Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30831
Effect of Fat Percentage and Prebiotic Composition on Proteolysis, ACE-Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activity of Probiotic Yogurt
Abstract:In recent years, the consumption of functional foods, including foods containing probiotic bacteria, has come to notice. Milk proteins have been identified as a source of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme )ACE( inhibitory peptides and are currently the best-known class of bioactive peptides. In this study, the effects of adding prebiotic ingredients (inulin and wheat fiber) and fat percentage (0%, 2% and 3.5%) in yogurt containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei on physicochemical properties, degree of proteolysis, antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activity within 21 days of storage at 5 ± 1 °C were evaluated. The results of statistical analysis showed that the application of prebiotic compounds led to a significant increase in water holding capacity, proteolysis and ACE-inhibitory of samples. The degree of proteolysis in yogurt increases as storage time elapses (P < 0.05) but when proteolysis exceeds a certain threshold, this trend begins to decline. Also, during storage time, water holding capacity reduced initially but increased thereafter. Moreover, based on our findings, the survival of Lactobacillus casei in samples treated with inulin and wheat fiber increased significantly in comparison to the control sample (P < 0.05) whereas the effect of fat percentage on the survival of probiotic bacteria was not significant (P = 0.095). Furthermore, the effect of prebiotic ingredients and the presence of probiotic cultures on the antioxidant activity of samples was significant (P < 0.05).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132052Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 719
 Martin A (2001) Functional foods: from marketing to public health. OCL-Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides 8(4):310–311.
 Lourens-Hattingh A, Viljeon CB (2001) Yoghurt as probiotic carrier food. International Dairy Journal 11:1–17.
 Aryana KJ, McGrew P(2007) Quality attributes of yogurt with Lactobacillus casei and various prebiotics. LWT 40:1808-1814.
 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) (2002) Guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food. Report of a joint FAO/WHO working group on drafting guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in foods. London ON, Canada.
 Shah NP (2007) Functional cultures and health benefits. International Dairy Journal 17:1262–1277.
 Vinderola CG, Reinheimer JA (2003) Lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria: A comparative in vitro study of probiotic characteristics and biological resistance. Food Research International 36:895-904.
 Gallego CG, Salminen S (2016) Novel Probiotics and Prebiotics: How Can They Help in Human Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis? Applied Food Biotechnology 3(2):72-81.
 Shah NP (2000) Some beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria. Bioscience Micro flora 19:99–106.
 Matsuzaki T (2003) Health properties of fermented milk with Lactobacillus casei strain shirota (LcS). Handbook of Fermented Functional Food. CRC press LLC, Boca Raton 145-175.
 Serdula MK, Byers MH, Simoes E, Mendlein ML, Coates RJ (1996) The association between fruit and vegetable intake and chronic disease risk factors. Epidemiology 7:161-165.
 Thompson KH, Godin DV (1995) Micronutrients and antioxidants in the progression of diabetes. Nutrition Research 15:1377-1410.
 Rizvi SI, Jha R, Maurya PK (2006) Erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system in human aging. Rejuvenation Research 9:470-474.
 Elmadfa I, Meyer A (2008) Body composition, changing physiological functions and nutrient requirements of the elderly. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 52:2-5.
 Chang OK, Seol KH, Jeong SG (2013) Casein hydrolysis by Bifidobacteriumlongum KACC91563 and antioxidant activities of peptides derived therefrom. Journal of Dairy Science 96:5544–5555.
 Smacchi E, Gobbetti M (2013) bioactive peptides in dairy products: synthesis and interaction with proteolytic enzymes. Food Microbiology 17:129-141.
 Gonzalez-Gonzalez CR, Tuohy KM, Jauregi P (2011) Production of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in milk fermented with probiotic strains: Effects of calcium, pH and peptides on the ACE-inhibitory activity. International Dairy Journal 21:615-622.
 Sarmadi BH, Ismail A (2010) Antioxidative peptides from food proteins: A review. Peptides 31:1949-1956.
 Sun J, He H, Xie B (2004) Novel antioxidant peptides from fermented mushroom Ganodermalucidum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52:6646-6652.
 Lee Y, Choe E (2008) Singlet Oxygen Quenching Effects of Phosphatidylcholine in Emulsion Containing Sunflower Oil. Journal of Food Science 73 (6):506-511.
 Amirdivani SH, Salihin Baba A (2011) Change in yogurt fermentation characteristic and antioxidant potential and in vivo inhibition of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme upon the inclusion of peppermint, dill and basil. Food Science and Technology 44:1458-1464.
 Church FC, Swaisgood HE, Porter DH, Catignani GL (1983) Spectrophotometric assay using o-phthaldialdehyde for determination of proteolysis in milk and isolated milk proteins. Journal of Dairy Science 66:1219-1227.
 Nielsen PM, Petersen D, Dambmann C (2001) Improved method for determining food protein degree of hydrolysis. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 5:642-646.
 Keogh MK, O’Kennedy BT (1998) Rheology of stirred yogurt as affected by added milk fat, protein, and hydrocolloids. International Journal of Food Science 63:108-112.
 Ravula RR, Shah NP (1998) Selection enumeration of Lactobacillus casei from yoghurts and fermented milk drinks. Biotechnology Techniques 12:819–822.
 Shihata A, Shah NP (2000) Photolytic profiles of yogurt and probiotic bacteria. International Dairy Journal 10:401-408.
 Donkor ON, Henriksson A, Singh TK, Vasilijevic T, Shah NP (2007) ACE-inhibitory activity of probiotic yoghurt. International Dairy Journal 17:1321-1331.
 Donkor ON, Nilmini SLI, Stolic P, Vasiljevic T, Shah NP (2006) Survival and activity of selected probiotic organisms in set-type yoghurt during cold storage. International Dairy Journal 17:657–665.
 Cumby N, Zhong Y, Naczk M, Shahidi F (2008) Antioxidant activity and water-holding capacity of canola protein hydrolysates. Food Chemistry 109:144–148.
 Sodini I, Mattas J, Tong PS (2006) Influence of pH and heat treatment of whey on the functional properties of whey protein concentrates in yoghurt. International Dairy Journal 12:1464-1469.
 Isleten M, Karagul-Yuceer Y (2006) Effects of dried dairy ingredients on physical and sensory properties of nonfat yogurt. Journal of Dairy Science 8:2865-2872.
 Gonzalez CJ, Encinas JP, Gracia-Lopez ML, Otero A (2000) Characterization and identification of lactic acid bacteria from freshwater fishes. Food Microbiology 17:383-391.
 Ramachandran L, Shah NP (2010) Characterization of functional, biochemical and textural properties of synbiotic low-fat yogurts during refrigerated storage. Food Science and Technology 43:819-827.
 Nielsen MS, Martinussen T, Flambard B, Sørensen KI, Otte J (2009) Peptide profiles and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of fermented milk products: Effect of bacterial strain, fermentation pH, and storage time. International Dairy Journal 19:155–165.
 Fuglsang A, Rattray F, Nilsson D, Nyborg N (2003) Lactic acid bacteria: inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme in vitro and in vivo. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 83:27-34.
 Yuksel Z, Erdem Y (2010) The influence of transglutaminase treatment on functional properties of set yoghurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology 63:86-97.
 Leclerc PL, Gauthier SF, Bachelard H, Santure M, Roy D (2002) Antihypertensive activity of casein-enriched milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus. International Dairy Journal 12:995–1004.
 Hata Y, Yamamoto M, Ohni M, Nakajima K, Nakamura Y, Takano T (1996) A placebo-controlled study of the effect of sour milk on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64:767–771.
 Pedroche J, Yust MM, Girón-Calle J, Alaiz M, Millán F, Vioque J (2002) Utilisation of chickpea protein isolates for production of peptides with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 82:960-965.
 Suh HJ, Whang JH, Lee H (1999) A peptide from corn gluten hydrolysate that is inhibitory toward angiotensin I-converting enzyme. Biotechnology Letters 21:1055–1058.
 Yang HY, Yang SC, Chen JR, Tzeng YH, Han BC (2004) Soyabean protein hydrolysate prevents the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. British Journal of Nutrition 92:507–512.
 Wu J, Ding X (2002) Characterization of inhibition and stability of soy-protein-derived angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides. Food Research International 35(4): 367–375.
 Kuba M, Tanaka K, Tawata S, Takeda Y, Yasuda M (2003) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides isolated from Tofuyo fermented soybean food. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 67(6):1278-1283.