, U. Putcha, S. Boindala, "Nutritional and toxicological evaluation of wheat grown on soils with or without fly ash treatment," J. of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 89, pp. 384- 389, 2009.
[62] V. Singh, A.N. Garg, "INAA of trace elements in Indian vegetarian diet and its adequacy vis-a-vis recommended dietary allowances," J. of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 217, 139-45, 1997.
[63] Urvashi, R.E. Ma sto, V.A. Selvi, L.C. Ram , N.K. Srivastava,. "An international study: effect of farm yard manure on the release of P from fly ash," Remediation Autumn, pp. 70-81, 2007.
[64] G. Singh, L.C. Ram, S.K. Jha, R.C. Tripathi, N.K. Srivastava, "A synergistic fly ash based soil conditioner cum fertilizer composition," CFRI (Central Fuel Research Institute), Indian. Patent No. 031 NF 2002, 2002c.
[65] L.C. Ram, S.K. Jha, R.C. Tripathi, R.E. Masto, V.A. Selvi, "Remediation of fly ash landfills through plantation," Remediation Autumn, 2008, p. 71-90.
[66] R.J. Haynes, Reclamation and revegetation of fly ash disposal sites: challenges and research needs. J. of Environmental Management, vol. 90, pp.43-53, 2009.
[67] EIS Suppl, "Waste Management. Bundaberg 2K+ Industrial development, Sinclair Knight Merz," Report-2000, pp. 11.3.
[68] S. Sushil, V.S. Batra, "Analysis of fly ash heavy metal content and disposal in three thermal power plants in India," Fuel, vol. 85, pp. 2676- 2679, 2006.
[69] W. Riley, "Benchmarking of fly ash," CCSD Research Report No. 67. CRC for Coal in sustainable Development, Pullenvale, Qld, Australia, 2007.
[70] L.C. Ram, N.K. Srivastava, M.C. Das, G. Singh, "Leaching behavior of fly ash under simulated conditions vis-a-vis quality of the leachate, in L.C. Ram (Ed.)," Proc.of the National Seminar on Bulk Utilization of Fly Ash in Agriculture and for Value-added Products. Technical Session I. CFRI, Dhanbad, India, 1999b, pp. 14-25.
[71] L.C. Ram, N.K. Srivastava, G. Singh, "Prediction of leaching behavior of TPP Ash under simulated conditions by column studies, in C.V.J.Varma, , S.V.R. Rao, V. Kumar, , R. Krishnamurthy, (Eds.)," Proc. of the Second International Conference on Fly ash Disposal and Utilization. Session IV, vol. I. Central Board of Irrigation and Power, New Delhi, 2000, pp. 16-28.
[72] T. Praharaj, M.A. Powell, B.R. Hart, S. Tripathy, "Leachability of elements from sub-bituminous coal fly ash from India," Environment International, vol. 27, pp. 609-615, 2002.
[73] B.K. Dutta, S. Khanra, D. Mallick, "Leaching of elements from coal fly ash: assessment of its potential for use in filling abandoned coal mines," Fuel, 2009.
[74] S.U. Khan, R.K. Bhardwaj, S. Jabin, J.A. Khan,. "Influence of some chemical fertilizers on the mobility of trace metals through soil amended with fly ash," Pollution Research, vol. 19, pp. 241-244, 2000.
[75] A.B. Mukherjee, R. Zevenhoven, "Mercury in coal ash and its fate in the Indian subcontinent: a synoptic review," Science of the Total Environment vol. 368, pp. 384-392, 2006.
[76] P.C. Srivastava, U.C. Gupta, "Trace Elements in Crop Production. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.," New Delhi, 1996.
[77] G.C. Maxino, Environmental Potassium radioactivity and public health, 2001 (http:// physics.msuiit.edu.ph/spvm/ papers/2001/maxino.pdf).
[78] G.L. Guo, Q. Zhou, L.Q. Ma, "Availability and assessment of fixing additives for the in situ remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils: a review," EnvironmentalMonitoring and Assessment, vol. 116, pp. 513- 528, 2006.
[79] ICAR (Indian Council of Agriculture Research), "Handbook of Aghriculture, ICAR," New Delhi, India, 1996.
[80] J. Sehgal, "Pedology: Concepts and Applications," Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India, 1996.
[81] V. Kumar, G. Singh, R. Rai,. "A material for another green revolution, in V. Kumar, S.M. Mathur, G. Singh, (Eds.)," Proc. of the International Conference ÔÇÿFly Ash India-. Flyash Utilization Programme. Technical Session XII, vol. 5. TIFAC, Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, 2005, pp. 2.1-12.16.
[82] Z.S. Chen, "Selecting indicators to evaluate soil quality (www.fftc.agent.org)," 1999.
[83] A. Kabata-Pendias, W.Sadurski, "Trace elements and compounds in soil, in E. Merina, M. Anke, M. Ihnat, M. Stoeppler, editors," Elements and their Compounds in the Environment. 2nd edn., Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2004, pp. 77-99.
[84] A. Kabata-Pendias, A.B. Mukherjeem, "Trace Elements from Soils to Human. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin," 2007, pp. 35.
[85] H.J.W. Bowen, "Trace Elements in Biochemistry," London UK: Academic Press, 1966, pp. 748.
[86] M. Eisenbud, H.C. Petrow, "Radioactivity in the atmospheric effluents of power plants that use fossil fuel," Science, vol. 144, pp. 288, 1964.W.-K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems (Book style). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123-135.