Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2570

Search results for: Ammonium ferrous sulfate solution

2570 Adsorption of Reactive Dye Using Entrapped nZVI

Authors: P. Gomathi Priya, M. E. Thenmozhi

Abstract:

Iron nanoparticles were used to cleanup effluents. This paper involves synthesis of iron nanoparticles chemically by sodium borohydride reduction of ammonium ferrous sulfate solution (FAS). Iron oxide nanoparticles have lesser efficiency of adsorption than Zero Valent Iron nanoparticles (nZVI). Glucosamine acts as a stabilizing agent and chelating agent to prevent Iron nanoparticles from oxidation. nZVI particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thus, the synthesized nZVI was subjected to entrapment in biopolymer, viz. barium (Ba)-alginate beads. The beads were characterized using SEM. Batch dye degradation studies were conducted using Reactive black Water soluble Nontoxic Natural substances (WNN) dye which is one of the most hazardous dyes used in textile industries. Effect of contact time, effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out.

Keywords: Ammonium ferrous sulfate solution, barium (Ba)- alginate beads, reactive black WNN dye, zero valent iron nanoparticles.

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2569 Bioleaching of Heavy Metals from Sewage Sludge Using Indigenous Iron-Oxidizing Microorganisms: Effect of Substrate Concentration and Total Solids

Authors: Ashish Pathak, M. G. Dastidar, T. R. Sreekrishnan

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of ferrous sulfate concentration and total solids on bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge has been examined using indigenous iron-oxidizing microorganisms. The experiments on effects of ferrous sulfate concentrations on bioleaching were carried out using ferrous sulfate of different concentrations (5-20 g L-1) to optimize the concentration of ferrous sulfate for maximum bioleaching. A rapid change in the pH and ORP took place in first 2 days followed by a slow change till 16th day in all the sludge samples. A 10 g L-1 ferrous sulfate concentration was found to be sufficient in metal bioleaching in the following order: Zn: 69%>Cu: 52%>Cr: 46%>Ni: 45. Further, bioleaching using 10 g/L ferrous sulfate was found to be efficient up to 20 g L-1 sludge solids concentration. The results of the present study strongly indicate that using 10 g L-1 ferrous sulfate indigenous iron-oxidizing microorganisms can bring down pH to a value needed for significant metal solubilization.

Keywords: Bioleaching, heavy metals, sewage sludge, iron oxidizing microorganisms

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2568 The Removal of As(V) from Drinking Waters by Coagulation Process using Iron Salts

Authors: M. Donmez, F. Akbal

Abstract:

In this study arsenate [As(V)] removal from drinking water by coagulation process was investigated. Ferric chloride (FeCl3.6H2O) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O) were used as coagulant. The effects of major operating variables such as coagulant dose (1–30 mg/L) and pH (5.5–9.5) were investigated. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate were found as effective and reliable coagulant due to required dose, residual arsenate and coagulant concentration. Optimum pH values for maximum arsenate removal for ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride were found as 8 and 7.5. The arsenate removal efficiency decreased at neutral and acidic pH values for Fe(II) and at the high acidic and high alkaline pH for Fe(III). It was found that the increase of coagulant dose caused a substantial increase in the arsenate removal. But above a certain ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dosage, the increase in arsenate removal was not significant. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dose above 8 mg/L slightly increased arsenate removal.

Keywords: Arsenic removal, coagulation, ıron salts, drinking water.

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2567 Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand in Spent Caustic by Potentiometric Determination

Authors: Hamed Harrafi, Masoumeh Khedri, Karim Karaminejad

Abstract:

Measurement of the COD of a spent caustic solution involves firstly digestion of a test sample with dichromate solution and secondly measurement of dichromate remained by titration by ferrous ammonium sulfate [FAS] to an end point. In this paper we study by a potentiometric end point with Ag/AgCl reference electrode and gold rode electrode. The potentiometric end point is sharp and easily identified especially for the samples with high turbidity and color that other methods such as colorimetric in this type of sample do not result in high precision. Because interim of titration responds quickly to potential changes within the [Cr+6/Cr+3& Fe+2/Fe+3] solution producing stable readings that is lead to accurate COD measurement. Finally results are compared with data determined using colorimetric method for standard samples. It is shown that the potentiometric end point titration with gold rode electrode can be used with equal or better facility

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, spent caustic and potentiometric determination

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2566 Effects of Aggressive Ammonium Nitrate on Durability Properties of Concrete Using Sandstone and Granite Aggregates

Authors: L. Wong, H. Asrah, M.E. Rahman, M.A. Mannan

Abstract:

The storage of chemical fertilizers in concrete building often leads to durability problems due to chemical attack. The damage of concrete is mostly caused by certain ammonium salts. The main purpose of the research is to investigate the durability properties of concrete being exposed to ammonium nitrate solution. In this investigation, experiments are conducted on concrete type G50 and G60. The leaching process is achieved by the use of 20% concentration solution of ammonium nitrate. The durability properties investigated are water absorption, volume of permeable voids, and sorptivity. Compressive strength, pH value, and degradation depth are measured after a certain period of leaching. A decrease in compressive strength and an increase in porosity are found through the conducted experiments. Apart from that, the experimental data shows that pH value decreases with increased leaching time while the degradation depth of concrete increases with leaching time. By comparing concrete type G50 and G60, concrete type G60 is more resistant to ammonium nitrate attack.

Keywords: Normal weight concrete durability, Aggressive Ammonium Nitrate Solution, G50 & G60 concretes, Chemical attack.

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2565 Reactive Absorption of Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous Ferric Sulfate Solution

Authors: Z. Gholami, M. Torabi Angaji, F. Gholami, S. A. Razavi Alavi

Abstract:

Many commercial processes are available for the removal of H2S from gaseous streams. The desulfurization of gas streams using aqueous ferric sulfate solution as washing liquor is studied. Apart from sulfur, only H2O is generated in the process, and consequently, no waste treatment facilities are required. A distinct advantage of the process is that the reaction of H2S with is so rapid and complete that there remains no danger of discharging toxic waste gas. In this study, the reactive absorption of hydrogen sulfide into aqueous ferric sulfate solution has been studied and design calculations for equipments have been done and effective operation parameters on this process considered. Results show that high temperature and low pressure are suitable for absorption reaction. Variation of hydrogen sulfide concentration and Fe3+ concentration with time in absorption reaction shown that the reaction of ferric sulfate and hydrogen sulfide is first order with respect to the both reactant. At low Fe2(SO4)3 concentration the absorption rate of H2S increase with increasing the Fe2(SO4)3 concentration. At higher concentration a decrease in the absorption rate was found. At higher concentration of Fe2(SO4)3, the ionic strength and viscosity of solution increase remarkably resulting in a decrease of solubility, diffusivity and hence absorption rate.

Keywords: Absorption, Fe2(SO4)3, H2S, Reactive Absorption.

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2564 Solid State Fermentation of Cassava Peel with Trichoderma viride (ATCC 36316) for Protein Enrichment

Authors: Olufunke O. Ezekiel, Ogugua C. Aworh

Abstract:

Solid state fermentation of cassava peel with emphasis on protein enrichment using Trichoderma viride was evaluated. The effect of five variables: moisture content, pH, particle size (p), nitrogen source and incubation temperature; on the true protein and total sugars of cassava peel was investigated. The optimum fermentation period was established to be 8 days. Total sugars were 5-fold higher at pH 6 relative to pH 4 and 7-fold higher when cassava peels were fermented at 30oC relative to 25oC as well as using ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source relative to urea or a combination of both. Total sugars ranged between 123.21mg/g at 50% initial moisture content to 374mg/g at 60% and from 190.59mg/g with particle size range of 2.00>p>1.41mm to 310.10mg/g with 4.00>p>3.35mm.True protein ranged from 229.70 mg/g at pH 4 to 284.05 mg/g at pH 6; from 200.87 mg/g with urea as nitrogen source and to 254.50mg/g with ammonium sulfate; from 213.82mg/g at 50% initial moisture content to 254.50mg/g at 60% moisture content, from 205.75mg/g in cassava peel with 5.6>p> 4.75mm to 268.30 in cassava peel with particle size 4.00>p>3.35mm, from 207.57mg/g at 25oC to 254.50mg/g at 30oC Cassava peel with particle size 4.00>p>3.35 mm and initial moisture content of 60% at pH 6.0, 30oC incubation temperature with ammonium sulfate (10g N / kg substrate) was most suitable for protein enrichment with Trichoderma viride. Crude protein increased from 4.21 % in unfermented cassava peel samples to 10.43 % in fermented samples.

Keywords: Cassava peel, Solid state fermentation, Trichoderma viride, Total sugars, True protein.

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2563 Textile Dyeing with Natural Dye from Sappan Tree (Caesalpinia sappan Linn.) Extract

Authors: Ploysai Ohama, Nattida Tumpat

Abstract:

Natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was applied to a cotton fabric and silk yarn by dyeing process. The dyestuff component of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was extracted using water and ethanol. Analytical studies such as UV–VIS spectrophotometry and gravimetric analysis were performed on the extracts. Brazilein, the major dyestuff component of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was confirmed in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts by UV–VIS spectrum. The color of each dyed material was investigated in terms of the CIELAB (L*, a* and b*) and K/S values. Cotton fabric dyed without mordant had a shade of reddish-brown, while those post-mordanted with aluminum potassium sulfate, ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate produced a variety of wine red to dark purple color shades. Cotton fabric and silk yarn dyeing was studied using aluminum potassium sulfate as a mordant. The observed color strength was enhanced with increase in mordant concentration.

Keywords: Natural dyes, Plant materials, Dyeing, Mordant.

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2562 Treatment of Tannery Effluents by the Process of Coagulation

Authors: G. Shegani

Abstract:

Coagulation is a process that sanitizes leather effluents. It aims to reduce pollutants such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), chloride, sulfate, chromium, suspended solids, and other dissolved solids. The current study aimed to evaluate coagulation efficiency of tannery wastewater by analyzing the change in organic matter, odor, color, ammonium ions, nutrients, chloride, H2S, sulfate, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, fecal pollution, and chromium hexavalent before and after treatment. Effluent samples were treated with coagulants Ca(OH)2 and FeSO4 .7H2O. The best advantages of this treatment included the removal of: COD (81.60%); ammonia ions (98.34%); nitrate ions (92%); chromium hexavalent (75.00%); phosphate (70.00%); chloride (69.20%); and H₂S (50%). Results also indicated a high level of efficiency in the reduction of fecal pollution indicators. Unfortunately, only a modest reduction of sulfate (19.00%) and TSS (13.00%) and an increase in TDS (15.60%) was observed. 

Keywords: Coagulation, Effluent, Tannery, Treatment.

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2561 Influence of Ammonium Concentration on the Performance of an Inorganic Biofilter Treating Methane

Authors: Marc Veillette, Antonio Avalos Ramirez, Michèle Heitz

Abstract:

Among the technologies available to reduce methane emitted from the pig industry, biofiltration seems to be an effective and inexpensive solution. In methane (CH4) biofiltration, nitrogen is an important macronutrient for the microorganisms growth. The objective of this research project was to study the effect of ammonium (NH4 +) on the performance, the biomass production and the nitrogen conversion of a biofilter treating methane. For NH4 + concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 gN-NH4 +/L, the CH4 removal efficiency and the dioxide carbon production rate decreased linearly from 68 to 11.8 % and from 7.1 to 0.5 g/(m3-h), respectively. The dry biomass content varied from 4.1 to 5.8 kg/(m3 filter bed). For the same range of concentrations, the ammonium conversion decreased while the specific nitrate production rate increased. The specific nitrate production rate presented negative values indicating denitrification in the biofilter.

Keywords: Methane, biofiltration, pig, ammonium, nitrification, denitrification.

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2560 Mechanical Strengths of Self-Compacting Mortars Prepared with the Pozzolanic Cement in Aggressive Environments

Authors: M. Saidi, I. Djefour, F. Ait Medjber, A. Melouane, A. Gacem

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to study the physical and mechanical properties and durability of self-compacting mortars prepared by substituting a part of cement up to a percentage of 30% pozzolan according to different Blaine specific surface area (SSB1=7000 cm2/g and SSB=9000 cm2/g)). Order to evaluate durability, mortars were subjected to chemical attacks in various aggressive environments, a solution of a mixture of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate (HNO3 + NH4NO3) and a magnesium sulfate salt solution (MgSO4)) with a concentration of 10%, for a period of one month. This study is complemented by a comparative study of the durability of mortars elaborated with sulphate resistant cement (SRC). The results show that these mortars develop long-term, mechanical and chemical resistance better than mortars based Portland cement with 5% gypsum (CEM 1) and SRC. We found that the mass losses are lowest in mortars elaborated with pozzolanic cement (30% substitution with SSB2) in both of chemical attack solutions (3.28% in the solution acid and 1.16% in the salt solution) and the compressive strength gains of 14.68% and 8.5% respectively in the two media. This is due to the action of pozzolan which fixes portlandite to form hydrated calcium silicate (CSH) from the hydration of tricalcic silicate (C3S).

Keywords: Aggressive environments, durability, mechanical strengths, pozzolanic cement, self-compacting mortar.

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2559 High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Colistin Sulfate and its Application in Medicated Premixand Animal Feed

Authors: S.Choosakoonkriang, S. Supaluknari, P. Puangkaew

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an inexpensive and simple high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of colistin sulfate. Separation of colistin sulfate was achieved on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column using UV detection at λ=215 nm. The mobile phase was 30 mM sulfate buffer (pH 2.5):acetonitrile(76:24). An excellent linearity (r2=0.998) was found in the concentration range of 25 - 400 μg/mL. Intra- day and inter-day precisions of method (%RSD, n=3) were less than 7.9%.The developed and validated method was applied to determination of the content of colistin sulfate in medicated premix and animal feed sample.The recovery of colistin from animal feed was satisfactorily ranged from 90.92 to 93.77%. The results demonstrated that the HPLC method developed in this work is appropriate for direct determination of colistin sulfate in commercial medicated premixes and animal feed.

Keywords: Colistin sulfate, HPLC, medicated premix, animal feed

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2558 Sulfate Attack on Pastes Made with Different C3A and C4AF Contents and Stored at 5°C

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Radosław Mróz

Abstract:

In the present work the internal sulfate attack on pastes made from pure clinker phases was studied. Two binders were produced: (a) a binder with 2% C3A and 18% C4AF content; (b) a binder with 10% C3A and C4AF content each. Gypsum was used as the sulfate bearing compound, while calcium carbonate added to differentiate the binders produced. The phases formed were identified by XRD analysis. The results showed that ettringite was the deterioration phase detected in the case of the low C3A content binder. Carbonation occurred in the specimen without calcium carbonate addition, while portlandite was observed in the one containing calcium carbonate. In the case of the high C3A content binder, traces of thaumasite were detected when calcium carbonate was not incorporated in the binder. A solid solution of thaumasite and ettringite was found when calcium carbonate was added. The amount of C3A had not fully reacted with sulfates, since its corresponding peaks were detected.

Keywords: Tricalcium aluminate, calcium aluminate ferrite, sulfate attack, calcium carbonate, low temperature.

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2557 Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate in Acute Moderate to Severe Asthma in Pediatric Patients

Authors: Lubna M. Zakaryia Mahmoud, Mohammed A. Dawood, Doaa A. Heiba

Abstract:

A prospective double-blind placebo controlled trial carried out on 60 children known to be asthmatic who presented to the emergency department at Alexandria University of Children’s Hospital at El-Shatby with acute asthma exacerbations to assess the efficacy of adding inhaled magnesium sulfate to β-agonist, compared with β-agonist in saline, in the management of acute asthma exacerbations in children. The participants in the study were divided in two groups; Group A (study group) received inhaled salbutamol solution (0.15 ml/kg) plus isotonic magnesium sulfate 2 ml in a nebulizer chamber. Group B (control group): received nebulized salbutamol solution (0.15 ml/kg) diluted with placebo (2 ml normal saline). Both groups received inhaled solution every 20 minutes that was repeated for three doses. They were evaluated using the Pediatric Asthma Severity Score (PASS), oxygen saturation using portable pulse oximetry and peak expiratory flow rate using a portable peak expiratory flow meter at initially recorded as zero-minute assessment and every 20 minutes from the end of each nebulization (nebulization lasts 5-10 minutes) recorded as 20, 40 and 60-minute assessments. Regarding PASS, comparison showed non-significant difference with p-value 0.463, 0.472, 0.0766 at 20, 40 and 60 minutes. Regarding oxygen saturation, improvement was more significant towards group A starting from 40 min with significant p-value=0.000. At 60 min p-value=0.000. Although mean PEFR significantly improved from zero-min in both groups; however, improvement was more significant in group A with significant p-value = 0.015, 0.001, 0.001 at 20 min, 40 min and 60 min, respectively. The conclusion this study suggests is that inhaled magnesium sulfate is an efficient add on drug to standard β- agonist inhalation used in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma exacerbations.

Keywords: Nebulized, magnesium sulfate, acute asthma, pediatric.

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2556 Extracellular Protein Secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332 in the Presence of Streptomycin Sulfate

Authors: Hanina M. N., Hairul Shahril M., Ismatul Nurul Asyikin I., Abdul Jalil A. K., Salina M. R., Maryam M. R., Rosfarizan M.

Abstract:

The extracellular proteins secreted by bacteria may be increased in stressful surroundings, such as in the presence of antibiotics. It appears that many antibiotics, when used at low concentrations, have in common the ability to activate or repress gene transcription, which is distinct from their inhibitory effect. There have been comparatively few studies on the potential of antibiotics as a specific chemical signal that can trigger a variety of biological functions. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effect of Streptomycin Sulfate in regulating extracellular proteins secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332. Results of Microdilution assay showed that the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of Streptomycin Sulfate on B. subtilis ATCC21332 was 2.5 mg/ml. The bacteria cells were then exposed to Streptomycin Sulfate at concentration of 0.01 MIC before being further incubated for 48h to 72 h. The extracellular proteins secreted were then isolated and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Proteins profile revealed that three additional bands with approximate sizes of 30 kDa, 22 kDa and 23 kDa were appeared for the treated bacteria with Streptomycin Sulfate. Thus, B. subtilis ATCC21332 in stressful condition with the presence of Streptomycin Sulfate at low concentration could induce the extracellular proteins secretion.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332, Streptomycin Sulfate, extracellular proteins.

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2555 Swelling Behavior and Cytotoxicity of Maleic Acid Grafted Chitosan

Authors: Sevil Yucel, Zafer Omer Ozdemir, Cem Kesgin, Pinar Terzioglu, Simten Unlu, Yagmur Erdogan, Kubra Pusat

Abstract:

Chitosan is an attractive polysaccharide obtained by deacetylation of an abundant natural biopolymer called chitin. Chitin and chitosan are excellent materials. To improve the potential of chitin and chitosan modification is needed. In the present study, grafting of maleic acid on to chitosan by cerium ammonium nitrate in acetic acid solution was investigated with use of a microwave and reflux system. The grafted chitosan was characterized by using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. The solubility and swelling behavior of grafted chitosans were determined in acetate buffer (pH 3.6), citrophosphate buffer (pH 5.6 and pH 7.0), and boric buffer (pH 9.2) solutions. The sample obtained by microwave system with use of a chitosan/maleic anhydride/ceric ammonium nitrate 0.2/3.922/0.99 gram of raw material within 30 minute showed the maximum swelling ratio (13.6) in boric buffer solution.

Keywords: Chitosan, cytotoxicity, grafted, maleic acid, swell.

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2554 Optimization of Dissolution of Chevreul’s Salt in Ammonium Chloride Solutions

Authors: Mustafa Sertçelik, Hacali Necefoğlu, Turan Çalban, Soner Kuşlu

Abstract:

In this study, Chevreul’s salt was dissolved in ammonium chloride solutions. All experiments were performed in a batch reactor. The obtained results were optimized. Parameters used in the experiments were the reaction temperature, the ammonium chloride concentration, the reaction time and the solid-to-liquid ratio. The optimum conditions were determined by 24 factorial experimental design method. The best values of four parameters were determined as based on the experiment results. After the evaluation of experiment results, all parameters were found as effective in experiment conditions selected. The optimum conditions on the maximum Chevreul’s salt dissolution were the ammonium chloride concentration 4.5 M, the reaction time 13.2 min., the reaction temperature 25 oC, and the solid-to-liquid ratio 9/80 g.mL-1. The best dissolution yield in these conditions was 96.20%.

Keywords: Ammonium chloride, Chevreul’s salt, copper, Factorial experimental design method, optimization.

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2553 Optimal Conditions for Carotenoid Production and Antioxidation Characteristics by Rhodotorula rubra

Authors: N. Chanchay, S. Sirisansaneeyakul, C. Chaiyasut, N. Poosaran

Abstract:

This study aims to screen out and to optimize the major nutrients for maximum carotenoid production and antioxidation characteristics by Rhodotorula rubra. It was found that supplementary of 10 g/l glucose as carbon source, 1 g/l ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source and 1 g/l yeast extract as growth factor in the medium provided the better yield of carotenoid content of 30.39 μg/g cell dry weight the amount of antioxidation of Rhodotorula rubra by DPPH, ABTS and MDA method were 1.463%, 34.21% and 34.09 μmol/l, respectively.

Keywords: Carotenoid, Rhodotorula rubra, Antioxidation, DPPH, ABTS

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2552 The Use of Secondary Crystallization in Cement-Based Composites

Authors: Nikol Žižková, Šárka Keprdová, Rostislav Drochytka

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the study of the properties of cement-based composites produced using secondary crystallization (crystalline additive). In this study, cement mortar made with secondary crystallization was exposed to an aggressive environment and the influence of secondary crystallization on the degradation of the cementitious composite was investigated. The results indicate that the crystalline additive contributed to increasing the resistance of the cement-based composite to the attack of the selected environments (sodium sulphate solution and ammonium chloride solution).

Keywords: Secondary crystallization, cement-based composites, durability.

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2551 The Investigation of Precipitation Conditions of Chevreul’s Salt

Authors: Turan Çalban, Fatih Sevim, Oral Laçin

Abstract:

In this study, the precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt were evaluated. The structure of Chevreul’s salt was examined by considering the previous studies. Thermodynamically, the most important precipitation parameters were pH, temperature, and sulphite-copper(II) ratio. The amount of Chevreul’s salt increased with increasing the temperature and sulphite-copper(II) ratio at the certain range, while it increased with decreasing the pH value at the chosen range. The best solution medium for recovery of Chevreul’s salt is sulphur dioxide gas-water system. Moreover, the soluble sulphite salts are used as efficient precipitating reagents. Chevreul’s salt is generally used to produce the highly pure copper powders from synthetic copper sulphate solutions and impure leach solutions. When the pH of the initial ammoniacal solution is greater than 8.5, ammonia in the medium is not free, and Chevreul’s salt from solution does not precipitate. In contrast, copper ammonium sulphide is precipitated. The pH of the initial solution containing ammonia for precipitating of Chevreul’s salt must be less than 8.5.

Keywords: Chevreul’s salt, copper sulphites, mixed-valence sulphite compounds, precipitating.

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2550 Kinetics Study of Ammonia Removal from Synthetic Waste Water

Authors: Edison Muzenda, John Kabuba, Freeman Ntuli, Mansoor Mollagee

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate ammonium exchange capacity of natural and activated clinoptilolite from Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa. X – ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis showed that the clinoptilolite contained exchangeable ions of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. This analysis also confirmed that the zeolite sample had a high silicon composition compared to aluminium. Batch equilibrium studies were performed in an orbital shaker and the data fitted the Langmuir isotherm very well. The ammonium exchange capacity was found to increase with pH and temperature. Clinoptilolite functionalization with hydrochloric acid increased its ammonia uptake ability.

Keywords: Activated clinoptilolite, Ammonium exchange, Equilibrium, Functionalization, Langmuir isotherm

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2549 Selective Solvent Extraction of Calcium and Magnesium from Concentrate Nickel Solutions Using Mixtures of Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA

Authors: Alexandre S. Guimarães, Marcelo B. Mansur

Abstract:

The performance of organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA on the purification of concentrate nickel sulfate solutions was evaluated. Batch scale tests were carried out at pH range of 2 to 7 using a laboratory solution simulating concentrate nickel liquors as those typically obtained when sulfate intermediates from nickel laterite are re-leached and treated for the selective removal of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper with Cyanex 272 ([Ca] = 0.57 g/L, [Mg] = 3.2 g/L, and [Ni] = 88 g/L). The increase on the concentration of D2EHPA favored the calcium extraction. The extraction of magnesium is dependent on the pH and of ratio of extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 in the organic phase. The composition of the investigated organic phase did not affect nickel extraction. The number of stages is dependent on the magnesium extraction. The most favorable operating condition to selectively remove calcium and magnesium was determined.

Keywords: Solvent extraction, organophosphorus extractants, alkaline earth metals, nickel.

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2548 Carrageenan Properties Extracted From Eucheuma cottonii, Indonesia

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Wiratni , Moh. Fahrurrozi, Rochmadi

Abstract:

The effect of extraction solvent upon properties of carrageenan from Eucheuma cottonii was studied. The distilled water and KOH solution (concentration 0.1- 0.5N) were used as the solvent. Extraction process was carried out in water bath equipped by stirrer with constant speed of 275 rpm with a constant ratio of seaweed weight to solvent volume ( 1:50 g/mL) at 86oC for 45 minutes. The extract was then precipitated in 3 volume of 90% ethanol, oven dried at 60oC. Based on experimental data, alkali significantly influenced yield and properties of extracted carrageenan. The extracted carrageenan was found to have essentially identical FTIR spectra to the reference samples of kappa-carrageenan. Increasing the KOH concentration led to carrageenan containing less sulfate content and intrinsic viscosity. The gel strength increased along with the increasing of KOH concentration. The decreasing of intrinsic viscosity value indicates that a polymer degradation occurs during alkali extraction.

Keywords: gel strength, sulfate, intrinsic viscosity, Eucheumacottonii

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2547 Application of Nano-Zero Valent Iron for Treating Metolachlor in Aqueous Solution

Authors: P. Suntornchot, T. Satapanajaru, S.D. Comfort

Abstract:

Water, soil and sediment contaminated with metolachlor poses a threat to the environment and human health. We determined the effectiveness of nano-zerovalent iron (NZVI) to dechlorinate metolachlor [2-chloro-n-(2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl)-n- (1-methoxypropan-2-yl)acetamide] in pH solution and the presence of aluminium salt. The optimum dosage of degradation of 100 mlL-1 metolachlor was 1% (w/v) NZVI. The degradation kinetic rate (kobs) was 0.218×10-3 min-1 and specific first-order rates (kSA) was 8.72×10-7 L m-2min-1. By treating aqueous solutions of metolachlor with NZVI, metolachlor destruction rate were increased as the pH decrease from 10 to 4. Lowering solution pH removes Fe (III) passivating layers from the NZVI and makes it free for reductive transformations. Destruction kinetic rates were 20.8×10-3 min-1 for pH4, 18.9×10-3 min-1 for pH7, 13.8×10-3 min-1 for pH10. In addition, destruction kinetic of metolachlor by NZVI was enhanced when aluminium sulfate was added. The destruction kinetic rate were 20.4×10-3 min-1 for 0.05% Al(SO4)3 and 60×10-3 min-1 for 0.1% Al(SO4)3.

Keywords: destruction, kinetic rate, metolachlor, nano-zerovalent iron

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2546 An Automated High Pressure Differential Thermal Analysis System for Phase Transformation Studies

Authors: T. K. Mondal, N C Shivaprakash

Abstract:

A piston cylinder based high pressure differential thermal analyzer system is developed to investigate phase transformations, melting, glass transitions, crystallization behavior of inorganic materials, glassy systems etc., at ambient to 4 GPa and at room temperature to 1073 K. The pressure is calibrated by the phase transition of bismuth and ytterbium and temperature is calibrated by using thermocouple data chart. The system developed is calibrated using benzoic acid, ammonium nitrate and it has a pressure and temperature control of ± 8.9 x 10 -4 GPa , ± 2 K respectively. The phase transition of Asx Te100-x chalcogenides, ferrous oxide and strontium boride are studied using the indigenously developed system.

Keywords: double stage crystallization, Phase transition, Quasi hydrostatic, Rigidity percolation

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2545 Catalytic Decomposition of Potassium Monopersulfate. The Kinetics

Authors: Olga Gimeno, Javier Rivas, Maria Carbajo, Teresa Borralho

Abstract:

Potassium monopersulfate has been decomposed in aqueous solution in the presence of Co(II). The process has been simulated by means of a mechanism based on elementary reactions. Rate constants have been taken from literature reports or, alternatively, assimilated to analogous reactions occurring in Fenton's chemistry. Several operating conditions have been successfully applied.

Keywords: Monopersulfate, Oxone®, Sulfate radicals, Water treatment

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2544 Acid Attack on Cement Mortars Modified with Rubber Aggregates and EVA Polymer Binder

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Michael Tupý, Nikol Žižková, Vít Petránek

Abstract:

The acid attack on cement mortars modified with rubber aggregates and EVA polymer binder was studied. Mortar specimens were prepared using a type CEM I 42.5 Portland cement and siliceous sand, as well as by substituting 25% of sand with shredded used automobile tires, and by adding EVA polymer in two percentages (5% and 10% of cement mass). Some specimens were only air cured, at laboratory conditions, and their compressive strength and water absorption were determined. The rest specimens were stored in acid solutions (HCl, H2SO4, HNO3) after 28 days of initial curing, and stored at laboratory temperature. Compressive strength tests, mass measurements and visual inspection took place for 28 days. Compressive strength and water absorption of the air-cured specimens were significantly decreased when rubber aggregates are used. The addition of EVA polymer further reduced water absorption, while had no important impact on strength. Compressive strength values were affected in a greater extent by hydrochloric acid solution, followed by sulfate and nitric acid solutions. The addition of EVA polymer decreased compressive strength loss for the specimens with rubber aggregates stored in hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions. The specimens without polymer binder showed similar mass loss, which was higher in sulfate acid solution followed by hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions. The use of EVA polymer delayed mass loss, while its content did not affect it significantly.

Keywords: Acid attack, mortar, EVA polymer, rubber aggregates.

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2543 Surface Modification of Cotton Using Slaughterhouse Wastes

Authors: Granch Berhe Tseghai, Lodrick Wangatia Makokha

Abstract:

Cotton dyeing using reactive dyes is one of the major water polluter; this is due to large amount of dye and salt remaining in effluent. Recent adverse climate change and its associated effect to human life have lead to search for more sustainable industrial production. Cationization of cotton to improve its affinity for reactive dye has been earmarked as a major solution for dyeing of cotton with no or less salt. Synthetic cationizing agents of ammonium salt have already been commercialized. However, in nature there are proteinous products which are rich in amino and ammonium salts which can be carefully harnessed to be used as cationizing agent for cotton. The hoofs and horns have successfully been used to cationize cotton so as to improve cotton affinity to the dye. The cationization action of the hoof and horn extract on cotton was confirmed by dyeing the pretreated fabric without salt and comparing it with conventionally dyed and untreated salt free dyed fabric. UV-VIS absorption results showed better dye absorption (62.5% and 50% dye bath exhaustion percentage for cationized and untreated respectively) while K/S values of treated samples were similar to conventional sample.

Keywords: Cationization, cotton, proteinous products, reactive dyes.

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2542 Adsorption of Ferrous and Ferric Ions in Aqueous and Industrial Effluent onto Pongamia pinnata Tree Bark

Authors: M. Mamatha, H. B. Aravinda, E. T. Puttaiah, S. Manjappa

Abstract:

One of the causes of water pollution is the presence of heavy metals in water. In the present study, an adsorbent prepared from the raw bark of the Pongamia pinnata tree is used for the removal of ferrous or ferric ions from aqueous and waste water containing heavy metals. Adsorption studies were conducted at different pH, concentration of metal ion, amount of adsorbent, contact time, agitation and temperature. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied for the results. The Langmuir isotherms were best fitted by the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption was found to 146mg/g in waste water at a temperature of 30°C which is in agreement as comparable to the adsorption capacity of different adsorbents reported in literature. Pseudo second order model best fitted the adsorption of both ferrous and ferric ions.

Keywords: Adsorption, Adsorption isotherms, Heavy metals, Industrial effluents.

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2541 The Optimization of Copper Sulfate and Tincalconite Molar Ratios on the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Borates

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin

Abstract:

In this research, copper borates are synthesized by the reaction of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) and tincalconite (Na2O4B7.10H2O). The experimental parameters are selected as 80oC reaction temperature and 60 of reaction time. The effect of mole ratio of CuSO4.5H2O to Na2O4B7.5H2O is studied. For the identification analyses X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques are used. At the end of the experiments, synthesized copper borate is matched with the powder diffraction file of “00-001-0472” [Cu(BO2)2] and characteristic vibrations between B and O atoms are seen. The proper crystals are obtained at the mole ratio of 3:1. This study showed that simplified synthesis process is suitable for the production of copper borate minerals.

Keywords: Hydrothermal synthesis, copper borates, copper sulfate, tincalconite.

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