Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Mung bean

45 Levels of Some Antinutritional Factors in Tempeh Produced From Some Legumes and Jojobas Seeds

Authors: Ferial M. Abu-Salem, Rasha K. Mohamed, Ahmed Y. Gibriel, Nagwa M. H. Rasmy

Abstract:

Three legumes i.e. soybean, kidney bean and mung bean, and jojoba seed as an oil seed were processed into tempeh, a fermented food. Changes in phytic acid, total phenols and trypsin inhibitor were monitored during the pretreatments (soaking, soaking– dehulling, washing and cooking) and fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus. Soaking was found to reduce total phenol and trypsin inhibitor levels in soybean, kidney bean and mung bean. However, phytic acid was reduced by soaking in kidney bean and mung bean. Cooking was the most effective in reducing the activity of trypsin inhibitor. During fermentation, a slight increase in the level of trypsin inhibitor was noticed in soybean. Phytic acid and total phenols were decreased during fermentation in soybean, kidney bean but mung bean faild to form tempeh because the antifungal activity of herein a protein in mung bean, which exerts both chitinase activity and antifungal activity against a variety of fungal species. On the other hand, solid- state fermentation of jojoba seeds was not effective in reducing their content from cyanogenic glycosides (simmondsin).

Keywords: Antinutritional factors, cyanogenic glycosides (Simmondsin), tempeh.

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44 Classification of Germinatable Mung Bean by Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

Authors: Kaewkarn Phuangsombat, Arthit Phuangsombat, Anupun Terdwongworakul

Abstract:

Hard seeds will not grow and can cause mold in sprouting process. Thus, the hard seeds need to be separated from the normal seeds. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging in a range of 900 to 1700 nm was implemented to develop a model by partial least squares discriminant analysis to discriminate the hard seeds from the normal seeds. The orientation of the seeds was also studied to compare the performance of the models. The model based on hilum-up orientation achieved the best result giving the coefficient of determination of 0.98, and root mean square error of prediction of 0.07 with classification accuracy was equal to 100%.

Keywords: Mung bean, near infrared, germinatability, hard seed.

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43 Effect of Heat-Moisture Treatment on the Formation and Properties of Resistant Starches From Mung Bean (Phaseolus radiatus) Starches

Authors: Su-Ling Li, Qun-Yu Gao

Abstract:

Mung bean starches were subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) by different moisture contents (15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35%) at 120Ôäâ for 12h. The impact on the yields of resistant starch (RS), microstructure, physicochemical and functional properties was investigated. Compared to native starch, the RS content of heat-moisture treated starches increased significantly. The RS level of HMT-20 was the highest of all the starches. Birefringence was displayed clear at the center of native starch. For HMT starches, pronounced birefringence was exhibited on the periphery of starch granules; however, birefringence disappeared at the centre of some starch granules. The shape of HMT starches hadn-t been changed and the integrity of starch granules was preserved for all the conditions. Concavity could be observed on HMT starches under scanning electronic microscopy. After HMT, apparent amylose contents were increased and starch macromolecule was degraded in comparison with those of native starch. There was a reduction in swelling power on HMT starches, but the solubility of HMT starches was higher than that of native starch. Both of native and HMT starches showed A-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Furthermore, there is a higher intensity at the peak of 15.0 and 22.9 Å than those of native starch.

Keywords: Resistant starch, mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus) starch, heat-moisture treatment, physicochemical properties.

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42 Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Ana R. B. Figueiredo, Paula M. R. Correia, Fernando J. Gonçalves

Abstract:

The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial analysis that revealed that the bean, apple and cinnamon jam was globally better accepted. However, with this study, the consumers determined that the bean and carrot jam had the most attractive color and the bean and apple jam the better consistency. Additionally, it was possible to analyze the jams for their chemical components, namely fat, fiber, protein, sugars and antioxidant activity. The obtained results showed that the bean and carrot jam had the highest lipid content, while the bean, apple and cinnamon jam had the highest fiber content, when compared to the other two jams. Regarding the sugar content, both jams with apple revealed similar sugar values, which were higher than the sugar content of the bean and carrot jam. The antioxidant activity was on average 10 mg TE/g.

Keywords: Bean jam, chemical composition, sensorial analysis, product acceptability.

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41 Different Tillage Possibilities for Second Crop in Green Bean Farming

Authors: Yilmaz Bayhan, Emin Güzel, Ömer Barış Özlüoymak, Ahmet İnce, Abdullah Sessiz

Abstract:

In this study, determining of reduced tillage techniques in green bean farming as a second crop after harvesting wheat was targeted. To this aim, four different soil tillage methods namely, heavy-duty disc harrow (HD), rotary tiller (ROT), heavy-duty disc harrow plus rotary tiller (HD+ROT) and no-tillage (NT) (seeding by direct drill) were examined. Experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The highest green beans yields were obtained in HD+ROT and NT as 5,862.1 and 5,829.3 Mg/ha, respectively. The lowest green bean yield was found in HD as 3,076.7 Mg/ha. The highest fuel consumption was measured 30.60 L ha-1 for HD+ROT whereas the lowest value was found 7.50 L ha-1 for NT. No tillage method gave the best results for fuel consumption and effective power requirement. It is concluded that no-tillage method can be used in second crop green bean in the Thrace Region due to economic and erosion conditions.

Keywords: Soil tillage, green bean, vegetative, generative, yield.

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40 Comparison of Proximate Compositions, Resistant Starch Content, and Pasting Properties of Different Colored Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

Authors: S. Sasanam, T. Paseephol, A. Moongngarm

Abstract:

Four different colors of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) (black, white, red and black/white speckled) and red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were used to evaluate proximate compositions, starch content, and pasting properties. There were no significant differences of moisture, protein, ash, fat, and carbohydrate contents of all bean types. The kidney bean had significantly lower amounts of total starch and solubilized starch compared to those of other cowpeas (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the red cowpea and red kidney bean had highest content of resistant starch (9-10%). Decortication indicated no significant effect on the proximate compositions of all samples, but it significantly decreased the resistant starch content in cowpeas and increased the solubilized starch and total starch content in all types of cowpeas. The highest values of pasting properties, generally observed in flours obtained from black and black/white speckled cowpea.

Keywords: Cowpea, Decortication, Red kidney bean, Resistantstarch

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39 Higher Plants Ability to Assimilate Explosives

Authors: G. Khatisashvili, M. Gordeziani, G. Adamia, E. Kvesitadze, T. Sadunishvili, G. Kvesitadze

Abstract:

The ability of agricultural and decorative plants to absorb and detoxify TNT and RDX has been studied. All tested 8 plants, grown hydroponically, were able to absorb these explosives from water solutions: Alfalfa > Soybean > Chickpea> Chikling vetch >Ryegrass > Mung bean> China bean > Maize. Differently from TNT, RDX did not exhibit negative influence on seed germination and plant growth. Moreover, some plants, exposed to RDX containing solution were increased in their biomass by 20%. Study of the fate of absorbed [1-14ðí]-TNT revealed the label distribution in low and high-molecular mass compounds, both in roots and above ground parts of plants, prevailing in the later. Content of 14ðí in lowmolecular compounds in plant roots are much higher than in above ground parts. On the contrary, high-molecular compounds are more intensively labeled in aboveground parts of soybean. Most part (up to 70%) of metabolites of TNT, formed either by enzymatic reduction or oxidation, is found in high molecular insoluble conjugates. Activation of enzymes, responsible for reduction, oxidation and conjugation of TNT, such as nitroreductase, peroxidase, phenoloxidase and glutathione S-transferase has been demonstrated. Among these enzymes, only nitroreductase was shown to be induced in alfalfa, exposed to RDX. The increase in malate dehydrogenase activities in plants, exposed to both explosives, indicates intensification of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, that generates reduced equivalents of NAD(P)H, necessary for functioning of the nitroreductase. The hypothetic scheme of TNT metabolism in plants is proposed.

Keywords: Higher plants, TNT, RDX, transformation.

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38 Acceptance of Consumer on Various Tempeh and Protein Content Comparison

Authors: Jaruwan Chutrtong

Abstract:

This research aims to study consumer acceptance of Tempeh from various raw materials (type of bean) and determine protein contents for comparison. Tempeh made from soybean, peanut, white kidney bean and sesame in the ratio: - soybean:sesame =1:0.1, soybean:white kidney:sesame =1:1:0.1, soybean:peanut:sesame =1:1:0.1 and peanut:white kidney bean: sesame =1:1:0.1. The study found that consumer is most satisfied with appearances on soybean mixed with white kidney and black sesame tempeh (3.98). The most satisfied tempeh with textures is soybean mixed with peanut and black sesame tempeh (4.00). The most satisfied tempeh with odor is peanut mixed with white kidney bean and black sesame tempeh (4.04). And the most satisfied tempeh with flavor is peanut mixed with white kidney bean and black sesame tempeh (4.2). The amount of protein in production, soybean tempeh has the highest protein. When we add sesame seeds, it made the protein content slightly decreased (1.86 and 0.6 %). When we use peanut as raw material, the protein content decreased 15.3%. And when we use white kidney bean as raw material, the protein content decreased (22.77- 26.11%). 

Keywords: Acceptance, bean, protein content, tempeh.

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37 Biplot Analysis for Evaluation of Tolerance in Some Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes to Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV)

Authors: S. Ghasemi, M. M. Kamelmanesh, A. Namayandeh, R. Biabanikhankahdani

Abstract:

The common bean is the most important grain legume for direct human consumption in the world and BCMV is one of the world's most serious bean diseases that can reduce yield and quality of harvested product. To determine the best tolerance index to BCMV and recognize tolerant genotypes, 2 experiments were conducted in field conditions. Twenty five common bean genotypes were sown in 2 separate RCB design with 3 replications under contamination and non-contamination conditions. On the basis of the results of indices correlations GMP, MP and HARM were determined as the most suitable tolerance indices. The results of principle components analysis indicated 2 first components totally explained 98.52% of variations among data. The first and second components were named potential yield and stress susceptible respectively. Based on the results of BCMV tolerance indices assessment and biplot analysis WA8563-4, WA8563-2 and Cardinal were the genotypes that exhibited potential seed yield under contamination and noncontamination conditions.

Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, BCMV, principle components analysis, bi-plot analysis, tolerance.

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36 Phytotoxicity of Lead on the Physiological Parameters of Two Varieties of Broad Bean (Vicia faba)

Authors: El H. Bouziani, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad

Abstract:

The phytotoxicity of heavy metals can be expressed on roots and visible part of plants and is characterized by molecular and metabolic answers at various levels of organization of the whole plant. The present study was undertaken on two varieties of broad bean Vicia faba (Sidi Aïch and Super Aguadulce). The device was mounted on a substrate prepared by mixing sand, soil and compost, the substrate was artificially contaminated with three doses of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] 0, 500 and 1000 ppm. Our objective is to follow the behavior of plant opposite the stress by evaluating the physiological parameters. The results reveal a reduction in the parameters of the productivity (chlorophyll and proteins production) with an increase in the osmoregulators (soluble sugars and proline).These results show that the production of broad bean is strongly modified by the disturbance of its internal physiology under lead exposure.

Keywords: Broad bean, lead, stress, physiological parameters, phytotoxicity.

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35 Antioxidant Enzymes and Crude Mitochondria ATPases in the Radicle of Germinating Bean (Vigna unguiculata) Exposed to Different Concentrations of Crude Oil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of Bonny Light whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle of germinating bean (Vigna unguiculata). The percentage germination, level of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme and mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase activities were measured in the radicle of bean after 7, 14 and 21 days post germination. Viable bean seeds were planted in soils contaminated with 10ml, 25ml and 50ml of whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) to obtain 2, 5 and 10% v/w crude oil contamination. There was dose dependent reduction of the number of bean seeds that germinated in the contaminated soils compared with control (p<0.001). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as, adenosine triphosphatase enzymes, were also significantly (p<0.001) altered in the radicle of the plants grown in contaminated soil compared with the control. Generally, the level of lipid peroxidation was highest after 21 days post germination when compared with control. Stress to germinating bean caused by Bonny Light crude oil or its water soluble fraction resulted in adaptive changes in crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, Bonny Light crude oil, Radicle, Mitochondria ATPases.

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34 Rural Women’s Skill Acquisition in the Processing of Locust Bean in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: A. A. Adekunle, A. M. Omoare, W. O. Oyediran

Abstract:

This study was carried out to assess rural women’s skill acquisition in the processing of locust bean in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 90 women locust bean processors for this study. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The result showed that the mean age of respondents was 40.72 years. Most (70.00%) of the respondents were married. The mean processing experience was 8.63 years. 93.30% of the respondents relied on information from fellow locust beans processors and friends. All (100%) the respondents did not acquire improved processing skill through trainings and workshops. It can be concluded that the rural women’s skill acquisition on modernized processing techniques was generally low. It is hereby recommend that the rural women processors should be trained by extension service providers through series of workshops and seminars on improved processing techniques.

Keywords: Locust bean, processing, skill acquisition, rural women.

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33 Normal and Peaberry Coffee Beans Classification from Green Coffee Bean Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

Authors: Hira Lal Gope, Hidekazu Fukai

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop a system which can identify and sort peaberries automatically at low cost for coffee producers in developing countries. In this paper, the focus is on the classification of peaberries and normal coffee beans using image processing and machine learning techniques. The peaberry is not bad and not a normal bean. The peaberry is born in an only single seed, relatively round seed from a coffee cherry instead of the usual flat-sided pair of beans. It has another value and flavor. To make the taste of the coffee better, it is necessary to separate the peaberry and normal bean before green coffee beans roasting. Otherwise, the taste of total beans will be mixed, and it will be bad. In roaster procedure time, all the beans shape, size, and weight must be unique; otherwise, the larger bean will take more time for roasting inside. The peaberry has a different size and different shape even though they have the same weight as normal beans. The peaberry roasts slower than other normal beans. Therefore, neither technique provides a good option to select the peaberries. Defect beans, e.g., sour, broken, black, and fade bean, are easy to check and pick up manually by hand. On the other hand, the peaberry pick up is very difficult even for trained specialists because the shape and color of the peaberry are similar to normal beans. In this study, we use image processing and machine learning techniques to discriminate the normal and peaberry bean as a part of the sorting system. As the first step, we applied Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as machine learning techniques to discriminate the peaberry and normal bean. As a result, better performance was obtained with CNN than with SVM for the discrimination of the peaberry. The trained artificial neural network with high performance CPU and GPU in this work will be simply installed into the inexpensive and low in calculation Raspberry Pi system. We assume that this system will be used in under developed countries. The study evaluates and compares the feasibility of the methods in terms of accuracy of classification and processing speed.

Keywords: Convolutional neural networks, coffee bean, peaberry, sorting, support vector machine.

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32 Adaptability of ‘Monti Dauni’ Bean Ecotypes in Plain Areas

Authors: Disciglio G., Nardella E., Gatta G., Giuliani M.M., Tarantino A.

Abstract:

The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the best known of the legumes, and it has a long cultivation tradition in Italy. The territory of “Subappennino Dauno” (southern Italy) is at around 700 m a.s.l. and is predominantly grown with cereals, olive trees and grapevines. Ecotypes of white beans to eat dry (such as cannellini beans) are also grown, which are sought for their palatability, high digestibility, and ease of cooking. However, these are not easy to find on the market due to their low production in relatively small areas and on small family farms that use seeds handed down from generation to generation. The introduction of these ecotypes in plain areas of the Puglia region would provide an opportunity to promote the diffusion of this type of bean. To investigate the adaptability of these ecotypes in plain environments (Cerignola, in southern Italy) a comparative trial was carried out between three ‘Monti Dauni’ ecotypes (E1, E2, E3) that are native to mountain areas and the similar commercial variety, ‘Cannellini’. The data provide useful information about the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of these ecotypes when grown in lowland environments. Ecotype E3 provided the greatest bean production (2.34 t ha-1) compared to ‘Cannellini’ (1.28 t ha-1) and the other ecotypes (0.55 and 0.40 t ha-1, for E1 and E2, respectively), due to its greater plant growth and the larger size of the seed (and thickness, in particular). Finally, ecotype E2 provided the greatest protein content (31.2%), although not significantly different from the commercial cultivar ‘Cannellini’ (32.1%).

Keywords: 'Monti Dauni' bean, ecotypes, adaptability in plain areas, quali-quantitive.

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31 Seed Dressing and Foliar Spray of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with Essential Oils and Disinfectants for Suppressing Root Rot and Wilt Incidence under Field Conditions

Authors: N. S. El-Mougy, M. M. Abdel-Kader, H. M. Abouelnasr

Abstract:

The efficacy of two essential oils applied as a bean seed dressing followed by seedlings foliar spray with four commercial disinfectants against root rot and wilt incidence was evaluated under field conditions. The essential oils, grape seed and peppermint oils and the disinfectants, Gold, Revarest, Klenva, Malva were applied. Chitosan and the fungicide Topsin-M were used as comparison treatment. Essential oils individually or combined with disinfectants were applied as a bean seed dressing. Furthermore, emerged bean plants were sprayed with the same treatments. Under laboratory conditions, growth inhibition effect was observed for the isolated, tested fungi R. solani and F. oxysporum when exposed to essential oils individually or combined with disinfectants. A high inhibitor effect was recorded for peppermint followed by grape seed oils. Concentrations of 1% and 2% of chitosan as well as Topsin M at 400 ppm showed complete reduction (100%) in the two fungal growths. Under field conditions, the obtained results showed that the applied treatments of chitosan had a superior effect on root rot and wilt disease incidence compared with other tested treatments. It was found that seed coating treatment provides good protection of emerged green bean seeds against the root pathogens attack compared with the fungicide and control treatments. Also, the application of seed dressing with essential oils accompanied by seedling spray demonstrated similar results. It was observed that essential oils had an enhancing effect against disease incidence when combined with disinfectants compared with their application. The obvious yield increase was significantly higher in all applied treatments than in fungicide and control.

Keywords: Bean, disinfectants, essential oils, root rot, wilt.

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30 Antioxidant Activity of Germinated African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

Authors: Nneka N. Uchegbu

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the antioxidant activity of germinated African Yam Bean (AYB) on oxidative stress markers in alloxan induced diabetic rat. Rats were randomized into three groups; control, diabetic and germinated AYB – treated diabetic rats. The Total phenol and flavonoid content and DPPH radical scavenging activity before and after germination were investigated. The glucose level, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione of the animals were also determined using standard technique for four weeks. Germination increased the total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of AYB extract by 19.14%, 32.28% and 57.25% respectively. The diabetic rats placed on germinated AYB diet had a significant decrease in the blood glucose and lipid peroxidation with a corresponding increase in glutathione (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that consumption of germinated AYB can be a good dietary supplement in inhibiting hyperglycemia/ hyperlipidemia and the prevention of diabetic complication associated with oxidative stress.

Keywords: African Yam Bean, Antioxidant, Diabetes, Total phenol.

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29 Optimization of Gentamicin Production: Comparison of ANN and RSM Techniques

Authors: M.Rajasimman, S.Subathra

Abstract:

In this work, statistical experimental design was applied for the optimization of medium constituents for Gentamicin production by Micromsonospora echinospora subs pallida (MTCC 708) in a batch reactor and the results are compared with the ANN predicted values. By central composite design, 50 experiments are carried out for five test variables: Starch, Soya bean meal, K2HPO4, CaCO3 and FeSO4. The optimum condition was found to be: Starch (8.9,g/L), Soya bean meal (3.3 g/L), K2HPO4 (0.8 g/L), CaCO3 (4 g/L) and FeSO4 (0.03 g/L). At these optimized conditions, the yield of gentamicin was found to be 1020 mg/L. The R2 values were found to be 1 for ANN training set, 0.9953 for ANN test set, and 0.9286 for RSM.

Keywords: Gentamicin, optimization, Micromonospora echinospora, ANN, RSM

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28 Effect of Phosphate and Zinc Biofertilizers on Seed Yield and Molar Ratio of Phytic Acid to Zinc in Two Cultivars of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Authors: M. Mohammadi

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the effect of phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers on the yield, phytic acid (PA), Zn concentration and PA/Zn molar ratio in bean, a field experiment was carried out for two years. The treatments included two cultivars of bean (Talash and Sadri), four levels of P (P0, P1: 100 kg ha-1 triple super phosphate (TSP), P2: 50 kg ha-1 TSP + phosphate bio-fertilizer, P3: phosphate bio-fertilizer), three levels of Zn (Zn0, Zn1: 50 kg ha-1 ZnSO4, Zn2: Zn bio-fertilizer). Phosphate bio-fertilizer consisted of inoculum of mycorrhizal fungus and Azotobacter and Zn bio-fertilizer consisted of Pseudomonas bacteria. The results revealed that there was significant difference between yield and Zn concentration between years. The effect of cultivar was significant on studied parameters. The lowest content of PA and PA/Zn were obtained from Talash. P treatment caused to significant difference on parameters in which P2 caused to increase yield, P and Zn concentration, and decrease PA and PA/Zn by 21.8%, 38.2%, 33.4%, 17.4% and 38.6% respectively. Zn treatment caused to significant difference on studied parameters. The maximum number of parameters were obtained from Zn1 and Zn2. The higher Zn concentration led to lower content of PA and PA/Zn. Using of P and Zn bio–fertilizers were caused to increasing nutrient uptake, improving growth condition and reducing PA and PA/Zn molar ratio.

Keywords: Mycorrhizae, phosphorus, pseudomonas, zinc.

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27 Effects of Varying Fermentation Periods on the Chemical Composition of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and Acha (Digitaria exilis) Flour Blends and Sensory Properties of Their Products

Authors: P. N. Okeke, J. N. Chikwendu

Abstract:

The study evaluated the effects of varying fermentation periods on the nutrients and anti-nutrients composition of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and acha (Digitaria exilis) flour blends and sensory properties of their products. The African yam bean seeds and acha grains were fermented for 24 hrs, 48 and 72 hrs, dried (sun drying) and milled into fine flour. The fermented flours were used in a ratio of 70:30 (Protein basis) to formulate composite flour for meat pie and biscuits production. Both the fermented and unfermented flours and products were analyzed for chemical composition using the standard method. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 15 to determine the mean and standard deviation. The 24, 48, and 72 hrs fermentation periods increased protein (22.81, 26.15 and 24.00% respectively). The carbohydrate, ash and moisture contents of the flours were also increased as a result of fermentation (68.01-76.83, 2.26-4.88, and 8.36-13.00% respectively). The 48 hrs fermented flour blends had the highest increase in ash relative to the control (4.88%). Fermentation increased zinc, iron, magnesium and phosphorus content of the flours. Treatment drastically reduced the anti-nutrient (oxalate, saponin, tannin, phytate, and hemagglutinin) levels of the flours. Both meat pie and biscuits had increased protein relative to the control (27.36-34.28% and 23.66-25.09%). However, the protein content of the meat pie increased more than that of the biscuits. Zinc, Iron, Magnesium and phosphorus levels increased in both meat pie and biscuits. Organoleptic attributes of the products (meat pie and biscuits) were slightly lower than the control except those of the 72 hrs fermented flours.

Keywords: Fermentation, African yam bean, Acha, biscuits, meat-pie.

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26 Some Biological and Molecular Characterization of Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus Isolated from Soybean in Tehran Province, Iran

Authors: F. S. Abtahi, M. Koohi Hbibi, M. Khodaei Motlagh

Abstract:

Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is a potyvirus with a worldwide distribution. This virus causes serious economic losses in Iran in many leguminoses. During 20008, samples were collected from soybeans fields in Tehran Province. Four isolates (S1, S2 and S3) were inoculated on 15 species of Cucurbitaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Solanacae and Leguminosae. Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor. Did not developed any symptoms.all isolates caused mosaic symptoms on Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Kidney and P. vulgaris cv. Bountiful. The molecular weights of coat protein using SDS-PAGE and western blotting were estimated at 33 kDa. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using one primer pairs designed by L. XU et al. An approximately 920 bp fragment was amplified with a specific primer.

Keywords: ELISA, RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE, BCMNV.

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25 Detection and Analysis of Deficiencies in Groundnut Plant using Geometric Moments

Authors: Sumeet S. Nisale, Chandan J. Bharambe, Vidya N.More

Abstract:

We propose our genuine research of geometric moments which detects the mineral inadequacy in the frail groundnut plant. This plant is prone to many deficiencies as a result of the variance in the soil nutrients. By analyzing the leaves of the plant, we detect the visual symptoms that are not recognizable to the naked eyes. We have collected about 160 samples of leaves from the nearby fields. The images have been taken by keeping every leaf into a black box to avoid the external interference. For the first time, it has been possible to provide the farmer with the stages of deficiencies. This paper has applied the algorithms successfully to many other plants like Lady-s finger, Green Bean, Lablab Bean, Chilli and Tomato. But we submit the results of the groundnut predominantly. The accuracy of our algorithm and method is almost 93%. This will again pioneer a kind of green revolution in the field of agriculture and will be a boon to that field.

Keywords: Component image, geometric moments, average intensity, average affected area, black box

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24 Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics of Broilers Chicken Fed on Diet Containing Brewer Spent Grain at Finisher Phase

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, L. A Tijani

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer spent grain (BSG) on growth performance and serum biochemistry characteristics of blood of broilers chickens. Three hundred and fifteen (4 weeks old) Oba – Marshall Broilers were used for the experiment. Five experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 (T1) containing 100% soya bean meal as the control, Diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 had BSG as replacement for soya bean meal at 0%, 36%, 57%, 76% and 100% respectively. The birds were allocated into each dietary group in a completely randomized design with 63 chicks in 3 replicates of 21 chicks each. The birds were offered these diets ad libitum from four weeks old to nine weeks old (35 days). Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were assessed. Blood samples were also collected to examine the effect of BSG waste on hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers. Result indicated that BSG did not significantly (P>0.05) affect feed intake and weight gain. However, FCR and final weight of finishing broilers differs significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. The blood hematology and serum biochemistry indices did not follow a particular trend. Cholesterol concentration reduced with increasing level of BSG in the diet. Hb, RBC, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, heterophiles and MCHC were significant (P<0.05) while MHC and MVC were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by BSG in diets. serum total protein, albumin, and cholesterol concentration also showed significance (P<0.05) difference. Thus, BSG can replace soya bean meal up to 14% in the broiler finisher diet without deleterious effect on the growth, hematology and the serum biochemistry of broiler chicken.

Keywords: Broilers, growth performance, hematology, serum biochemistry.

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23 Efficiency of Wood Vinegar Mixed with Some Plants Extract against the Housefly (Musca domestica L.)

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Kanlaya

Abstract:

The efficiency of wood vinegar mixed with each individual of three plants extract such as: citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), neem seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), and yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus Urb.) were tested against the second instar larvae of housefly (Musca domestica L.). Steam distillation was used for extraction of the citronella grass while neem and yam bean were simple extracted by fermentation with ethyl alcohol. Toxicity test was evaluated in laboratory based on two methods of larvicidal bioassay: topical application method (contact poison) and feeding method (stomach poison). Larval mortality was observed daily and larval survivability was recorded until the survived larvae developed to pupae and adults. The study resulted that treatment of wood vinegar mixed with citronella grass showed the highest larval mortality by topical application method (50.0%) and by feeding method (80.0%). However, treatment of mixed wood vinegar and neem seed showed the longest pupal duration to 25 day and 32 days for topical application method and feeding method respectively. Additional, larval duration on treated M. domestica larvae was extended to 13 days for topical application method and 11 days for feeding method. Thus, the feeding method gave higher efficiency compared with the topical application method.

Keywords: Housefly (Musca domestica L.), neem seed (Azadirachta indica), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus), mortality.

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22 Influence of Drought on Yield and Yield Components in White Bean

Authors: Gholamreza Habibi

Abstract:

In order to study seed yield and seed yield components in bean under reduced irrigation condition and assessment drought tolerance of genotypes, 15 lines of White beans were evaluated in two separate RCB design with 3 replications under stress and non stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among varieties in terms of traits under study, indicating the existence of genetic variation among varieties. The results indicate that drought stress reduced seed yield, number of seed per plant, biological yield and number of pod in White been. In non stress condition, yield was highly correlated with the biological yield, whereas in stress condition it was highly correlated with harvest index. Results of stepwise regression showed that, selection can we done based on, biological yield, harvest index, number of seed per pod, seed length, 100 seed weight. Result of path analysis showed that the highest direct effect, being positive, was related to biological yield in non stress and to harvest index in stress conditions. Factor analysis were accomplished in stress and nonstress condition a, there were 4 factors that explained more than 76 percent of total variations. We used several selection indices such as Stress Susceptibility Index ( SSI ), Geometric Mean Productivity ( GMP ), Mean Productivity ( MP ), Stress Tolerance Index ( STI ) and Tolerance Index ( TOL ) to study drought tolerance of genotypes, we found that the best Stress Index for selection tolerance genotypes were STI, GMP and MP were the greatest correlations between these Indices and seed yield under stress and non stress conditions. In classification of genotypes base on phenotypic characteristics, using cluster analysis ( UPGMA ), all allels classified in 5 separate groups in stress and non stress conditions.

Keywords: Cluster analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, selection index, White bean

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21 Effect of Soil Tillage System upon the Soil Properties, Weed Control, Quality and Quantity Yield in Some Arable Crops

Authors: T Rusu, P I Moraru, I Bogdan, A I Pop, M L Sopterean

Abstract:

The paper presents the influence of the conventional ploughing tillage technology in comparison with the minimum tillage, upon the soil properties, weed control and yield in the case of maize (Zea mays L.), soya-bean (Glycine hispida L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a three years crop rotation. A research has been conducted at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The use of minimum soil tillage systems within a three years rotation: maize, soya-bean, wheat favorites the rise of the aggregates hydro stability with 5.6-7.5% on a 0-20 cm depth and 5-11% on 20-30 cm depth. The minimum soil tillage systems – paraplow, chisel or rotary grape – are polyvalent alternatives for basic preparation, germination bed preparation and sowing, for fields and crops with moderate loose requirements being optimized technologies for: soil natural fertility activation and rationalization, reduction of erosion, increasing the accumulation capacity for water and realization of sowing in the optimal period. The soil tillage system influences the productivity elements of cultivated species and finally the productions thus obtained. Thus, related to conventional working system, the productions registered in minimum tillage working represented 89- 97% in maize, 103-112% in soya-bean, 93-99% in winter-wheat. The results of investigations showed that the yield is a conclusion soil tillage systems influence on soil properties, plant density assurance and on weed control. Under minimum tillage systems in the case of winter weat as an option for replacing classic ploughing, the best results in terms of quality indices were obtained from version worked with paraplow, followed by rotary harrow and chisel. At variants worked with paraplow were obtained quality indices close to those of the variant worked with plow, and protein and gluten content was even higher. At Ariesan variety, highest protein content, 12.50% and gluten, 28.6% was obtained for the variant paraplow.

Keywords: Minimum tillage, soil properties, yields quality.

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20 Conservation Techniques for Soil Erosion Control in Tobacco-Based Farming System at Steep Land Areas of Progo Hulu Subwatershed, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Jaka Suyana, Komariah, Masateru Senge

Abstract:

This research was aimed at determining the impact of conservation techniques including bench terrace, stone terrace, mulching, grass strip and intercropping on soil erosion at tobacco-based farming system at Progo Hulu subwatershed, Central Java, Indonesia. Research was conducted from September 2007 to September 2009, located at Progo Hulu subwatershed, Central Java, Indonesia. Research site divided into 27 land units, and experimental fields were grouped based on the soil type and slope, ie: 30%, 45% and 70%, with the following treatments: 1) ST0= stone terrace (control); 2) ST1= stone terrace + Setaria spacelata grass strip on a 5 cm height dike at terrace lips + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 50% (7 ton/ ha); 3) ST2= stone terrace + Setaria spacelata grass strip on a 5 cm height dike at terrace lips + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 100% (14 ton/ ha); 4) ST3= stone terrace + tobacco and red bean intercropping + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 50% (7 ton/ ha). 5) BT0= bench terrace (control); 6) BT1= bench terrace + Setaria spacelata grass strip at terrace lips + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 50% (7 ton/ ha); 7) BT2= bench terrace + Setaria spacelata grass strip at terrace lips + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 100% (14 ton/ ha); 8) BT3= bench terrace + tobacco and red bean intercropping + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 50% (7 ton/ ha). The results showed that the actual erosion rates of research site were higher than that of tolerance erosion with mean value 89.08 ton/ha/year and 33.40 ton/ha/year, respectively. These resulted in 69% of total research site (5,119.15 ha) highly degraded. Conservation technique of ST2 was the most effective in suppressing soil erosion, by 42.87%, following with BT2 as much 30.63%. Others suppressed erosion only less than 21%.

Keywords: Steep land, subwatershed, conservation terrace, tolerance erosion.

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19 Influence of Hydrocarbons on Plant Cell Ultrastructure and Main Metabolic Enzymes

Authors: T. Sadunishvili, E. Kvesitadze, M. Betsiashvili, N. Kuprava, G. Zaalishvili, G. Kvesitadze

Abstract:

Influence of octane and benzene on plant cell ultrastructure and enzymes of basic metabolism, such as nitrogen assimilation and energy generation have been studied. Different plants: perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa); crops- maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); shrubs – privet (Ligustrum sempervirens) and trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliate); trees - poplar (Populus deltoides) and white mulberry (Morus alba L.) were exposed to hydrocarbons of different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 mM). Destructive changes in bean and maize leaves cells ultrastructure under the influence of benzene vapour were revealed at the level of photosynthetic and energy generation subcellular organells. Different deviations at the level of subcellular organelles structure and distribution were observed in alfalfa and ryegrass root cells under the influence of benzene and octane, absorbed through roots. The level of destructive changes is concentration dependent. Benzene at low 1 and 10 mM concentration caused the increase in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in maize roots and leaves and in poplar and mulberry shoots, though to higher extent in case of lower, 1mM concentration. The induction was more intensive in plant roots. The highest tested 100mM concentration of benzene was inhibitory to the enzyme in all plants. Octane caused induction of GDH in all grassy plants at all tested concentrations; however the rate of induction decreased parallel to increase of the hydrocarbon concentration. Octane at concentration 1 mM caused induction of GDH in privet, trifoliate and white mulberry shoots. The highest, 100mM octane was characterized by inhibitory effect to GDH activity in all plants. Octane had inductive effect on malate dehydrogenase in almost all plants and tested concentrations, indicating the intensification of Trycarboxylic Acid Cycle. The data could be suggested for elaboration of criteria for plant selection for phytoremediation of oil hydrocarbons contaminated soils.

Keywords: Higher plants, hydrocarbons, cell ultrastructure, glutamate and malate dehydrogenases.

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18 B-VIS Service-oriented Middleware for RFID Sensor Network

Authors: Wiroon Sriborrirux, Sorakrai Kraipui, Nakorn Indra-Payoong

Abstract:

One of the most importance of intelligence in-car and roadside systems is the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. In Thailand, ITS technologies are rapidly growing and real-time vehicle information is considerably needed for ITS applications; for example, vehicle fleet tracking and control and road traffic monitoring systems. This paper defines the communication protocols and software design for middleware components of B-VIS (Burapha Vehicle-Infrastructure System). The proposed B-VIS middleware architecture serves the needs of a distributed RFID sensor network and simplifies some intricate details of several communication standards.

Keywords: Middleware, RFID sensor network, Cooperativevehicle-infrastructure system, Enterprise Java Bean.

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17 RAPD Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean

Authors: M. Vivodík, Ž. Balážová, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to detect genetic variability among the set of 40 castor genotypes using 8 RAPD markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 40 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded in 66 fragments, with an average of 8.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments ranged from 3 to 13, with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1200 bp. Values of the polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.556 to 0.895 with an average of 0.784 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0.621 to 0.896 with an average of 0.798. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared and analyzed genotypes were grouped into two main clusters and only two genotypes could not be distinguished. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production for industrial uses.

Keywords: Dendrogram, polymorphism, RAPD technique, Ricinus communis L.

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16 A Complexity Measure for Java Bean based Software Components

Authors: Sandeep Khimta, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Amanpreet Singh Brar

Abstract:

The traditional software product and process metrics are neither suitable nor sufficient in measuring the complexity of software components, which ultimately is necessary for quality and productivity improvement within organizations adopting CBSE. Researchers have proposed a wide range of complexity metrics for software systems. However, these metrics are not sufficient for components and component-based system and are restricted to the module-oriented systems and object-oriented systems. In this proposed study it is proposed to find the complexity of the JavaBean Software Components as a reflection of its quality and the component can be adopted accordingly to make it more reusable. The proposed metric involves only the design issues of the component and does not consider the packaging and the deployment complexity. In this way, the software components could be kept in certain limit which in turn help in enhancing the quality and productivity.

Keywords: JavaBean Components, Complexity, Metrics, Validation.

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