Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1236

Search results for: Quasi Experiment

1236 OWA Operators in Generalized Distances

Authors: José M. Merigó, Anna M. Gil-Lafuente

Abstract:

Different types of aggregation operators such as the ordered weighted quasi-arithmetic mean (Quasi-OWA) operator and the normalized Hamming distance are studied. We introduce the use of the OWA operator in generalized distances such as the quasiarithmetic distance. We will call these new distance aggregation the ordered weighted quasi-arithmetic distance (Quasi-OWAD) operator. We develop a general overview of this type of generalization and study some of their main properties such as the distinction between descending and ascending orders. We also consider different families of Quasi-OWAD operators such as the Minkowski ordered weighted averaging distance (MOWAD) operator, the ordered weighted averaging distance (OWAD) operator, the Euclidean ordered weighted averaging distance (EOWAD) operator, the normalized quasi-arithmetic distance, etc.

Keywords: Aggregation operators, Distance measures, Quasi- OWA operator.

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1235 Quasi-Permutation Representations for the Group SL(2, q) when Extended by a Certain Group of Order Two

Authors: M. Ghorbany

Abstract:

A square matrix over the complex field with non- negative integral trace is called a quasi-permutation matrix. For a finite group G the minimal degree of a faithful representation of G by quasi-permutation matrices over the rationals and the complex numbers are denoted by q(G) and c(G) respectively. Finally r (G) denotes the minimal degree of a faithful rational valued complex character of C. The purpose of this paper is to calculate q(G), c(G) and r(G) for the group S L(2, q) when extended by a certain group of order two.

Keywords: General linear group, Quasi-permutation

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1234 Quasi-ballistic Transport in Submicron Hg0.8Cd0.2Te Diodes: Hydrodynamic Modeling

Authors: M. Daoudi, A. Belghachi, L. Varani

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the problem of quasiballistic electron transport in ultra small of mercury -cadmiumtelluride (Hg0.8Cd0.2Te -MCT) n+-n- n+ devices from hydrodynamic point view. From our study, we note that, when the size of the active layer is low than 0.1μm and for low bias application( ( ≥ 9mV), the quasi-ballistic transport has an important effect.

Keywords: Hg0.8Cd0.2Te semiconductor, Hydrodynamicmode, Quasi-ballistic transport, Submicron diode

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1233 Development of Admire Longitudinal Quasi-Linear Model by using State Transformation Approach

Authors: Jianqiao. Yu, Jianbo. Wang, Xinzhen. He

Abstract:

This paper presents a longitudinal quasi-linear model for the ADMIRE model. The ADMIRE model is a nonlinear model of aircraft flying in the condition of high angle of attack. So it can-t be considered to be a linear system approximately. In this paper, for getting the longitudinal quasi-linear model of the ADMIRE, a state transformation based on differentiable functions of the nonscheduling states and control inputs is performed, with the goal of removing any nonlinear terms not dependent on the scheduling parameter. Since it needn-t linear approximation and can obtain the exact transformations of the nonlinear states, the above-mentioned approach is thought to be appropriate to establish the mathematical model of ADMIRE. To verify this conclusion, simulation experiments are done. And the result shows that this quasi-linear model is accurate enough.

Keywords: quasi-linear model, simulation, state transformation approach, the ADMIRE model.

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1232 On Quasi Conformally Flat LP-Sasakian Manifolds with a Coefficient α

Authors: Jay Prakash Singh

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to study properties of Quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifolds with a coefficient α. In this paper, we prove that a Quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifold M (n > 3) with a constant coefficient α is an η−Einstein and in a quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifold M (n > 3) with a constant coefficient α if the scalar curvature tensor is constant then M is of constant curvature.

Keywords: LP-Sasakian manifolds, coefficient α, quasi conformal curvature tensor, concircular vector field, torse forming vector field, η-Einstein manifold.

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1231 Obtaining Constants of Johnson-Cook Material Model Using a Combined Experimental, Numerical Simulation and Optimization Method

Authors: F. Rahimi Dehgolan, M. Behzadi, J. Fathi Sola

Abstract:

In this article, the Johnson-Cook material model’s constants for structural steel ST.37 have been determined by a method which integrates experimental tests, numerical simulation, and optimization. In the first step, a quasi-static test was carried out on a plain specimen. Next, the constants were calculated for it by minimizing the difference between the results acquired from the experiment and numerical simulation. Then, a quasi-static tension test was performed on three notched specimens with different notch radii. At last, in order to verify the results, they were used in numerical simulation of notched specimens and it was observed that experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. Changing the diameter size of the plain specimen in the necking area was set as the objective function in the optimization step. For final validation of the proposed method, diameter variation was considered as a parameter and its sensitivity to a change in any of the model constants was examined and the results were completely corroborating.

Keywords: Constants, Johnson-Cook material model, notched specimens, quasi-static test, sensitivity.

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1230 Solving One-dimensional Hyperbolic Telegraph Equation Using Cubic B-spline Quasi-interpolation

Authors: Marzieh Dosti, Alireza Nazemi

Abstract:

In this paper, the telegraph equation is solved numerically by cubic B-spline quasi-interpolation .We obtain the numerical scheme, by using the derivative of the quasi-interpolation to approximate the spatial derivative of the dependent variable and a low order forward difference to approximate the temporal derivative of the dependent variable. The advantage of the resulting scheme is that the algorithm is very simple so it is very easy to implement. The results of numerical experiments are presented, and are compared with analytical solutions by calculating errors L2 and L∞ norms to confirm the good accuracy of the presented scheme.

Keywords: Cubic B-spline, quasi-interpolation, collocation method, second-order hyperbolic telegraph equation.

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1229 Power MOSFET Models Including Quasi-Saturation Effect

Authors: Abdelghafour Galadi

Abstract:

In this paper, accurate power MOSFET models including quasi-saturation effect are presented. These models have no internal node voltages determined by the circuit simulator and use one JFET or one depletion mode MOSFET transistors controlled by an “effective” gate voltage taking into account the quasi-saturation effect. The proposed models achieve accurate simulation results with an average error percentage less than 9%, which is an improvement of 21 percentage points compared to the commonly used standard power MOSFET model. In addition, the models can be integrated in any available commercial circuit simulators by using their analytical equations. A description of the models will be provided along with the parameter extraction procedure.

Keywords: Power MOSFET, drift layer, quasi-saturation effect, SPICE model, circuit simulation.

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1228 On Weakly Prime and Weakly Quasi-Prime Fuzzy Left Ideals in Ordered Semigroups

Authors: Jian Tang

Abstract:

In this paper, we first introduce the concepts of weakly prime and weakly quasi-prime fuzzy left ideals of an ordered semigroup S. Furthermore, we give some characterizations of weakly prime and weakly quasi-prime fuzzy left ideals of an ordered semigroup S by the ordered fuzzy points and fuzzy subsets of S.

Keywords: Ordered semigroup, ordered fuzzy point, weakly prime fuzzy left ideal, weakly quasi-prime fuzzy left ideal.

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1227 Efficient Spectral Analysis of Quasi Stationary Time Series

Authors: Khalid M. Aamir, Mohammad A. Maud

Abstract:

Power Spectral Density (PSD) of quasi-stationary processes can be efficiently estimated using the short time Fourier series (STFT). In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed that computes the PSD of quasi-stationary process efficiently using offline autoregressive model order estimation algorithm, recursive parameter estimation technique and modified sliding window discrete Fourier Transform algorithm. The main difference in this algorithm and STFT is that the sliding window (SW) and window for spectral estimation (WSA) are separately defined. WSA is updated and its PSD is computed only when change in statistics is detected in the SW. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is found to be lesser than that for standard STFT technique.

Keywords: Power Spectral Density (PSD), quasi-stationarytime series, short time Fourier Transform, Sliding window DFT.

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1226 Development and Usability Evaluation of Platform Independent Mobile Learning Tool(M-LT)

Authors: Sahilu Wendeson Sahilu, Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad, Nazleeni Samiha Haron

Abstract:

Mobile learning (M-learning) integrates mobile devices and wireless computing technology to enhance the current conventional learning system. However, there are constraints which are affecting the implementation of platform and device independent M-learning. The main aim of this research is to fulfill the following main objectives: to develop platform independent mobile learning tool (M-LT) for structured programming course, and evaluate its effectiveness and usability using ADDIE instructional design model (ISD) as M-LT life cycle. J2ME (Java 2 micro edition) and XML (Extensible Markup Language) were used to develop platform independent M-LT. It has two modules lecture materials and quizzes. This study used Quasi experimental design to measure effectiveness of the tool. Meanwhile, questionnaire is used to evaluate the usability of the tool. Finally, the results show that the system was effective and also usability evaluation was positive.

Keywords: ADDIE, Conventional learning, ISD, J2ME, Mlearning, Quasi Experiment, Wireless Technology, XML

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1225 All-Silicon Raman Laser with Quasi-Phase-Matched Structures and Resonators

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

The principle of all-silicon Raman lasers for an output wavelength of 1.3 μm is presented, which employs quasi-phase-matched structures and resonators to enhance the output power. 1.3-μm laser beams for GE-PONs in FTTH systems generated from a silicon device are very important because such a silicon device can be monolithically integrated with the silicon planar lightwave circuits (Si PLCs) used in the GE-PONs. This reduces the device fabrication processes and time and also optical losses at the junctions between optical waveguides of the Si PLCs and Si laser devices when compared with 1.3-μm III-V semiconductor lasers set on the Si PLCs employed at present. We show that the quasi-phase-matched Si Raman laser with resonators can produce about 174 times larger laser power at 1.3 μm (at maximum) than that without resonators for a Si waveguide of Raman gain 20 cm/GW and optical loss 1.2 dB/cm, pumped at power 10 mW, where the length of the waveguide is 3 mm and its cross-section is (1.5 μm)2.

Keywords: All-silicon raman laser, FTTH, GE-PON, quasi-phase-matched structure, resonator.

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1224 Convergence of a One-step Iteration Scheme for Quasi-asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we use a one-step iteration scheme to approximate common fixed points of two quasi-asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. We prove weak and strong convergence theorems in a uniformly convex Banach space. Our results generalize the corresponding results of Yao and Chen [15] to a wider class of mappings while extend those of Khan, Abbas and Khan [4] to an improved one-step iteration scheme without any condition and improve upon many others in the literature.

Keywords: One-step iteration scheme, asymptotically quasi non expansive mapping, common fixed point, condition (a'), weak and strong convergence.

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1223 A Comparison of Marginal and Joint Generalized Quasi-likelihood Estimating Equations Based On the Com-Poisson GLM: Application to Car Breakdowns Data

Authors: N. Mamode Khan, V. Jowaheer

Abstract:

In this paper, we apply and compare two generalized estimating equation approaches to the analysis of car breakdowns data in Mauritius. Number of breakdowns experienced by a machinery is a highly under-dispersed count random variable and its value can be attributed to the factors related to the mechanical input and output of that machinery. Analyzing such under-dispersed count observation as a function of the explanatory factors has been a challenging problem. In this paper, we aim at estimating the effects of various factors on the number of breakdowns experienced by a passenger car based on a study performed in Mauritius over a year. We remark that the number of passenger car breakdowns is highly under-dispersed. These data are therefore modelled and analyzed using Com-Poisson regression model. We use the two types of quasi-likelihood estimation approaches to estimate the parameters of the model: marginal and joint generalized quasi-likelihood estimating equation approaches. Under-dispersion parameter is estimated to be around 2.14 justifying the appropriateness of Com-Poisson distribution in modelling underdispersed count responses recorded in this study.

Keywords: Breakdowns, under-dispersion, com-poisson, generalized linear model, marginal quasi-likelihood estimation, joint quasi-likelihood estimation.

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1222 Comparison of Methods of Estimation for Use in Goodness of Fit Tests for Binary Multilevel Models

Authors: I. V. Pinto, M. R. Sooriyarachchi

Abstract:

It can be frequently observed that the data arising in our environment have a hierarchical or a nested structure attached with the data. Multilevel modelling is a modern approach to handle this kind of data. When multilevel modelling is combined with a binary response, the estimation methods get complex in nature and the usual techniques are derived from quasi-likelihood method. The estimation methods which are compared in this study are, marginal quasi-likelihood (order 1 & order 2) (MQL1, MQL2) and penalized quasi-likelihood (order 1 & order 2) (PQL1, PQL2). A statistical model is of no use if it does not reflect the given dataset. Therefore, checking the adequacy of the fitted model through a goodness-of-fit (GOF) test is an essential stage in any modelling procedure. However, prior to usage, it is also equally important to confirm that the GOF test performs well and is suitable for the given model. This study assesses the suitability of the GOF test developed for binary response multilevel models with respect to the method used in model estimation. An extensive set of simulations was conducted using MLwiN (v 2.19) with varying number of clusters, cluster sizes and intra cluster correlations. The test maintained the desirable Type-I error for models estimated using PQL2 and it failed for almost all the combinations of MQL. Power of the test was adequate for most of the combinations in all estimation methods except MQL1. Moreover, models were fitted using the four methods to a real-life dataset and performance of the test was compared for each model.

Keywords: Goodness-of-fit test, marginal quasi-likelihood, multilevel modelling, type-I error, penalized quasi-likelihood, power, quasi-likelihood.

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1221 Web Based Remote Access Microcontroller Laboratory

Authors: H. Çimen, İ. Yabanova, M. Nartkaya, S. M. Çinar

Abstract:

This paper presents a web based remote access microcontroller laboratory. Because of accelerated development in electronics and computer technologies, microcontroller-based devices and appliances are found in all aspects of our daily life. Before the implementation of remote access microcontroller laboratory an experiment set is developed by teaching staff for training microcontrollers. Requirement of technical teaching and industrial applications are considered when experiment set is designed. Students can make the experiments by connecting to the experiment set which is connected to the computer that set as the web server. The students can program the microcontroller, can control digital and analog inputs and can observe experiment. Laboratory experiment web page can be accessed via www.elab.aku.edu.tr address.

Keywords: Embedded systems education, distance learning, internet-based control, remote microcontroller laboratory.

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1220 A Compact Quasi-Zero Stiffness Vibration Isolator Using Flexure-Based Spring Mechanisms Capable of Tunable Stiffness

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents a quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) vibration isolator using flexure-based spring mechanisms which afford both negative and positive stiffness elements, which enable self-adjustment. The QZS property of the isolator is achieved at the equilibrium position. A nonlinear mathematical model is then developed, based on the pre-compression of the flexure-based spring mechanisms. The dynamics are further analyzed using the Harmonic Balance method. The vibration attention efficiency is illustrated using displacement transmissibility, which is then compared with the corresponding linear isolator. The effects of parameters on performance are also investigated by numerical solutions. The flexure-based spring mechanisms are subsequently designed using the concept of compliant mechanisms, with evaluation by ANSYS software, and simulations of the QZS isolator.

Keywords: Vibration isolator, quasi-zero stiffness, flexure-based spring mechanisms, compliant mechanism.

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1219 Simulation of Water Droplet on Horizontally Smooth and Rough Surfaces Using Quasi-Molecular Modelling

Authors: S. Kulsri, M. Jaroensutasinee, K. Jaroensutasinee

Abstract:

We developed a method based on quasi-molecular modelling to simulate the fall of water drops on horizontally smooth and rough surfaces. Each quasi-molecule was a group of particles that interacted in a fashion entirely analogous to classical Newtonian molecular interactions. When a falling water droplet was simulated at low impact velocity on both smooth and rough surfaces, the droplets moved periodically (i.e. the droplets moved up and down for a certain period, finally they stopped moving and reached a steady state), spreading and recoiling without splash or break-up. Spreading rates of falling water droplets increased rapidly as time increased until the spreading rate reached its steady state at time t ~ 0.25 s for rough surface and t ~ 0.40 s for smooth surface. The droplet height above both surfaces decreased as time increased, remained constant after the droplet diameter attained a maximum value and reached its steady state at time t ~ 0.4 s. However, rough surface had higher spreading rates of falling water droplets and lower height on the surface than smooth one.

Keywords: Quasi-molecular modelling, particle modelling, molecular aggregate approach.

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1218 A Simple Electronic Curvy Length Measurement System: Application to Geography

Authors: Arijit Roy, Sharmistha Roy, Dibyendu Chatterjee

Abstract:

This article describes an interesting and inexpensive laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of electronics, geography and related disciplines. The objective of the proposed experiment is to improve the students’ exposure on the basic principles of instrumentation and to demonstrate an electronic measurement system. A simple electronic curvy length measurement system is presented here. Such a system can be used to measure curvy lengths e.g. length of a river, road or railway line etc. from topographical map. The proposed system is composed of simple functional blocks which are usually demonstrated in laboratory or in theory course of electronics at the undergraduate level. The experiment is assigned to a group of students and it is found that the experiment can fulfill its objectives with high degree of satisfaction.

Keywords: Curvy length measurement, Education, Electronics, Laboratory experiment, Topographical map.

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1217 The Effect of the Initial Stresses on the Reflection and Transmission of Plane Quasi-Vertical Transverse Waves in Piezoelectric Materials

Authors: Abo-El-Nour N. Abd-Alla, Fatimah A. Alsheikh

Abstract:

This study deals with the phenomena of reflection and transmission (refraction) of qSV-waves, for an incident of quasi transverse vertically waves, at a plane interface of two semi-infinite piezoelectric elastic media under the influence of the initial stresses. The relations governing the reflection and transmission coefficients of these reflected waves for various suitable boundary conditions are derived. We have shown analytically that reflection and transmission coefficients of (qP) and (qSV) waves depend upon the angle of incidence, the parameters of electric potential, the material constants of the medium as will as the initial stresses presented in the media. The numerical calculations of the reflection and transmission amplitude ratios for different values of initial stresses have been carried out by computer for different materials as examples and the results are given in the form of graphs. Finally, some of particular cases are considered.

Keywords: Quasi plane vertical transverse waves, reflection and transmission coefficients, initial stresses, PZT-5H Ceramic, Aluminum Nitride (AlN), Piezoelectricity

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1216 Two-step Iterative Process For Common Fixed Points of Two Asymptotically Quasi-nonexpansive Mappings

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider an iteration process for approximating common fixed points of two asymptotically quasinonexpansive mappings and we prove some strong and weak convergence theorems for such mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces.

Keywords: Asypmtotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings, Commonfixed point, Strong and weak convergence, Iteration process.

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1215 Failure to Replicate the Unconscious Thought Advantages

Authors: Vladimíra Čavojová, Eva Ballová Mikušková

Abstract:

In this study we tried to replicate the unconscious thought advantage (UTA), which states that complex decisions are better handled by unconscious thinking. We designed an experiment in e-prime using similar material as the original study (choosing between four different apartments, each described by 12 attributes). A total of 73 participants (52 women (71.2%); 18 to 62 age: M=24.63; SD=8.7) took part in the experiment. We did not replicate the results suggested by UTT. However, from the present study we cannot conclude whether this was the case of flaws in the theory or flaws in our experiment and we discuss several ways in which the issue of UTA could be examined further.

Keywords: Decision making, unconscious thoughts, UTT.

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1214 Synchronization of Traveling Waves within a Hollow-Core Vortex

Authors: H. Ait Abderrahmane, M. Fayed, H. D. Ng, G. H. Vatistas

Abstract:

The present paper expands details and confirms the transition mechanism between two subsequent polygonal patterns of the hollow-core vortex. Using power spectral analysis, we confirm in this work that the transition from any N-gon to (N+1)-gon pattern observed within a hollow-core vortex of shallow rotating flows occurs in two steps. The regime was quasi-periodic before the frequencies lock (synchronization). The ratios of locking frequencies were found to be equal to (N-1)/N.

Keywords: Patterns, quasi-periodic, swirling, synchronization, transition.

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1213 Quasi-Static Analysis of End Plate Beam-to-Column Connections

Authors: A. Al-Rifaie, Z. W. Guan, S. W. Jones

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for modelling and analysing end plate beam-to-column connections to obtain the quasi-static behaviour using non-linear dynamic explicit integration. In addition to its importance to study the static behaviour of a structural member, quasi-static behaviour is largely needed to be compared with the dynamic behaviour of such members in order to investigate the dynamic effect by proposing dynamic increase factors (DIFs). The beam-to-column bolted connections contain various contact surfaces at which the implicit procedure may have difficulties converging, resulting in a large number of iterations. Contrary, explicit procedure could deal effectively with complex contacts without converging problems. Hence, finite element modelling using ABAQUS/explicit is used in this study to address the dynamic effect may be produced using explicit procedure. Also, the effect of loading rate and mass scaling are discussed to investigate their effect on the time of analysis. The results show that the explicit procedure is valuable to model the end plate beam-to-column connections in terms of failure mode, load-displacement relationships. Also, it is concluded that loading rate and mass scaling should be carefully selected to avoid the dynamic effect in the solution.

Keywords: Quasi-static, end plate, finite element, connections.

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1212 Experimental Study on Quasi-Static Response of Multi-layer Sandwich Composite Structures

Authors: S. Jedari Salami

Abstract:

In this paper the effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and core- types in top and bottom cores on quasi- static loading are studied experimentally. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Quasi- static tests were done by ZWICK testing machine on fully backed specimens with two foam cores, Poly Urethane Rigid (PUR) and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC). It was found that the core material type has made significant role on improving the sandwich panel’s behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location.

Keywords: Multi-layer sandwich structures, Internal sheet, Crushable foam, Top core, Bottom core.

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1211 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Euler equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-offreedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters and wing pressure distribution during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD Modelling, Quasi-steady Flow, Moving-body Trajectories, Transonic Store Separation, Moving-body Trajectories.

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1210 Characterizations of Γ-Semirings by Their Cubic Ideals

Authors: Debabrata Mandal

Abstract:

Cubic ideals, cubic bi-ideals and cubic quasi-ideals of a Γ-semiring are introduced and various properties of these ideals are investigated. Among all other results, some characterizations of regular Γ-semirings are achieved.

Keywords: Γ-semiring, cubic ideal, normal cubic ideal, cubic bi-ideal, cubic quasi-ideal, cartesian product, regular, intra-regular.

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1209 Expansion of A Finit Size Partially Ionized Laser-Plasma

Authors: Mohamed Fawzi Mahboub, Mourad Djebli

Abstract:

The expansion mechanism of a partially ionized plasma produced by laser interaction with solid target (copper) is studied. For this purpose we use a hydrodynamical model which includes a source term combined with Saha's equation. The obtained self-similar solution in the limit of quasi-neutrality shows that the expansion, at the earlier stage, is driven by the combination of thermal pressure and electrostatic potential. They are of the same magnitude. The initial ionized fraction and the temperature are the leading parameters of the expanding profiles,

Keywords: expansion, quasi-neutral, laser-ablated plasma, self- similar.

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1208 Numerical Solution of Hammerstein Integral Equations by Using Quasi-Interpolation

Authors: M. Zarebnia, S. Khani

Abstract:

In this paper first, a numerical method based on quasiinterpolation for solving nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the Hammerstein-type is presented. Then, we approximate the solution of Hammerstein integral equations by Nystrom’s method. Also, we compare the methods with some numerical examples.

Keywords: Hammerstein integral equations, quasi-interpolation, Nystrom’s method.

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1207 A Highly Efficient Process Applying Sige Film to Generate Quasi-Beehive Si Nanostructure for the Growth of Platinum Nanopillars with High Emission Property for the Applications of X-Ray Tube

Authors: Pin-Hsu Kao, Wen-Shou Tseng, Hung-Ming Tai, Yuan-Ming Chang, Jenh-Yih Juang

Abstract:

We report a lithography-free approach to fabricate the biomimetics, quasi-beehive Si nanostructures (QBSNs), on Si-substrates. The self-assembled SiGe nanoislands via the strain induced surface roughening (Asaro-Tiller-Grinfeld instability) during in-situ annealing play a key role as patterned sacrifice regions for subsequent reactive ion etching (RIE) process performed for fabricating quasi-beehive nanostructures on Si-substrates. As the measurements of field emission, the bare QBSNs show poor field emission performance, resulted from the existence of the native oxide layer which forms an insurmountable barrier for electron emission. In order to dramatically improve the field emission characteristics, the platinum nanopillars (Pt-NPs) were deposited on QBSNs to form Pt-NPs/QBSNs heterostructures. The turn-on field of Pt-NPs/QBSNs is as low as 2.29 V/μm (corresponding current density of 1 μA/cm2), and the field enhancement factor (β-value) is significantly increased to 6067. More importantly, the uniform and continuous electrons excite light emission, due to the surrounding filed emitters from Pt-NPs/QBSNs, can be easily obtained. This approach does not require an expensive photolithographic process and possesses great potential for applications.

Keywords: Biomimetics, quasi-beehive Si, SiGe nanoislands, platinum nanopillars, field emission.

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