Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1568

Search results for: Discrete elements

1568 Fail-safe Modeling of Discrete Event Systems using Petri Nets

Authors: P. Nazemzadeh, A. Dideban, M. Zareiee

Abstract:

In this paper the effect of faults in the elements and parts of discrete event systems is investigated. In the occurrence of faults, some states of the system must be changed and some of them must be forbidden. For this goal, different states of these elements are examined and a model for fail-safe behavior of each state is introduced. Replacing new models of the target elements in the preliminary model by a systematic method, leads to a fail-safe discrete event system.

Keywords: Discrete event systems, Fail-safe, Petri nets, Supervisory control.

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1567 Numerical Modelling of Dry Stone Masonry Structures Based on Finite-Discrete Element Method

Authors: Ž. Nikolić, H. Smoljanović, N. Živaljić

Abstract:

This paper presents numerical model based on finite-discrete element method for analysis of the structural response of dry stone masonry structures under static and dynamic loads. More precisely, each discrete stone block is discretized by finite elements. Material non-linearity including fracture and fragmentation of discrete elements as well as cyclic behavior during dynamic load are considered through contact elements which are implemented within a finite element mesh. The application of the model was conducted on several examples of these structures. The performed analysis shows high accuracy of the numerical results in comparison with the experimental ones and demonstrates the potential of the finite-discrete element method for modelling of the response of dry stone masonry structures.

Keywords: Finite-discrete element method, dry stone masonry structures, static load, dynamic load.

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1566 A Comparative Study between Discrete Wavelet Transform and Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform for Testing Stationarity

Authors: Amel Abdoullah Ahmed Dghais, Mohd Tahir Ismail

Abstract:

In this paper the core objective is to apply discrete wavelet transform and maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform functions namely Haar, Daubechies2, Symmlet4, Coiflet2 and discrete approximation of the Meyer wavelets in non stationary financial time series data from Dow Jones index (DJIA30) of US stock market. The data consists of 2048 daily data of closing index from December 17, 2004 to October 23, 2012. Unit root test affirms that the data is non stationary in the level. A comparison between the results to transform non stationary data to stationary data using aforesaid transforms is given which clearly shows that the decomposition stock market index by discrete wavelet transform is better than maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform for original data.

Keywords: Discrete wavelet transform, maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform, stationarity, autocorrelation function.

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1565 Cryptography Over Elliptic Curve Of The Ring Fq[e], e4 = 0

Authors: Chillali Abdelhakim

Abstract:

Groups where the discrete logarithm problem (DLP) is believed to be intractable have proved to be inestimable building blocks for cryptographic applications. They are at the heart of numerous protocols such as key agreements, public-key cryptosystems, digital signatures, identification schemes, publicly verifiable secret sharings, hash functions and bit commitments. The search for new groups with intractable DLP is therefore of great importance.The goal of this article is to study elliptic curves over the ring Fq[], with Fq a finite field of order q and with the relation n = 0, n ≥ 3. The motivation for this work came from the observation that several practical discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems, such as ElGamal, the Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems . In a first time, we describe these curves defined over a ring. Then, we study the algorithmic properties by proposing effective implementations for representing the elements and the group law. In anther article we study their cryptographic properties, an attack of the elliptic discrete logarithm problem, a new cryptosystem over these curves.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Over Ring, Discrete Logarithm Problem.

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1564 A Discrete-Event-Simulation Approach for Logistic Systems with Real Time Resource Routing and VR Integration

Authors: Gerrit Alves, Jürgen Roßmann, Roland Wischnewski

Abstract:

Today, transport and logistic systems are often tightly integrated in the production. Lean production and just-in-time delivering create multiple constraints that have to be fulfilled. As transport networks often have evolved over time they are very expensive to change. This paper describes a discrete-event-simulation system which simulates transportation models using real time resource routing and collision avoidance. It allows for the specification of own control algorithms and validation of new strategies. The simulation is integrated into a virtual reality (VR) environment and can be displayed in 3-D to show the progress. Simulation elements can be selected through VR metaphors. All data gathered during the simulation can be presented as a detailed summary afterwards. The included cost-benefit calculation can help to optimize the financial outcome. The operation of this approach is shown by the example of a timber harvest simulation.

Keywords: Discrete-Event-Simulation, Logistic, Simulation, Virtual Reality.

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1563 Variational Evolutionary Splines for Solving a Model of Temporomandibular Disorders

Authors: Alberto Hananel

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to modelize the occlusion of a person with temporomandibular disorders as an evolutionary equation and approach its solution by the construction and characterizing of discrete variational splines. To formulate the problem, certain boundary conditions have been considered. After showing the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of such a problem, a convergence result of a discrete variational evolutionary spline is shown. A stress analysis of the occlusion of a human jaw with temporomandibular disorders by finite elements is carried out in FreeFem++ in order to prove the validity of the presented method.

Keywords: Approximation, evolutionary PDE, finite element method, temporomandibular disorders, variational spline.

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1562 The Elements of the Crisis Concept

Authors: Marie Mikušová, Petr Šnapka, Viktorie Janečková

Abstract:

As every system conceptions the concept of crisis is based on the system of interdependent elements. These dialectic elements occur in a majority of definitions even though called differently. For further theoretical searching but also for practical utilization it is necessary to understand these elements. The paper stresses that the concept of crisis is ambiguous. There are identified and explained the elements that are generally found in most crises (disruption, precondition, triggers etc).

Keywords: Concept, crisis, element

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1561 Bridging Stress Modeling of Composite Materials Reinforced by Fibers Using Discrete Element Method

Authors: Chong Wang, Kellem M. Soares, Luis E. Kosteski

Abstract:

The problem of toughening in brittle materials reinforced by fibers is complex, involving all of the mechanical properties of fibers, matrix and the fiber/matrix interface, as well as the geometry of the fiber. Development of new numerical methods appropriate to toughening simulation and analysis is necessary. In this work, we have performed simulations and analysis of toughening in brittle matrix reinforced by randomly distributed fibers by means of the discrete elements method. At first, we put forward a mechanical model of toughening contributed by random fibers. Then with a numerical program, we investigated the stress, damage and bridging force in the composite material when a crack appeared in the brittle matrix. From the results obtained, we conclude that: (i) fibers of high strength and low elasticity modulus are beneficial to toughening; (ii) fibers of relatively high elastic modulus compared to the matrix may result in substantial matrix damage due to spalling effect; (iii) employment of high-strength synthetic fibers is a good option for toughening. We expect that the combination of the discrete element method (DEM) with the finite element method (FEM) can increase the versatility and efficiency of the software developed. The present work can guide the design of ceramic composites of high performance through the optimization of the parameters.

Keywords: Bridging stress, discrete element method, fiber reinforced composites, toughening.

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1560 Almost Periodic Sequence Solutions of a Discrete Cooperation System with Feedback Controls

Authors: Ziping Li, Yongkun Li

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the almost periodic solutions of a discrete cooperation system with feedback controls. Assuming that the coefficients in the system are almost periodic sequences, we obtain the existence and uniqueness of the almost periodic solution which is uniformly asymptotically stable.

Keywords: Discrete cooperation model, almost periodic solution, feedback control, Lyapunov function.

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1559 A Java Based Discrete Event Simulation Library

Authors: Brahim Belattar, Abdelhabib Bourouis

Abstract:

This paper describes important features of JAPROSIM, a free and open source simulation library implemented in Java programming language. It provides a framework for building discrete event simulation models. The process interaction world view adopted by JAPROSIM is discussed. We present the architecture and major components of the simulation library. A pedagogical example is given in order to illustrate how to use JAPROSIM for building discrete event simulation models. Further motivations are discussed and suggestions for improving our work are given.

Keywords: Discrete Event Simulation, Object-Oriented Simulation, JAPROSIM, Process Interaction Worldview, Java-based modeling and simulation.

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1558 Discrete Vector Control for Induction Motor Drives with the Rotor Time Constant Update

Authors: A.Larabi, M.S. Boucherit

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigated vector control of an induction machine taking into account discretization problems of the command. In the purpose to show how to include in a discrete model of this current control and with rotor time constant update. The results of simulation obtained are very satisfaisant. That was possible thanks to the good choice of the values of the parameters of the regulators used which shows, the founded good of the method used, for the choice of the parameters of the discrete regulators. The simulation results are presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: Induction motor, discrete vector control, PIRegulator, transformation of park, PWM.

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1557 An Analysis of Users- Cognition Difference on Urban Design Elements in Waterfronts

Authors: Sook-Yeon Shim, Hwan-Su Seo, Tae-Hyun Kim, Hongkyu Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify ideal urban design elements of waterfronts and to analyze the differences in users- cognition among these elements. This study follows three steps as following: first is identifying the urban design elements of waterfronts from literature review and second is evaluating intended users- cognition of urban design elements in urban waterfronts. Lastly, third is analyzing the users- cognition differences. As the result, evaluations of waterfront areas by users show similar features that non-waterfront urban design elements contain the highest degree of importance. This indicates the difference of users- cognition has dimensions of frequency and distance, and demonstrates differences in the aspect of importance than of satisfaction. Multi-Dimensional Scaling Method verifies differences among their cognition. This study provides elements to increase satisfaction of users from differences of their cognition on design elements for waterfronts. It also suggests implications on elements when waterfronts are built.

Keywords: Cognition Difference, , Multi-Dimensional Scaling , Urban Design Elements , Waterfront

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1556 An Efficient Hamiltonian for Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform

Authors: Sukrit Shankar, Pardha Saradhi K., Chetana Shanta Patsa, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

Fractional Fourier Transform, which is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform, is a powerful tool for the analysis of transient signals. The discrete Fractional Fourier Transform Hamiltonians have been proposed in the past with varying degrees of correlation between their eigenvectors and Hermite Gaussian functions. In this paper, we propose a new Hamiltonian for the discrete Fractional Fourier Transform and show that the eigenvectors of the proposed matrix has a higher degree of correlation with the Hermite Gaussian functions. Also, the proposed matrix is shown to give better Fractional Fourier responses with various transform orders for different signals.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, Hamiltonian, Eigen Vectors, Discrete Hermite Gaussians.

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1555 Solution of Two Dimensional Quasi-Harmonic Equations with CA Approach

Authors: F. Rezaie Moghaddam, J. Amani, T. Rezaie Moghaddam

Abstract:

Many computational techniques were applied to solution of heat conduction problem. Those techniques were the finite difference (FD), finite element (FE) and recently meshless methods. FE is commonly used in solution of equation of heat conduction problem based on the summation of stiffness matrix of elements and the solution of the final system of equations. Because of summation process of finite element, convergence rate was decreased. Hence in the present paper Cellular Automata (CA) approach is presented for the solution of heat conduction problem. Each cell considered as a fixed point in a regular grid lead to the solution of a system of equations is substituted by discrete systems of equations with small dimensions. Results show that CA can be used for solution of heat conduction problem.

Keywords: Heat conduction, Cellular automata, convergencerate, discrete system.

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1554 Design of Liquids Mixing Control System using Fuzzy Time Control Discrete Event Model for Industrial Applications

Authors: M.Saleem Khan, Khaled Benkrid

Abstract:

This paper presents a time control liquids mixing system in the tanks as an application of fuzzy time control discrete model. The system is designed for a wide range of industrial applications. The simulation design of control system has three inputs: volume, viscosity, and selection of product, along with the three external control adjustments for the system calibration or to take over the control of the system autonomously in local or distributed environment. There are four controlling elements: rotatory motor, grinding motor, heating and cooling units, and valves selection, each with time frame limit. The system consists of three controlled variables measurement through its sensing mechanism for feed back control. This design also facilitates the liquids mixing system to grind certain materials in tanks and mix with fluids under required temperature controlled environment to achieve certain viscous level. Design of: fuzzifier, inference engine, rule base, deffuzifiers, and discrete event control system, is discussed. Time control fuzzy rules are formulated, applied and tested using MATLAB simulation for the system.

Keywords: Fuzzy time control, industrial application and timecontrol systems, adjustment of Fuzzy system, liquids mixing system, design of fuzzy time control DEV system.

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1553 Comparative Study of Fault Identification and Classification on EHV Lines Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Fourier Transform Based ANN

Authors: K.Gayathri, N. Kumarappan

Abstract:

An appropriate method for fault identification and classification on extra high voltage transmission line using discrete wavelet transform is proposed in this paper. The sharp variations of the generated short circuit transient signals which are recorded at the sending end of the transmission line are adopted to identify the fault. The threshold values involve fault classification and these are done on the basis of the multiresolution analysis. A comparative study of the performance is also presented for Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) based Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The results prove that the proposed method is an effective and efficient one in obtaining the accurate result within short duration of time by using Daubechies 4 and 9. Simulation of the power system is done using MATLAB.

Keywords: EHV transmission line, Fault identification and classification, Discrete wavelet transform, Multiresolution analysis, Artificial neural network

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1552 Main Elements of Soft Cost in Green Buildings

Authors: Nurul Zahirah M.A., N. Zainul Abidin

Abstract:

Green buildings have been commonly cited to be more expensive than conventional buildings. However, limited research has been conducted to clearly identify elements that contribute to this cost differential. The construction cost of buildings can be typically divided into “hard" costs and “soft" cost elements. Using a review analysis of existing literature, the study identified six main elements in green buildings that contribute to the general cost elements that are “soft" in nature. The six elements found are insurance, developer-s experience, design cost, certification, commissioning and energy modeling. Out of the six elements, most literatures have highlighted the increase in design cost for green design as compared to conventional design due to additional architectural and engineering costs, eco-charettes, extra design time, and the further need for a green consultant. The study concluded that these elements of soft cost contribute to the green premium or cost differential of green buildings.

Keywords: Green building, cost differential, soft cost, intangible cost.

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1551 Natural and Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Cooling of Discrete Heat Sources Placed Near the Bottom on a PCB

Authors: Tapano Kumar Hotta, S P Venkateshan

Abstract:

Steady state experiments have been conducted for natural and mixed convection heat transfer, from five different sized protruding discrete heat sources, placed at the bottom position on a PCB and mounted on a vertical channel. The characteristic length ( Lh ) of heat sources vary from 0.005 to 0.011 m. The study has been done for different range of Reynolds number and modified Grashof number. From the experiment, the surface temperature distribution and the Nusselt number of discrete heat sources have been obtained and the effects of Reynold number and Richardson number on them have been discussed. The objective is to find the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources, by placing them at the bottom position on a PCB and to compare both modes of cooling of heat sources.

Keywords: Discrete heat source, mixed convection, natural convection, vertical channel

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1550 Positive Solutions for Discrete Third-order Three-point Boundary Value Problem

Authors: Benshi Zhu

Abstract:

In this paper, the existence of multiple positive solutions for a class of third-order three-point discrete boundary value problem is studied by applying algebraic topology method.

Keywords: Positive solutions, Discrete boundary value problem, Third-order, Three-point, Algebraic topology

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1549 Existence and Uniqueness of Periodic Solution for a Discrete-time SIR Epidemic Model with Time Delays and Impulses

Authors: Ling Liu, Yuan Ye

Abstract:

In this paper, a discrete-time SIR epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate, time delays and impulses is investigated. Sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions are obtained by using contraction theorem and inequality techniques. An example is employed to illustrate our results.

Keywords: Discrete-time SIR epidemic model, time delay, nonlinear incidence rate, impulse.

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1548 A Scheme of Model Verification of the Concurrent Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for Image Compression

Authors: Kamrul Hasan Talukder, Koichi Harada

Abstract:

The scientific community has invested a great deal of effort in the fields of discrete wavelet transform in the last few decades. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) associated with the vector quantization has been proved to be a very useful tool for the compression of image. However, the DWT is very computationally intensive process requiring innovative and computationally efficient method to obtain the image compression. The concurrent transformation of the image can be an important solution to this problem. This paper proposes a model of concurrent DWT for image compression. Additionally, the formal verification of the model has also been performed. Here the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) has been used as the formal verification tool. The system has been modeled in SMV and some properties have been verified formally.

Keywords: Computation Tree Logic, Discrete WaveletTransform, Formal Verification, Image Compression, Symbolic Model Verifier.

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1547 Robust BIBO Stabilization Analysis for Discrete-time Uncertain System

Authors: Zixin Liu, Shu Lü, Shouming Zhong, Mao Ye

Abstract:

The discrete-time uncertain system with time delay is investigated for bounded input bounded output (BIBO). By constructing an augmented Lyapunov function, three different sufficient conditions are established for BIBO stabilization. These conditions are expressed in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), whose feasibility can be easily checked by using Matlab LMI Toolbox. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the derived results.

Keywords: Robust BIBO stabilization, delay-dependent stabilization, discrete-time system, time delay.

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1546 MPSO based Model Order Formulation Scheme for Discrete PID Controller Design

Authors: S. N. Deepa, G. Sugumaran

Abstract:

This paper proposes the novel model order formulation scheme to design a discrete PID controller for higher order linear time invariant discrete systems. Modified PSO (MPSO) based model order formulation technique has used to obtain the successful formulated second order system. PID controller is tuned to meet the desired performance specification by using pole-zero cancellation and proposed design procedures. Proposed PID controller is attached with both higher order system and formulated second order system. System specifications are tabulated and closed loop response is observed for stabilization process. The proposed method is illustrated through numerical examples from literature.

Keywords: Discrete PID controller, Model Order Formulation, Modified Particle Swarm Optimization, Pole-Zero Cancellation

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1545 Second-order Time Evolution Scheme for Time-dependent Neutron Transport Equation

Authors: Zhenying Hong, Guangwei Yuan, Xuedong Fu, Shulin Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, the typical exponential method, diamond difference and modified time discrete scheme is researched for self adaptive time step. The second-order time evolution scheme is applied to time-dependent spherical neutron transport equation by discrete ordinates method. The numerical results show that second-order time evolution scheme associated exponential method has some good properties. The time differential curve about neutron current is more smooth than that of exponential method and diamond difference and modified time discrete scheme.

Keywords: Exponential method, diamond difference, modified time discrete scheme, second-order time evolution scheme.

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1544 A New Design Partially Blind Signature Scheme Based on Two Hard Mathematical Problems

Authors: Nedal Tahat

Abstract:

Recently, many existing partially blind signature scheme based on a single hard problem such as factoring, discrete logarithm, residuosity or elliptic curve discrete logarithm problems. However sooner or later these systems will become broken and vulnerable, if the factoring or discrete logarithms problems are cracked. This paper proposes a secured partially blind signature scheme based on factoring (FAC) problem and elliptic curve discrete logarithms (ECDL) problem. As the proposed scheme is focused on factoring and ECDLP hard problems, it has a solid structure and will totally leave the intruder bemused because it is very unlikely to solve the two hard problems simultaneously. In order to assess the security level of the proposed scheme a performance analysis has been conducted. Results have proved that the proposed scheme effectively deals with the partial blindness, randomization, unlinkability and unforgeability properties. Apart from this we have also investigated the computation cost of the proposed scheme. The new proposed scheme is robust and it is difficult for the malevolent attacks to break our scheme.

Keywords: Cryptography, Partially Blind Signature, Factoring, Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithms.

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1543 Stability Analysis of a Class of Nonlinear Systems Using Discrete Variable Structures and Sliding Mode Control

Authors: Vivekanandan C., Prabhakar .R., Prema D.

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of discrete-time variable structure control with sliding mode based on the 'reaching law' method for robust control of a 'simple inverted pendulum on moving cart' - a standard nonlinear benchmark system. The controllers designed using the above techniques are completely insensitive to parametric uncertainty and external disturbance. The controller design is carried out using pole placement technique to find state feedback gain matrix , which decides the dynamic behavior of the system during sliding mode. This is followed by feedback gain realization using the control law which is synthesized from 'Gao-s reaching law'. The model of a single inverted pendulum and the discrete variable structure control controller are developed, simulated in MATLAB-SIMULINK and results are presented. The response of this simulation is compared with that of the discrete linear quadratic regulator (DLQR) and the advantages of sliding mode controller over DLQR are also presented

Keywords: Inverted pendulum, Variable Structure, Sliding mode control, Discrete-time systems, Nonlinear systems.

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1542 2.5D Face Recognition Using Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Ali Cheraghian, Farshid Hajati, Soheila Gheisari, Yongsheng Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel 2.5D face recognition method based on Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform (GDCT). In the proposed method, the Gabor filter is applied to extract feature vectors from the texture and the depth information. Then, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used for dimensionality and redundancy reduction to improve computational efficiency. The system is combined texture and depth information in the decision level, which presents higher performance compared to methods, which use texture and depth information, separately. The proposed algorithm is examined on publically available Bosphorus database including models with pose variation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a higher performance compared to the benchmark.

Keywords: Gabor filter, discrete cosine transform, 2.5D face recognition, pose.

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1541 Reformulations of Big Bang-Big Crunch Algorithm for Discrete Structural Design Optimization

Authors: O. Hasançebi, S. Kazemzadeh Azad

Abstract:

In the present study the efficiency of Big Bang-Big Crunch (BB-BC) algorithm is investigated in discrete structural design optimization. It is shown that a standard version of the BB-BC algorithm is sometimes unable to produce reasonable solutions to problems from discrete structural design optimization. Two reformulations of the algorithm, which are referred to as modified BB-BC (MBB-BC) and exponential BB-BC (EBB-BC), are introduced to enhance the capability of the standard algorithm in locating good solutions for steel truss and frame type structures, respectively. The performances of the proposed algorithms are experimented and compared to its standard version as well as some other algorithms over several practical design examples. In these examples, steel structures are sized for minimum weight subject to stress, stability and displacement limitations according to the provisions of AISC-ASD.

Keywords: Structural optimization, discrete optimization, metaheuristics, big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) algorithm, design optimization of steel trusses and frames.

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1540 Positive Solutions for a Class of Semipositone Discrete Boundary Value Problems with Two Parameters

Authors: Benshi Zhu

Abstract:

In this paper, the existence, multiplicity and noexistence of positive solutions for a class of semipositone discrete boundary value problems with two parameters is studied by applying nonsmooth critical point theory and sub-super solutions method.

Keywords: Discrete boundary value problems, nonsmoothcritical point theory, positive solutions, semipositone, sub-super solutions method

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1539 Discrete Tracking Control of Nonholonomic Mobile Robots: Backstepping Design Approach

Authors: Alexander S. Andreev, Olga A. Peregudova

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a discrete tracking control of nonholonomic mobile robots with two degrees of freedom. The electromechanical model of a mobile robot moving on a horizontal surface without slipping, with two rear wheels controlled by two independent DC electric, and one front roal wheel is considered. We present backstepping design based on the Euler approximate discretetime model of a continuous-time plant. Theoretical considerations are verified by numerical simulation.

Keywords: Actuator Dynamics, Backstepping, Discrete-Time Controller, Lyapunov Function, Wheeled Mobile Robot.

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