Influence of Power Flow Controller on Energy Transaction Charges in Restructured Power System
The demand for power supply increases day by day in developing countries like India henceforth demand of reactive power support in the form of ancillary services provider also has been increased. The multi-line and multi-type Flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) controllers are playing a vital role to regulate power flow through the transmission line. Unified power flow controller and interline power flow controller can be utilized to control reactive power flow through the transmission line. In a restructured power system, the demand of such controller is being popular due to their inherent capability. The transmission pricing by using reactive power cost allocation through modified matrix methodology has been proposed. The FACTS technologies have quite costly assembly, so it is very useful to apportion the expenses throughout the restructured electricity industry. Therefore, in this work, after embedding the FACTS devices into load flow, the impact on the costs allocated to users in fraction to the transmission framework utilization has been analyzed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the total cost recovery is enhanced towards the Reactive Power flow through the different transmission line for 5 bus test system. The fair pricing policy towards reactive power can be achieved by the proposed method incorporating FACTS controller towards cost recovery of the transmission network.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3455673Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 249
 P.S.R.Murty, “Load modeling for power flow solutions”, J. Inst. Eng. (India) Electr. Eng. Div., vol.58, pp. 162-165, 1977.
 M.E. El-Hawary, and L.G.Dias, “Incorporation of load models in load-flow studies: form of model effects”, IEE Proc. C, Gen. Trans. & Distrib., vol.134, no.1, pp. 27-30, 1987.
 M.E. El-Hawary, and L.G.Dias, “Bus Sensitivity to load model parameters in Load –flow Studies”, IEE Proc. C Generation Transmission and distribution. vol.134, no.4, pp. 302-305, 1987.
 M.E. El-Hawary, and L.G.Dias, “Selection of buses for detailed modeling in load flow studies”, Electr. Mach. Power Syst., vol.12, pp. 83-92, 1987.
 L.G.Dias, M.E.El-Hawary, “ Effects of active and reactive power modeling in optimal load flow studies” IEE Proc., vol. 136, Pt C, No.5, pp 259-263, Sept 1989.
 Baughman, M. L. and Siddiqi, S. N., “ Real Time Pricing of Reactive Power: Theory and Case Study Results ”, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 6, no.1, pp. 23-29, 1991.
 Hogan, W., “Markets in Real Electric Networks Require Reactive Prices”, The Energy Journal, vol.14, no.3 pp.171-200, 1993.
 Wood, A.J., and Wollenberg, B.F., “Power generation, operation, and control”, Wiley & Sons, New York, 2nd Edn., 1996.
 Fuerte Esquiivel C.R. and E.Acha, “Newton-Raphson algorithm for the reliable solution of large power networks with embedded FACTS”, IEE Proc.-Gan. Tvansnr. Distrib., vol.143, no. 5, pp. 447-454, 1996.
 Schweppe, F. C., M. C. Caramanis, R. D. Tabors, and R. E. Bohn, “Spot Pricing of Electricity”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston. 1998.
 J. W. Lamont and J. Fu, “ Cost analysis of reactive power support ”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 890–898, Aug. 1999.
 Y. H. Song, J.Y. Liu, P.A. Mehta, “ Power injection modeling and optimal multiplier power flow algorithm for steady-state studies of unified power flow controllers”, Electric Power System Research, vol.52, pp. 51-59, 1999.
 F. Gubina, D. Grgic and I. Banic, “A method for determining the generators share in a consumer load ”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1376-1381, 2000.
 N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, “Understanding FACTS”, New York: IEEE Press, 2000.
 C. R. Fuerte-Esquivel, E. Acha, and H. Ambriz-Prez, “A comprehensive Newton-Raphson UPFC model for the quadratic power flow solution for practical power networks”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems., vol. 15, pp.102–109, Feb. 2000.
 Peter W. Sauer. What is Reactive power? Power Systems Engineering Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, September 16, 2003.
 Y. Dai, X.D. Liu, Y.X. Ni, F.S. Wen, Z.X. Han, C.M. Shen, Felix F. Wu, “ A cost allocation method for reactive power service based on power flow tracing”, Electric Power Systems Research, vol.64, pp.59-65, 2003.
 Bialek J.W., Kattuman P.A., “Proportional sharing assumption in tracing methodology”, IEE Proceedings Generation transmission Distribution, vol.151, no.4, pp.526-532, July 2004.
 Enrique Acha, Fuerte-Esquivel Claudio R, Ambize-Perez H, Angeles- Camacho C. “ FACTS: modelling and simulation in power networks”, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 0-470-85271-2,2004.
 Nemat Talebi, M. Ehsan and S. M. T. Bathaee, “An Efficient Power Injection Modeling and Sequential Power Flow Algorithm for FACTS Devices”, IEEE SoutheastCon, 2004. Proceedings. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, pp. 97-104, 2004.
 M. Saravanan, S. Mary Raja Slochanal, P. Venkatesh, J. Prince Stephen Abraham, “Application of particle swarm optimization technique for optimal location of FACTS devices considering cost of installation and system loadability”, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 77, issues 3–4, pp. 276-283, March 2007.
 Hussain Shareef, Mohd. Wazir Mustafa, Saifulnizam Abd Khalid, Azhar Khairuddin, Akhtar Kalam, Amanullah Maung Than Oo, “Real and Reactiv Power Transfer Allocation Utilizing Modified Nodal Equations”, International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, vol. 9, no. 6, article 4, 2008.
 H. R. Baghaee, B. Vahidi, S. Jazebi, G. B. Gharehpetian and A. Kashefi, “ Power System Security Improvement by Using Differential Evolution Algorithm Based FACTS Allocation ”, 2008 Joint International Conference on Power System Technology and IEEE Power India Conference, New Delhi, pp. 1-6, 2008.
 Abdorreza Rabiee, Haidor Alishayanfer, Nibamjady Iee, “ Power and Engineering Magazine”, pp.18-32, January/February 2009.
 Kaigui Xie, Jiaqi Zhou, Wenyuan Li “Analytical model and algorithm for tracing active power flow based on extended incidence matrix”, Electric Power Systems Research, vol.79, pp. 399–405, 2009.
 D. Thukaram and C. Vyjayanthi, “Relative electrical distance concept for evaluation of network reactive power and loss contributions in a deregulated system”, IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol. 3, no.11, pp. 1000–1019, 2009.
 N. A. Hosseinipoor and S. M. H. Nabavi, “Social Welfare Maximization by Optimal Locating and Sizing of TCSC for Congestion Management in Deregulated Power Markets”, 2010 International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON), Hangzhou, pp. 1-5, 24-28 October 2010.
 Seyed Mohammad, Hossein Nabavi, Somayeh Hajforoosh, Sajad Hajforosh, Nazanin Alsadat Hosseinipoor, “ Using Tracing Method for Calculation and Allocation of Reactive Power Cost ”, International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 13, no. 2, pp.14-17, 2011.
 Sawan Sen, Priyanka Roy, Abhijit Chakrabarti, Samarjit Sengupta “ Generator Contribution Based Congestion Management using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm ”, TELKOMNIKA, vol.9, no.1, pp. 1-8, April 2011.
 Hermagasantos Zein, Erwin Dermawan “Cost Allocation of Transmission Losses in Electric Market Mechanism” ,TELKOMNIKA, vol.10, no.2, , pp. 211-218, June 2012.
 K. Ravi and M. Rajaram, “ Optimal location of FACTS devices using enhanced particle swarm optimization ”, 2012 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICACCCT), Ramanathapuram, pp. 414-419, 2012.
 A. A. El-Fergany, “ Optimal capacitor allocations using evolutionary algorithms”, in IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 593-601, June 2013.
 Harinder Pal Singh, Yadwinder Singh Brar, D. P. Kothari, “Combined Active and Reactive Power Dispatch Using Particle Swarm Optimization”, Proceedings of Informing Science & IT Education Conference (InSITE) 2014.
 B. Bhattacharyya, V. K. Gupta and S. Das “ Evolutionary Programming for Reactive Power Planning Using FACTS Devices ”, WSEAS Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 9, 2014.
 Enshaee A., Enshaee P., “ New reactive power flow tracing and loss allocation algorithm for grids using matrix calculation ”, Electric Power and Energy System, vol.87,pp.89-98,2017.
 B.V. Srikanth and A. Lakshmi Devi “ Optimal location and sizing of SVC using genetic algorithm to find voltage saddle node points for improving voltage stability”, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 114, no. 12, pp. 477-489, 2017.