Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31106
Efficiency of Wood Vinegar Mixed with Some Plants Extract against the Housefly (Musca domestica L.)

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Kanlaya


The efficiency of wood vinegar mixed with each individual of three plants extract such as: citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), neem seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), and yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus Urb.) were tested against the second instar larvae of housefly (Musca domestica L.). Steam distillation was used for extraction of the citronella grass while neem and yam bean were simple extracted by fermentation with ethyl alcohol. Toxicity test was evaluated in laboratory based on two methods of larvicidal bioassay: topical application method (contact poison) and feeding method (stomach poison). Larval mortality was observed daily and larval survivability was recorded until the survived larvae developed to pupae and adults. The study resulted that treatment of wood vinegar mixed with citronella grass showed the highest larval mortality by topical application method (50.0%) and by feeding method (80.0%). However, treatment of mixed wood vinegar and neem seed showed the longest pupal duration to 25 day and 32 days for topical application method and feeding method respectively. Additional, larval duration on treated M. domestica larvae was extended to 13 days for topical application method and 11 days for feeding method. Thus, the feeding method gave higher efficiency compared with the topical application method.

Keywords: Mortality, housefly (Musca domestica L.), neem seed (Azadirachta indica), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus)

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3008


[1] E. S. Douglass and C. Jesse, Integrated pest management for fly control in Maine dairy farms. Texas Agricultural Extension Service, 2002, pp. 4-6
[2] L. S. Mian, H. Maag and J. V. Tacal, Isolation of Salmonella from muscoid flies at commercial animal establishments in San Bernardino County, California. J. Vector Ecol., vol.27, pp.82-85, 2002.
[3] J.G. Scott, T.G. Alefantis, P.E. Kaufman, and D.A. Rutz, Insecticide resistance in houseflies from caged-layer poultry facilities. Pest Manage Sci., vol.56, pp.147-53, 2000.
[4] O. Koul and S. Walia, Comparing impacts of plant extracts and pure allelochemicals and implications for pest control. Pers. Agric. Vet. Sci. Nutri. Nat. Res. 2009, CAB Reviews No. 049, 2009. (
[5] A.S. Abdel Halim and T.A. Morsy, Efficacy of Trigonella foenumgraecum (fenugreek) on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Musca domestica. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., vol.36, pp.329-334, 2006.
[6] W. Apai, and S. Tongdeethare, Wood vinegar the new organic compound for agriculture in Thailand. 4th Conference Toxicity Division, Department of Agriculture, pp. 166-169, 2001.
[7] U. Pangnakorn, Utilization of Wood Vinegar By-product from Iwate kiln for Organic Agricultural System. Proceedings of Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development Conference (TISD2008) The Sofitel Raja Orchid, Khon Kaen, Thailand, January 28-29, 2008, pp.17- 19.
[8] U. Pangnakorn, S. Kanlaya and C. Kuntha, Effect of Wood Vinegar for Controlling on Housefly (Musca domestica L.) International Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, vol.6, pp. 283-286, 2012.
[9] H. Schmutterer, Potential of azadirachtin-containing pesticides for integrated pest control in developing and industrialized countries. J Insect Physiol., vol.34, pp.713–719, 1988.
[10] H. Schmutterer, The Tree and its Characteristics. In Schmutterer, H. (Eds.)1995. The Neem Tree, VCH Weinheim, Germany, p.1-34, 1995a.
[11] N.P. Stamford, D.S. Ferraz, A.D.S. Freitas and C.E.R.S. Santos, Effect of sulphur inoculated with Thiobacillus on saline soils amendment and growth of cowpea and yam bean legumes. J. Agric. Sci., Cambridge 139, pp. 1–7, 2002.
[12] P. Narongchai, S. Narongchai and S. Thampituk, The First Fatal Case of Yam Bean and Rotenone Toxicity in Thailand. J Med Assoc. Thai, vol. 88, no.7, pp. 984-986, 2005.
[13] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Integrated Risk. Information System, d-Limonene. CASRN 5989-27-5, 1993.
[14] R.L. Metcalf, The synergistic activity of various selected chemicals on the insecticides carbofuran and malathion against brine shrimp larvae. B.Sc.Hons. Thesis, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Science, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. pp.53, 1992.
[15] N.J.Armes, D.R. Jadhav, G.S. Bond, and A.B.S. King, Insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera in South India. Pesticide Science, vol.34, pp.335-364, 1992.
[16] A. Malik, N. Singh and S. Satya, Housefly (Musca domestica): A review of control strategies for a challenging pest. J. Environ. Sci. Health B, vol.42, pp.453–469, 2007.
[17] M.Kostyukovsky, A. Rafaeli, C. Gileadi, N. Demchenko and E. Shaaya, Activation of octopaminergic receptors by essential oil constituents isolated from aromatic plants possible mode of action against insect pests. Pest Manage Sci., vol.58, pp. 1101-1106, 2002.
[18] S Z. Gad Allah, The effect of some plant extracts on Musca domestica vicina. M. Sc. Thesis Fac. of sci., Cairo Univ. Egypt.Gelbič I and Němec V (2001). Developmental 1991.
[19] H. Schmutterer, Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica. Annual Review of Entomology, vol.35, pp.271-297, 1990.
[20] M. Jahan, I Ahmad, and SNH. Naqvi, Toxic teratogenic effects of Juliflorine and Morgosan-OTM on the Musca domestica L. larvae. Proc Pak Congr Zool., vol.10, pp. 293-299, 1990.
[21] R. Samarasekera, K.S Kalhari and I.S. Weerasinghe, Insecticidal activity of essential oils of ceylon cinnamomum and cymbopogon species against Musca domestica. Journal of Essential Oil Research, vol.18, pp. 352- 354, 2006.
[22] L.A. Hummelbrunner, and M.B. Isman, Acute, sublethal, antifeedant, and synergistic effects of monoterpenoid essential oil compounds on the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lep: Noctuidae). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.49, pp.715-720, 2001.
[23] R.L. Metcalf, The synergistic activity of various selected chemicals on the insecticides carbofuran and malathion against brine shrimp larvae. B. Sc. Hons. Thesis, Department of Agriculture And Environmental Science, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.1992, pp.53.
[24] P. Maurya, P. Sharma, L. Mohan, M.M. Verma and C.N. Srivastava, Larvicidal efficacy of Ocimum basilicum extracts and its synergistic effect with neonicotinoid in the management of Anopheles stephensi. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Dis., pp.110-116, 2012.
[25] M. S. Islam and M. J. Aktar, Larvicidal efficacies of some plant extracts and their synergistic effects with cypermethrin on the life history traits of Musca domestica l. International Journal of Innovations in Bio- Sciences, vol. 3, no.3, pp. 92-103: ISSN 2277-2367, 2013.
[26] T.S. Thangam, and K. Kathiresan, Synergistic effects of insecticides with plant extracts on mosquito larvae. Trop. Biomed., vol.7, no.2, pp.135-137, 1990.