@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/3004,
	  title     = {An Appraisal of Coal Fly Ash Soil Amendment Technology (FASAT) of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (CIMFR)},
	  author    = {L.C. Ram and  R.E. Masto and  Smriti Singh and  R.C. Tripathi and  S.K. Jha and  N.K. Srivastava and  A.K. Sinha and  V.A. Selvi and  A. Sinha},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Coal will continue to be the predominant source of
global energy for coming several decades. The huge generation of fly
ash (FA) from combustion of coal in thermal power plants (TPPs) is
apprehended to pose the concerns of its disposal and utilization. FA
application based on its typical characteristics as soil ameliorant for
agriculture and forestry is the potential area, and hence the global
attempt. The inferences drawn suffer from the variations of ash
characteristics, soil types, and agro-climatic conditions; thereby
correlating the effects of ash between various plant species and soil
types is difficult. Indian FAs have low bulk density, high water
holding capacity and porosity, rich silt-sized particles, alkaline
nature, negligible solubility, and reasonable plant nutrients. Findings
of the demonstrations trials for more than two decades from lab/pot
to field scale long-term experiments are developed as FA soil
amendment technology (FASAT) by Central Institute of Mining and
Fuel Research (CIMFR), Dhanbad. Performance of different crops
and plant species in cultivable and problematic soils, are
encouraging, eco-friendly, and being adopted by the farmers. FA
application includes ash alone and in combination with
inorganic/organic amendments; combination treatments including
bio-solids perform better than FA alone. Optimum dose being up to
100 t/ha for cultivable land and up to/ or above 200 t/ha of FA for
waste/degraded land/mine refuse, depending on the characteristics of
ash and soil. The elemental toxicity in Indian FA is usually not of
much concern owing to alkaline ashes, oxide forms of elements, and
elemental concentration within the threshold limits for soil
application. Combating toxicity, if any, is possible through
combination treatments with organic materials and phytoremediation.
Government initiatives through extension programme
involving farmers and ash generating organizations need to be
	    journal   = {International Journal of Biological and Ecological Engineering},
	  volume    = {5},
	  number    = {4},
	  year      = {2011},
	  pages     = {255 - 266},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/3004},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/52},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 52, 2011},