Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 211

Search results for: Probiotic formula

211 Flow Properties of Commercial Infant Formula Powders

Authors: Maja Benkovic, Ingrid Bauman

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to investigate flow properties of powdered infant formula samples. Samples were purchased at a local pharmacy and differed in composition. Lactose free infant formula, gluten free infant formula and infant formulas containing dietary fibers and probiotics were tested and compared with a regular infant formula sample which did not contain any of these supplements. Particle size and bulk density were determined and their influence on flow properties was discussed. There were no significant differences in bulk densities of the samples, therefore the connection between flow properties and bulk density could not be determined. Lactose free infant formula showed flow properties different to standard supplement-free sample. Gluten free infant formula with addition of probiotic microorganisms and dietary fiber had the narrowest particle size distribution range and exhibited the best flow properties. All the other samples exhibited the same tendency of decreasing compaction coefficient with increasing flow speed, which means they all become freer flowing with higher flow speeds.

Keywords: flow properties, infant formula, powderedmaterial

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210 Some Peculiarities of Growth and Functional Activity of Escherichia coli Strain from Probiotic Formula “ASAP“

Authors: Marine A. Balayan, Susanna S. Mirzabekyan, Marine Isajanyan, Zaven S. Pepoyan, Аrmen H. Trchounian, Аstghik Z. Pepoyan, Helena Bujdakova

Abstract:

It has been shown that pH 7,3 and 37 0C are the optimal condition for the growth of E. coli “ASAP". The cells grow well on Glucose, Lactose, D-Mannitol, D-Sorbitol, (+)-Xylose, L- (+)-Arabinose and Dulcitol. No growth has been observed on Sucrose, Inositol, Phenylalanine, and Tryptophan. The strain is sensitive to a range of antibiotics. The present study has demonstrated that E. coli “ASAP" inhibit the growth of S. enterica ATCC #700931 in vitro. The studies on conjugating activity has revealed no conjugant of E. coli “ASAP" with plasmid strains E. coli G35#59 and S. enterica ATCC #700931. On the other hand, the conjugants with low frequencies were obtained from E. coli “ASAP" with E. coli G35#61, and E. coli “ASAP" with randomly chosen isolate from healthy human gut microflora: E. coli E6. The results of present study have demonstrated improvements in gut microflora condition of patients with different diseases after the administration of “ASAP"

Keywords: E. coli, ASAP, Probiotic formula, gut microflora.

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209 Effect of Bacillus subtilis Pb6 on Growth and Gut Microflora in Clostridium perfringens Challenged Broilers

Authors: A. Khalique, T. Naseem, N. Haque, Z. Rasool

Abstract:

The objective of current study was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis PB6 (CloSTAT) as a probiotic in broilers. The corn-soybean based diet was divided into four treatment groups; T1 (basal diet with no probiotic and no Clostridium perfringens); T2 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens without probiotic); T3 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens having 0.05% probiotic); T4 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens having 0.1% probiotic). Every treatment group had four replicates with 24 birds each. Body weight and feed intake were measured on weekly basis, while ileal bacterial count was recorded on day-28 following Clostridium perfringens challenge. The 0.1% probiotic treatment showed 7.2% increase in average feed intake (P=0.05) and 8% increase in body weight compared to T2. In 0.1% treatment body weight was 5% higher than T3 (P=0.02). It was also observed that 0.1% treatment had improved feed conversion ratio (1.77) on 6th week. No effect of treatment was observed on mortality and ileal bacterial count. The current study indicated that 0.1% use of probiotic had positive response in C. perfringens challenged broilers.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis PB6, antibiotic growth promoters, Clostridium perfringens, CloSTAT, broilers.

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208 Improvement of Gregory's formula using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: N. Khelil. L. Djerou , A. Zerarka, M. Batouche

Abstract:

Consider the Gregory integration (G) formula with end corrections where h Δ is the forward difference operator with step size h. In this study we prove that can be optimized by minimizing some of the coefficient k a in the remainder term by particle swarm optimization. Experimental tests prove that can be rendered a powerful formula for library use.

Keywords: Numerical integration, Gregory Formula, Particle Swarm optimization.

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207 Effect of a Probiotic Compound in Rumen Development, Diarrhea Incidence and Weight Gain in Young Holstein Calves

Authors: Camilo Aldana, Sara Cabra, Carlos A. Ospina, Fredy Carvajal, Fernando Rodríguez

Abstract:

It has been proven that early establishment of microbial flora in digestive tract of ruminants, has a beneficial effect on their health condition and productivity. A probiotic compound, made from five bacteria isolated from adult bovine cattle, was dosed to 15 Holstein newborn calves in order to measure its capacity of improving body weight gain and reduce diarrhea incidence. The test was performed in the municipality of Cajicá (Colombia), at 2580 m.a.s.l., throughout rainy season, with environmental temperature that oscillated between 4 to 25 °C. Five calves were allotted to control (no addition of probiotic). Treatments 1, and 2 (5 calves per group) received 10 ml Probiotic mix 1 and 2, respectively. Probiotic mixes 1 and 2 where similar in microbial composition but different in production process. Probiotics were added to the morning milk and dosed on a daily basis by a month and then on a weekly basis for three additional months. Diarrhea incidence was measured by observance of number of animals affected in each group; each animal was weighed up on a daily basis for obtaining weight gain and rumen fluid samples were extracted with oro-esophageal catheter for determining level of fiber and grain consumption.

Keywords: Calve, diarrhea, probiotic, rumen microorganisms.

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206 Developing a Simple and an Accurate Formula for the Conduction Angle of a Single Phase Rectifier with RL Load

Authors: S. Ali Al-Mawsawi, Fadhel A. Albasri

Abstract:

The paper presents a simple and an accurate formula that has been developed for the conduction angle (δ) of a single phase half-wave or full-wave controlled rectifier with RL load. This formula can be also used for calculating the conduction angle (δ) in case of A.C. voltage regulator with inductive load under discontinuous current mode. The simulation results shows that the conduction angle calculated from the developed formula agree very well with that obtained from the exact solution arrived from the iterative method. Applying the developed formula can reduce the computational time and reduce the time for manual classroom calculation. In addition, the proposed formula is attractive for real time implementations.

Keywords: Conduction Angle, Firing Angle, Excitation Angle, Load Angle.

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205 All Proteins Have a Basic Molecular Formula

Authors: Homa Torabizadeh

Abstract:

This study proposes a basic molecular formula for all proteins. A total of 10,739 proteins belonging to 9 different protein groups classified on the basis of their functions were selected randomly. They included enzymes, storage proteins, hormones, signalling proteins, structural proteins, transport proteins, immunoglobulins or antibodies, motor proteins and receptor proteins. After obtaining the protein molecular formula using the ProtParam tool, the H/C, N/C, O/C, and S/C ratios were determined for each randomly selected sample. In this case, H, N, O, and S coefficients were specified per carbon atom. Surprisingly, the results demonstrated that H, N, O, and S coefficients for all 10,739 proteins are similar and highly correlated. This study demonstrates that despite differences in the structure and function, all known proteins have a similar basic molecular formula CnH1.58 ± 0.015nN0.28 ± 0.005nO0.30 ± 0.007nS0.01 ± 0.002n. The total correlation between all coefficients was found to be 0.9999.

Keywords: Protein molecular formula, Basic unit formula, Protparam tool.

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204 Manipulation of Probiotics Fermentation of Yogurt by Cinnamon and Licorice: Effects on Yogurt Formation and Inhibition of Helicobacter Pylori Growth in vitro

Authors: S. Behrad, M.Y. Yusof, K. L. Goh, A.S. Baba

Abstract:

Probiotic bacteria especially Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium exert suppressive effect on Helicobacter pylori. Cinnamon and licorice have been traditionally used for the treatment of gastric ulcer. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of herbs on yogurt fermentation, the level of probiotic bacteria in yogurt during 28 days storage and the effect of herbal yogurt on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. Cinnamon or licorice was mixed with milk and the mixture was fermented with probiotic bacteria to form herbal-yogurt. Changes of pH and total titratable acids were monitored and the viability of probiotic bacteria was evaluated during and after refrigerated storage. The in vitro inhibition of H. pylori growth was determined using agar diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The presence of herbs did not affect the probiotic population during storage. There were no significant differences in pH and TTA between herbal-yogurts and plain-yogurt during fermentation and storage. Water extract of cinnamon-yogurt showed the highest inhibition effect (13.5mm) on H. pylori growth in comparison with licorice-yogurt (11.2mm). The present findings indicate cinnamon and licorice has bioactive components to decrease the growth of H. pylori.

Keywords: Cinnamon, Helicobacter pylori, Herbal-Yogurt, Licorice, Probiotics

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203 Establishing a New Simple Formula for Buckling Length Factor (K) of Rigid Frames Columns

Authors: Ehab Hasan Ahmed Hasan Ali

Abstract:

The calculation of buckling length factor (K) for steel frames columns is a major and governing processes to determine the dimensions steel frame columns cross sections during design. The buckling length of steel frames columns has a direct effect on the cost (weight) of using cross section. A new formula is required to determine buckling length factor (K) by simplified way. In this research a new formula for buckling length factor (K) was established to determine by accurate method for a limited interval of columns ends rigidity (GA, GB). The new formula can be used ease to evaluate the buckling length factor without needing to complicated equations or difficult charts.

Keywords: Buckling length, New formula, Curve fitting, Simplification, Steel column design.

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202 Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Food

Authors: Wilailak Siripornadulsil, Siriyanapat Tasaku, Jutamas Buahorm, Surasak Siripornadulsil

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to isolate LAB from various sources, dietary supplement, Thai traditional fermented food, and freshwater fish and to characterize their potential as probiotic cultures. Out of 1,558 isolates, 730 were identified as LAB based on isolation on MRS agar supplemented with a bromocresol purple indicator&CaCO3 and Gram-positive, catalase- and oxidase-negative characteristics. Eight isolates showed the potential probiotic properties including tolerance to acid, bile salt & heat, proteolytic, amylolytic & lipolytic activities and oxalate-degrading capability. They all showed the antimicrobial activity against some Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, they were identified as Enterococcus faecalis BT2 & MG30, Leconostoc mesenteroides SW64 and Pediococcus pentosaceous BD33, CF32, NP6, PS34 & SW5. The health beneficial effects and food safety will be further investigated and developed as a probiotic or protective culture used in Nile tilapia belly flap meat fermentation.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, pathogen, probiotic, protective culture.

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201 Performance of Bio-Composite Carbonized Materials in Probiotic Applications

Authors: Irina S. Savitskaya, Aida S. Kistaubayeva, Nuraly S. Akimbekov, Ilya E. Digel, Azhar A. Zhubanova

Abstract:

A new composite sorbent based on carbonized rice husk (CRH) and immobilized on it living cells and inactivated cultural liquid containing antimicrobials metabolites of Bacillus subtilis CK-245 is developed. The sorption and antimicrobic activity of CRH concerning five species of Enterobacteriaceae is studied. Prospects of use of developed sorbent in medicine and veterinary science is shown.

Keywords: CRH, probiotic, concentrated fugate, sorption and antimicrobial activity.

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200 Effect of Fat Percentage and Prebiotic Composition on Proteolysis, ACE-Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activity of Probiotic Yogurt

Authors: Mohammad B. HabibiNajafi, Saeideh Sadat Fatemizadeh, Maryam Tavakoli

Abstract:

In recent years, the consumption of functional foods, including foods containing probiotic bacteria, has come to notice. Milk proteins have been identified as a source of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme )ACE( inhibitory peptides and are currently the best-known class of bioactive peptides. In this study, the effects of adding prebiotic ingredients (inulin and wheat fiber) and fat percentage (0%, 2% and 3.5%) in yogurt containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei on physicochemical properties, degree of proteolysis, antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activity within 21 days of storage at 5 ± 1 °C were evaluated. The results of statistical analysis showed that the application of prebiotic compounds led to a significant increase in water holding capacity, proteolysis and ACE-inhibitory of samples. The degree of proteolysis in yogurt increases as storage time elapses (P < 0.05) but when proteolysis exceeds a certain threshold, this trend begins to decline. Also, during storage time, water holding capacity reduced initially but increased thereafter. Moreover, based on our findings, the survival of Lactobacillus casei in samples treated with inulin and wheat fiber increased significantly in comparison to the control sample (P < 0.05) whereas the effect of fat percentage on the survival of probiotic bacteria was not significant (P = 0.095). Furthermore, the effect of prebiotic ingredients and the presence of probiotic cultures on the antioxidant activity of samples was significant (P < 0.05).

Keywords: Yogurt, proteolysis, ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant activity.

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199 Probiotic Potential and Antimicrobial Activity of Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Chicken Caecal and Fecal Samples

Authors: Salma H. Abu Hafsa, A. Mendonca, B. Brehm-Stecher, A. A. Hassan, S. A. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Enterococci are important inhabitants of the animal intestine and are widely used in probiotic products. A probiotic strain is expected to possess several desirable properties in order to exert beneficial effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to isolate, characterize and identify Enterococcus sp. from chicken cecal and fecal samples to determine potential probiotic properties. Enterococci were isolated from chicken ceca and feces of thirty three clinically healthy chickens from a local farm. In vitro studies were performed to assess antibacterial activity of the isolated LAB (using agar well diffusion and cell free supernatant broth technique against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis), survival in acidic conditions, resistance to bile salts, and their survival during simulated gastric juice conditions at pH 2.5. Isolates were identified by biochemical carbohydrate fermentation patterns using an API 50 CHL kit and API ZYM kits and by sequenced 16S rDNA. An isolate belonging to E. faecium species exhibited inhibitory effect against S. enteritidis. This isolate producing a clear zone as large as 10.30 mm or greater and was able to grow in the coculture medium and at the same time, inhibited the growth S. enteritidis. In addition, E. faecium exhibited significant resistance under highly acidic conditions at pH 2.5 for 8 h and survived well in bile salt at 0.2% for 24 h and showing ability to survive in the presence of simulated gastric juice at pH 2.5. Based on these results, E. faecium isolate fulfills some of the criteria to be considered as a probiotic strain and therefore, could be used as a feed additive with good potential for controlling S. Enteritidis in chickens. However, in vivo studies are needed to determine the safety of the strain.

Keywords: Acid tolerance, antimicrobial activity, Enterococcus faecium, probiotic.

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198 Survival of Four Probiotic Strains in Acid, Bile Salt and After Spray Drying

Authors: Rawichar Chaipojjana, Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to select the survival of probiotic strains when exposed to acidic and bile salts condition. Four probiotic strains Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047, Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500, Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1338 and Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 1465 were cultured in MRS broth and incubated at 35ºC for 15 hours before being inoculated into acidic condition 5 M HCl, pH 2 for 2 hours and bile salt 0.3%, pH 5.8 for 8 hour. The survived probiotics were counted in MRS agar. Among four stains, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 was the highest tolerance specie. Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 reduced 6.74±0.07 log CFU/ml after growing in acid and 5.52±0.05 log CFU/ml after growing in bile salt. Then, double emulsion of microorganisms was chosen to encapsulate before spray drying. Spray drying was done with the inlet temperature 170ºC and outlet temperature 80ºC. The results showed that the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 after spray drying decreased from 9.63 ± 0.32 to 8.31 ± 0.11 log CFU/ml comparing with non-encapsulated, 9.63 ± 0.32 to 4.06 ± 0.08 log CFU/ml. Therefore, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 would be able to survive in gastrointestinal and spray drying condition.

Keywords: Probiotic, acid, bile salt, spray drying.

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197 Isolation and Probiotic Characterization of Arsenic-Resistant Lactic Acid Bacteria for Uptaking Arsenic

Authors: Jatindra N. Bhakta, Kouhei Ohnishi, Yukihiro Munekage, Kozo Iwasaki

Abstract:

The growing health hazardous impact of arsenic (As) contamination in environment is the impetus of the present investigation. Application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the removal of toxic and heavy metals from water has been reported. This study was performed in order to isolate and characterize the Asresistant LAB from mud and sludge samples for using as efficient As uptaking probiotic. Isolation of As-resistant LAB colonies was performed by spread plate technique using bromocresol purple impregnated-MRS (BP-MRS) agar media provided with As @ 50 μg/ml. Isolated LAB were employed for probiotic characterization process, acid and bile tolerance, lactic acid production, antibacterial activity and antibiotic tolerance assays. After As-resistant and removal characterizations, the LAB were identified using 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 103 isolates were identified as As-resistant strains of LAB. The survival of 6 strains (As99-1, As100-2, As101-3, As102-4, As105-7, and As112-9) was found after passing through the sequential probiotic characterizations. Resistant pattern pronounced hollow zones at As concentration >2000 μg/ml in As99-1, As100-2, and As101-3 LAB strains, whereas it was found at ~1000 μg/ml in rest 3 strains. Among 6 strains, the As uptake efficiency of As102-4 (0.006 μg/h/mg wet weight of cell) was higher (17 – 209%) compared to remaining LAB. 16S rDNA sequencing data of 3 (As99- 1, As100-2, and As101-3) and 3 (As102-4, As105-7, and As112-9) LAB strains clearly showed 97 to 99% (340 bp) homology to Pediococcus dextrinicus and Pediococcus acidilactici, respectively. Though, there was no correlation between the metal resistant and removal efficiency of LAB examined but identified elevated As removing LAB would probably be a potential As uptaking probiotic agent. Since present experiment concerned with only As removal from pure water, As removal and removal mechanism in natural condition of intestinal milieu should be assessed in future studies.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, As-resistant, characterization, Pediococcus sp., As removal probiotic.

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196 An Asymptotic Formula for Pricing an American Exchange Option

Authors: Hsuan-Ku Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, the American exchange option (AEO) valuation problem is modelled as a free boundary problem. The critical stock price for an AEO is satisfied an integral equation implicitly. When the remaining time is large enough, an asymptotic formula is provided for pricing an AEO. The numerical results reveal that our asymptotic pricing formula is robust and accurate for the long-term AEO.

Keywords: Integral equation, asymptotic solution, free boundary problem, American exchange option.

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195 Preliminary Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Escherichia coli and Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Thailand Fermented Foods

Authors: Phanwipa Pangsri, Yawariyah Weahayee

Abstract:

The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 10 samples of fermented foods (Sa-tor-dong and Bodo) in South locality of Thailand. The 23 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were selected, which were exhibited a clear zone and growth on MRS agar supplemented with CaCO3. All of lactic acid bacteria were tested on morphological and biochemical. The result showed that all isolates were Gram’s positive, non-spore forming but only 10 isolates displayed catalase negative. The 10 isolates including BD1 .1, BD 1.2, BD 2.1, BD2.2, BD 2.3, BD 3.1, BD 4.1, BD 5.2, ST 4.1 and ST 5.2 were selected for inhibition activity determination. Only 2 strains (ST 4.1 and BD 2.3) showed inhibition zone on agar, when using Escherichia coli sp. as target strain. The ST 4.1 showed highest inhibition zone on agar, which was selected for probiotic property testing. The ST4.1 isolate could grow in MRS broth containing a high concentration of sodium chloride 6%, bile salts 7%, pH 4-10 and vary temperature at 15-45°C.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, Probiotic, Antimicrobial.

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194 Fermentation of Germinated Native Black Rice Milk Mixture by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria

Authors: N. Mongkontanawat

Abstract:

This research aimed to demonstrate probiotic germinated native black rice juice fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei TISTR 390). Germinated native black rice juice was inoculated with a 24-h old lactic culture and incubated at 30 °C for 72 hours. Changes in pH, acidity, total soluble solid, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled conditions at 0-h, 24-h, 48-h, and 72-h fermentations were evaluated. The study found out that the change in pH and total soluble solid of probiotic germinated black rice juice significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased at 72-h fermentation (5.67±0.12 to 2.86±0.04 and 7.00±0.00 to 6.40±0.00 ºbrix at 0-h and 72-h fermentations, respectively). On the other hand, the amount of titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid and the viable cell count significantly (p≤0.05) increased at 72-h fermentation (0.11±0.06 to 0.43±0.06 (% lactic acid) and 3.60 x 106 to 2.75 x 108 CFU/ml at 0-h and 72-h fermentations, respectively). Interestingly, the amount of γ-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) had a significant difference (p≤0.05) twice as high as that of the control group (0.25±0.01 and 0.13±0.01 mg/100g, respectively). In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity assayed by DPPH method also showed that the IC50 values were significantly (p≤0.05) higher than the control (147.71±0.96 and 202.55±1.24 mg/ml, respectively). After 4 weeks of cold storage at 4 °C, the viable cell counts of lactic acid bacteria reduced to 1.37 x 106 CFU/ml. In conclusion, fermented germinated native black rice juice could be served as a healthy beverage for vegans and people who are allergic to cow milk products.

Keywords: Germinated native black rice, probiotic, lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus casei.

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193 The Construction of a Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacterium Expressing Acid-Resistant Phytase Enzyme

Authors: R. Majidzadeh Heravi, M. Sankian, H. Kermanshahi, M. R. Nassiri, A. Heravi Moussavi, S. A. Lari, A. R. Varasteh

Abstract:

The use of probiotics engineered to express specific enzymes has been the subject of considerable attention in poultry industry because of increased nutrient availability and reduced cost of enzyme supplementation. Phytase enzyme is commonly added to poultry feed to improve digestibility and availability of phosphorus from plant sources. To construct a probiotic with potential of phytate degradation, phytase gene (appA) from E. coli was cloned and transformed into two probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis. L. salivarous showed plasmid instability, unable to express the gene. The expression of appA gene in L. lactis was analyzed by detecting specific RNA and zymography assay. Phytase enzyme was isolated from cellular extracts of recombinant L. lactis, showing a 46 kDa band upon the SDS-PAGE analysis. Zymogram also confirmed the phytase activity of the 46 kDa band corresponding to the enzyme. An enzyme activity of 4.9U/ml was obtained in cell extracts of L. lactis. The growth of native and recombinant L. lactis was similar in the presence of two concentrations of ox bile.

Keywords: Lactobacillus salivarus, Lactococcus lactis, recombinant, phytase, poultry.

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192 Comparison of the Effects of Three Different Types of Probiotics on the Sucrase Activities of the Small Intestine Mucosa of Broiler Chicks

Authors: Fazlollah Moosavinasab, Zhila Motamedi

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different types of probiotic on Sucrase enzyme activity of the small intestine mucosa in male broilers. The experimental design was arranged as randomized completely blocks in 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatment. 180 male broilers of Ross 308 commercial hybrid were designated into 4 groups. Three replicates of 15 birds were assigned to each treatment. Control treatments (diet contained no probiotic) were fed according to the NRC as base diet and three treatment groups were fed from the same diet plus three different types of probiotics. Birds were slaughtered after 21 and 42 days and different segments of small intestine (at 1,10,30,50,70 and 90% of total length the small intestine) were taken from each replicates (N=2) Sucrase enzyme activities were measured and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed by Spss (P<0.05). In three treatment groups, probiotic had no significant effect on sucrase activity in different ages and segments of small intestine (P<0.05). These data suggested that probiotics administration had no significant effect on treatments comparing to the control group.

Keywords: Broiler, Chicks, Probiotics, Small Intestine, Sucrase

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191 Direct Block Backward Differentiation Formulas for Solving Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Zarina Bibi Ibrahim, Mohamed Suleiman, Khairil Iskandar Othman

Abstract:

In this paper, a direct method based on variable step size Block Backward Differentiation Formula which is referred as BBDF2 for solving second order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is developed. The advantages of the BBDF2 method over the corresponding sequential variable step variable order Backward Differentiation Formula (BDFVS) when used to solve the same problem as a first order system are pointed out. Numerical results are given to validate the method.

Keywords: Backward Differentiation Formula, block, secondorder.

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190 Implementation of the Recursive Formula for Evaluation of the Strength of Daniels’ Model

Authors: Václav Sadílek, Miroslav Vořechovský

Abstract:

The paper deals with the classical fiber bundle model of equal load sharing, sometimes referred to as the Daniels’ bundle or the democratic bundle. Daniels formulated a multidimensional integral and also a recursive formula for evaluation of the strength cumulative distribution function. This paper describes three algorithms for evaluation of the recursive formula and also their implementations with source codes in the Python high-level programming language. A comparison of the algorithms are provided with respect to execution time. Analysis of orders of magnitudes of addends in the recursion is also provided.

Keywords: Daniels bundle model, equal load sharing, Python, mpmath.

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189 The Frame Analysis and Testing for Student Formula

Authors: Tanawat Limwathanagura, Chartree Sithananun, Teekayu Limchamroon, Thanyarat Singhanart

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to study the analysis and testing for determining the torsional stiffness of the student formula-s space frame. From past study, the space frame for Chulalongkorn University Student Formula team used in 2011 TSAE Auto Challenge Student Formula in Thailand was designed by considering required mass and torsional stiffness based on the numerical method and experimental method. The numerical result was compared with the experimental results to verify the torsional stiffness of the space frame. It can be seen from the large error of torsional stiffness of 2011 frame that the experimental result can not verify by the numerical analysis due to the different between the numerical model and experimental setting. In this paper, the numerical analysis and experiment of the same 2011 frame model is performed by improving the model setting. The improvement of both numerical analysis and experiment are discussed to confirm that the models from both methods are same. After the frame was analyzed and tested, the results are compared to verify the torsional stiffness of the frame. It can be concluded that the improved analysis and experiments can used to verify the torsional stiffness of the space frame.

Keywords: Space Frame, Student Formula, Torsional Stiffness, TSAE Auto Challenge

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188 Influence of Probiotics on Dairy Cows Diet

Authors: V. A. Vieira, M. P. Sforcini, V. Endo, G. C. Magioni, M. D. S. Oliveira

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper was evaluate the effect of diets containing different levels of probiotic on performance and milk composition of lactating cows. Eight Holstein cows were distributed in two 4x4 Latin square. The diets were based on corn silage, concentrate and the treatment (0, 3, 6 or 9 grams of probiotic/animal/day). It was evaluated the dry matter intake of nutrients, milk yield and composition. The use of probiotics did not affect the nutrient intake (p>0.05) neither the daily milk production or corrected to 4% fat (p>0.05). However, it was observed that there was a significant fall in milk composition with higher levels of probiotics supplementation. These results emphasize the need of further studies with different experimental designs or improve the number of Latin square with longer periods of adaptation.

Keywords: Dairy cow, milk composition, probiotics.

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187 The Development of Chulalongkorn University's SAE Student Formula's Space Frame

Authors: Chartree Sithananun, Teekayu Limchamroon, Tanawat Limwathanagura, Thanyarat Singhanart

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to present the development of the frame of Chulalongkorn University team in TSAE Auto Challenge Student Formula and Student Formula SAE Competition of Japan. Chulalongkorn University's SAE team, has established since year 2003, joined many competitions since year 2006 and became the leading team in Thailand. Through these 5 years, space frame was the most selected and developed year by year through six frame designs. In this paper, the discussions on the conceptual design of these frames are introduced, focusing on the mass and torsional stiffness improvement. The torsional stiffness test was performed on the real used frames and the results are compared. It can be seen that the 2010-2011 frame is firstly designed based on the analysis and experiment that considered the required mass and torsional stiffness. From the torsional stiffness results, it can be concluded that the frames were developed including the decreasing of mass and the increasing torsional stiffness by applying many techniques.

Keywords: SAE Student Formula, Space Frame, Torsional Stiffness

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186 Effects of Ophiocordyceps dipterigena BCC 2073 β-Glucan as a Prebiotic on the in vitro Growth of Probiotic and Pathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Wai Prathumpai, Pranee Rachtawee, Sutamat Khajeeram, Pariya Na Nakorn

Abstract:

The  β-glucan produced by Ophiocordyceps dipterigena BCC 2073 is a (1, 3)-β-D-glucan with highly branching O-6-linkedside chains that is resistant to acid hydrolysis (by hydrochloric acid and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase). This β-glucan can be utilized as a prebiotic due to its advantageous structural and biological properties. The effects of using this β-glucan as the sole carbon source for the in vitro growth of two probiotic bacteria (L. acidophilus BCC 13938 and B. animalis ATCC 25527) were investigated. Compared with the effect of using 1% glucose or fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as the sole carbon source, using 1% β-glucan for this purpose showed that this prebiotic supported and stimulated the growth of both types of probiotic bacteria and induced them to produce the highest levels of metabolites during their growth. The highest levels of lactic and acetic acid, 10.04 g·L-1 and 2.82 g·L-1, respectively, were observed at 2 h of cultivation using glucose as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, the fermentation broth obtained using 1% β-glucan as the sole carbon source had greater antibacterial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria (B. subtilis TISTR 008, E. coli TISTR 780, and S. typhimurium TISTR 292) than did the broths prepared using glucose or FOS as the sole carbon source. The fermentation broth obtained by growing L. acidophilus BCC 13938 in the presence of β-glucan inhibited the growth of B. subtilis TISTR 008 by more than 70% and inhibited the growth of both S. typhimurium TISTR 292 and E. coli TISTR 780 by more than 90%. In conclusion, O. dipterigena BCC 2073 is a potential source of a β-glucan prebiotic that could be used for commercial production in the near future.

Keywords: β-glucan, Ophiocordyceps dipterigena, prebiotic, probiotic, antimicrobial.

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185 New Fourth Order Explicit Group Method in the Solution of the Helmholtz Equation

Authors: Norhashidah Hj. Mohd Ali, Teng Wai Ping

Abstract:

In this paper, the formulation of a new group explicit method with a fourth order accuracy is described in solving the two dimensional Helmholtz equation. The formulation is based on the nine-point fourth order compact finite difference approximation formula. The complexity analysis of the developed scheme is also presented. Several numerical experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of the developed scheme. Comparisons with other existing schemes will be reported and discussed. Preliminary results indicate that this method is a viable alternative high accuracy solver to the Helmholtz equation.

Keywords: Explicit group method, finite difference, Helmholtz equation, five-point formula, nine-point formula.

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184 An eighth order Backward Differentiation Formula with Continuous Coefficients for Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Olusheye Akinfenwa, Samuel Jator, Nianmin Yoa

Abstract:

A block backward differentiation formula of uniform order eight is proposed for solving first order stiff initial value problems (IVPs). The conventional 8-step Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF) and additional methods are obtained from the same continuous scheme and assembled into a block matrix equation which is applied to provide the solutions of IVPs on non-overlapping intervals. The stability analysis of the method indicates that the method is L0-stable. Numerical results obtained using the proposed new block form show that it is attractive for solutions of stiff problems and compares favourably with existing ones.

Keywords: Stiff IVPs, System of ODEs, Backward differentiationformulas, Block methods, Stability.

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183 The Study of the Discrete Risk Model with Random Income

Authors: Peichen Zhao

Abstract:

In this paper, we extend the compound binomial model to the case where the premium income process, based on a binomial process, is no longer a linear function. First, a mathematically recursive formula is derived for non ruin probability, and then, we examine the expected discounted penalty function, satisfy a defect renewal equation. Third, the asymptotic estimate for the expected discounted penalty function is then given. Finally, we give two examples of ruin quantities to illustrate applications of the recursive formula and the asymptotic estimate for penalty function.

Keywords: Discounted penalty function, compound binomial process, recursive formula, discrete renewal equation, asymptotic estimate.

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182 Evaluation of Thrombolytic Activity of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and Thai Herbal Prasaplai Formula

Authors: Warachate Khobjai, Suriyan Sukati, Khemjira Jarmkom, Pattaranut Eakwaropas, Surachai Techaoei

Abstract:

The propose of this study was to investigate in vitro thrombolytic activity of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and Prasaplai, a Thai herbal formulation of Z. cassumunar Roxb. Herbs were extracted with boiling water and concentrated by lyophilization. To observe their thrombolytic potential, an in vitro clot lysis method was applied where streptokinase and sterile distilled water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Crude aqueous extracts from Z. cassumunar Roxb. and Prasaplai formula showed significant thrombolytic activity by clot lysis of 17.90% and 25.21%, respectively, compared to the negative control water (5.16%) while the standard streptokinase revealed 64.78% clot lysis. These findings suggest that Z. cassumunar Roxb. exhibits moderate thrombolytic activity and cloud play an important role in the thrombolytic properties of Prasaplai formula. However, further study should be done to observe in vivo clot dissolving potential and to isolate active component(s) of these extracts.

Keywords: Aqueous extract, prasaplai formula, thrombolytic activity, Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.

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