Search results for: Mixed Method
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8503

Search results for: Mixed Method

8503 Preconditioned Mixed-Type Splitting Iterative Method For Z-Matrices

Authors: Li Jiang, Baoguang Tian

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method for solving the linear systems, Ax = b, where A is a Z-matrix. And we give some comparison theorems to show that the convergence rate of the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method is faster than that of the mixed-type splitting iterative method. Finally, we give a numerical example to illustrate our results.

Keywords: Z-matrix, mixed-type splitting iterative method, precondition, comparison theorem, linear system.

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8502 An Adaptive Least-squares Mixed Finite Element Method for Pseudo-parabolic Integro-differential Equations

Authors: Zilong Feng, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Siriguleng He

Abstract:

In this article, an adaptive least-squares mixed finite element method is studied for pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equations. The solutions of least-squares mixed weak formulation and mixed finite element are proved. A posteriori error estimator is constructed based on the least-squares functional and the posteriori errors are obtained.

Keywords: Pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equation, least squares mixed finite element method, adaptive method, a posteriori error estimates.

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8501 A New Splitting H1-Galerkin Mixed Method for Pseudo-hyperbolic Equations

Authors: Yang Liu, Jinfeng Wang, Hong Li, Wei Gao, Siriguleng He

Abstract:

A new numerical scheme based on the H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for a class of second-order pseudohyperbolic equations is constructed. The proposed procedures can be split into three independent differential sub-schemes and does not need to solve a coupled system of equations. Optimal error estimates are derived for both semidiscrete and fully discrete schemes for problems in one space dimension. And the proposed method dose not requires the LBB consistency condition. Finally, some numerical results are provided to illustrate the efficacy of our method.

Keywords: Pseudo-hyperbolic equations, splitting system, H1-Galerkin mixed method, error estimates.

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8500 An H1-Galerkin Mixed Method for the Coupled Burgers Equation

Authors: Xianbiao Jia, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Zhichao Fang

Abstract:

In this paper, an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method is discussed for the coupled Burgers equations. The optimal error estimates of the semi-discrete and fully discrete schemes of the coupled Burgers equation are derived.

Keywords: The coupled Burgers equation, H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method, Backward Euler's method, Optimal error estimates.

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8499 A New Time Discontinuous Expanded Mixed Element Method for Convection-dominated Diffusion Equation

Authors: Jinfeng Wang, Yuanhong Bi, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Meng Zhao

Abstract:

In this paper, a new time discontinuous expanded mixed finite element method is proposed and analyzed for two-order convection-dominated diffusion problem. The proofs of the stability of the proposed scheme and the uniqueness of the discrete solution are given. Moreover, the error estimates of the scalar unknown, its gradient and its flux in the L1( ¯ J,L2( )-norm are obtained.

Keywords: Convection-dominated diffusion equation, expanded mixed method, time discontinuous scheme, stability, error estimates.

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8498 A Nonconforming Mixed Finite Element Method for Semilinear Pseudo-Hyperbolic Partial Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Jingbo Yang, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Siriguleng He

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonconforming mixed finite element method is studied for semilinear pseudo-hyperbolic partial integrodifferential equations. By use of the interpolation technique instead of the generalized elliptic projection, the optimal error estimates of the corresponding unknown function are given.

Keywords: Pseudo-hyperbolic partial integro-differential equations, Nonconforming mixed element method, Semilinear, Error estimates.

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8497 Some Results on New Preconditioned Generalized Mixed-Type Splitting Iterative Methods

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Fuping Tan, Deyu Sun

Abstract:

In this paper, we present new preconditioned generalized mixed-type splitting (GMTS) methods for solving weighted linear least square problems. We compare the spectral radii of the iteration matrices of the preconditioned and the original methods. The comparison results show that the preconditioned GMTS methods converge faster than the GMTS method whenever the GMTS method is convergent. Finally, we give a numerical example to confirm our theoretical results.

Keywords: Preconditioned, GMTS method, linear system, convergence, comparison.

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8496 Mixed-Mode Study of Rock Fracture Mechanics by using the Modified Arcan Specimen Test

Authors: R. Hasanpour, N. Choupani

Abstract:

This paper studies mixed-mode fracture mechanics in rock based on experimental and numerical analyses. Experiments were performed on sharp-cracked specimens using the modified Arcan specimen test loading device. The modified Arcan specimen test was, in association with a special loading device, an appropriate apparatus for experimental mixed-mode fracture analysis. By varying the loading angle from 0° to 90°, pure mode-I, pure mode-II and a wide range of mixed-mode data were obtained experimentally. Using the finite element results, correction factors applied to the rectangular fracture specimen. By employing experimentally measured critical loads and the aid of the finite element method, mixed-mode fracture toughness for the limestone under consideration determined.

Keywords: Rock Fracture Mechanics, Mixed-mode Loading, Finite Element Analysis, Arcan Test specimen.

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8495 Modeling Hybrid Systems with MLD Approach and Analysis of the Model Size and Complexity

Authors: H. Mahboubi, B. Moshiri, A. Khaki Seddigh

Abstract:

Recently, a great amount of interest has been shown in the field of modeling and controlling hybrid systems. One of the efficient and common methods in this area utilizes the mixed logicaldynamical (MLD) systems in the modeling. In this method, the system constraints are transformed into mixed-integer inequalities by defining some logic statements. In this paper, a system containing three tanks is modeled as a nonlinear switched system by using the MLD framework. Comparing the model size of the three-tank system with that of a two-tank system, it is deduced that the number of binary variables, the size of the system and its complexity tremendously increases with the number of tanks, which makes the control of the system more difficult. Therefore, methods should be found which result in fewer mixed-integer inequalities.

Keywords: Hybrid systems, mixed-integer inequalities, mixed logical dynamical systems, multi-tank system.

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8494 Efficiency of Wood Vinegar Mixed with Some Plants Extract against the Housefly (Musca domestica L.)

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Kanlaya

Abstract:

The efficiency of wood vinegar mixed with each individual of three plants extract such as: citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), neem seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), and yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus Urb.) were tested against the second instar larvae of housefly (Musca domestica L.). Steam distillation was used for extraction of the citronella grass while neem and yam bean were simple extracted by fermentation with ethyl alcohol. Toxicity test was evaluated in laboratory based on two methods of larvicidal bioassay: topical application method (contact poison) and feeding method (stomach poison). Larval mortality was observed daily and larval survivability was recorded until the survived larvae developed to pupae and adults. The study resulted that treatment of wood vinegar mixed with citronella grass showed the highest larval mortality by topical application method (50.0%) and by feeding method (80.0%). However, treatment of mixed wood vinegar and neem seed showed the longest pupal duration to 25 day and 32 days for topical application method and feeding method respectively. Additional, larval duration on treated M. domestica larvae was extended to 13 days for topical application method and 11 days for feeding method. Thus, the feeding method gave higher efficiency compared with the topical application method.

Keywords: Housefly (Musca domestica L.), neem seed (Azadirachta indica), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus), mortality.

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8493 Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatment for Sewage Wastewater

Authors: E. Marei, A. Hammad, S. Ismail, A. El-Gindy

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the ability of different formula of mixed bacteria as a biological treatments of wastewater after primary treatment as a bio-treatment and bio-removal and bio-adsorbent of different heavy metals in natural circumstances. The wastewater was collected from Sarpium forest site-Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. These treatments were mixture of free cells and mixture of immobilized cells of different bacteria. These different formulas of mixed bacteria were prepared under Lab. condition. The obtained data indicated that, as a result of wastewater bio-treatment, the removal rate was found to be 76.92 and 76.70% for biological oxygen demand, 79.78 and 71.07% for chemical oxygen demand, 32.45 and 36.84 % for ammonia nitrogen as well as 91.67 and 50.0% for phosphate after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. Moreover, the bio-removals of different heavy metals were found to reach 90.0 and 50. 0% for Cu ion, 98.0 and 98.5% for Fe ion, 97.0 and 99.3% for Mn ion, 90.0 and 90.0% Pb, 80.0% and 75.0% for Zn ion after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. The results indicated that 13.86 and 17.43% of removal efficiency and reduction of total dissolved solids were achieved after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively.

Keywords: Biological desalination, bio-sorption heavy metals, free cell bacteria, immobilized bacteria, wastewater bio-treatment.

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8492 Antecedent Factors of Ethical Ideologies in Moral Judgment: Evidence from the Mixed Method Study

Authors: N. Mustamil, M. Quaddus

Abstract:

This research investigates the factors that influence moral judgments when dealing with ethical dilemmas in the organizational context. It also investigates the antecedents of individual ethical ideology (idealism and relativism). A mixed method study, which combines qualitative (field study) and quantitative (survey) approaches, was used in this study. An initial model was developed first, which was then fine-tuned based on field studies. Data were collected from managers in Malaysian large organizations. The results of this study reveal that in-group collectivism culture, power distance culture, parental values, and religiosity were significant as antecedents of ethical ideology. However, direct effects of these variables on moral judgment were not significant. Furthermore, the results of this study confirm the significant effects of ethical ideology on moral judgment. This study provides valuable insight into evaluating the validity of existing theory as proposed in the literature and offers significant practical implications.

Keywords: Antecedents Factors, Ethical Ideology, Mixed Method, Moral Judgment

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8491 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Mixed Convection within a Complex Geometry

Authors: Y. Lasbet, A. L. Boukhalkhal, K. Loubar

Abstract:

The study of mixed convection is, usually, focused on the straight channels in which the onset of the mixed convection is well defined as function of the ratio between Grashof number and Reynolds number, Gr/Re. This is not the case for a complex channel wherein the mixed convection is not sufficiently examined in the literature. Our paper focuses on the study of the mixed convection in a complex geometry in which our main contribution reveals that the critical value of the ratio Gr/Re for the onset of the mixed convection increases highly in the type of geometry contrary to the straight channel. Furthermore, the accentuated secondary flow in this geometry prevents the thermal stratification in the flow and consequently the buoyancy driven becomes negligible. To perform these objectives, a numerical study in complex geometry for several values of the ratio Gr/Re with prescribed wall heat flux (H2), was realized by using the CFD code.

Keywords: Complex geometry, heat transfer, laminar flow, mixed convection, Nusselt number.

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8490 Determining Optimum Time Multiplier Setting of Overcurrent Relays Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

Authors: P. N. Korde, P. P. Bedekar

Abstract:

The time coordination of overcurrent relays (OCR) in a power distribution network is of great importance, as it reduces the power outages by avoiding the mal-operation of the backup relays. For this, the optimum value of the time multiplier setting (TMS) of OCRs should be chosen. The problem of determining the optimum value of TMS of OCRs in power distribution networks is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. The objective is to find the optimum value of TMS of OCRs to minimize the time of operation of relays under the constraint of maintaining the coordination of relays. A power distribution network can have a combination of numerical and electromechanical relays. The TMS of numerical relays can be set to any real value (which satisfies the constraints of the problem), whereas the TMS of electromechanical relays can be set in fixed step (0 to 1 in steps of 0.05). The main contribution of this paper is a formulation of the problem as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problem and application of Gomory's cutting plane method to find the optimum value of TMS of OCRs. The TMS of electromechanical relays are taken as integers in the range 1 to 20 in the step of 1, and these values are mapped to 0.05 to 1 in the step of 0.05. The results obtained are compared with those obtained using a simplex method and its variants. It has been shown that the mixed-integer linear programming method outperforms the simplex method (and its variants) in the case of a system having a combination of numerical and electromechanical relays.

Keywords: Backup protection, constrained optimization, Gomory's cutting plane method, mixed-integer linear programming, overcurrent relay coordination, simplex method.

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8489 Evaluation of Mixed-Mode Stress Intensity Factor by Digital Image Correlation and Intelligent Hybrid Method

Authors: K. Machida, H. Yamada

Abstract:

Displacement measurement was conducted on compact normal and shear specimens made of acrylic homogeneous material subjected to mixed-mode loading by digital image correlation. The intelligent hybrid method proposed by Nishioka et al. was applied to the stress-strain analysis near the crack tip. The accuracy of stress-intensity factor at the free surface was discussed from the viewpoint of both the experiment and 3-D finite element analysis. The surface images before and after deformation were taken by a CMOS camera, and we developed the system which enabled the real time stress analysis based on digital image correlation and inverse problem analysis. The great portion of processing time of this system was spent on displacement analysis. Then, we tried improvement in speed of this portion. In the case of cracked body, it is also possible to evaluate fracture mechanics parameters such as the J integral, the strain energy release rate, and the stress-intensity factor of mixed-mode. The 9-points elliptic paraboloid approximation could not analyze the displacement of submicron order with high accuracy. The analysis accuracy of displacement was improved considerably by introducing the Newton-Raphson method in consideration of deformation of a subset. The stress-intensity factor was evaluated with high accuracy of less than 1% of the error.

Keywords: Digital image correlation, mixed mode, Newton-Raphson method, stress intensity factor.

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8488 Design Exploration on Mixed-Use Development of Island House: Take the Southeast Coastal Area of Chinese as an Example

Authors: Fu Jiayan, Wang Zhu, Sun Jiaojiao

Abstract:

Mixed-use development is one of the most important trends in new island house transformation along southeast coastal area in China. Unique island geographical environment and profound fishing village culture coexist for a long time in this. With artistic creation for the purpose of the "live-work" houses are in a large number of emergence, however, still lack of systematic strategy. Based on space effect from marine resources to regional human settlements, this article teases out the evolution regularity of island settlement context and architectural form, then, puts forward the formation mechanism and construction model of art island houses. Thereby, to further explore space design method and site creation strategy of mixed-use development.

Keywords: Mixed-use, Island House, Art Creation, Southeast Coastal Area of Chinese.

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8487 Design A Situated Learning Environment Using Mixed Reality Technology - A Case Study

Authors: Rasimah Che Mohd Yusoff, Halimah Badioze Zaman, Azlina Ahmad

Abstract:

Mixed Reality (MR) is one of the newest technologies explored in education. It promises the potential to promote teaching and learning and making learners- experience more “engaging". However, there still lack of research on designing a virtual learning environment using MR technology. In this paper, we describe the Mixed Reality technology, the characteristics of situated learning as instructional design for virtual environment using mixed reality technology. We also explain a case study that implemented those design and also the system overview.

Keywords: authentic activity. authentic context, mixed reality, situated learning

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8486 Characterization and Geochemical Modeling of Cu and Zn Sorption Using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Iron Sulfide under Sulfidic-Anoxic Conditions I: Case Study of Cwmheidol Mine Waste Water, Wales, United Kingdom

Authors: D. E. Egirani, J. E. Andrews, A. R. Baker

Abstract:

This study investigates sorption of Cu and Zn contained in natural mine wastewater, using mixed mineral systems in sulfidic-anoxic condition. The mine wastewater was obtained from disused mine workings at Cwmheidol in Wales, United Kingdom. These contaminants flow into water courses. These water courses include River Rheidol. In this River fishing activities exist. In an attempt to reduce Cu-Zn levels of fish intake in the watercourses, single mineral systems and 1:1 mixed mineral systems of clay and goethite were tested with the mine waste water for copper and zinc removal at variable pH. Modelling of hydroxyl complexes was carried out using phreeqc method. Reactions using batch mode technique was conducted at room temperature. There was significant differences in the behaviour of copper and zinc removal using mixed mineral systems when compared  to single mineral systems. All mixed mineral systems sorb more Cu than Zn when tested with mine wastewater.

Keywords: Cu- Zn, hydroxyl complexes, kinetics, mixed mineral systems, reactivity

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8485 Transport of Analytes under Mixed Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow of Power Law Fluid

Authors: Naren Bag, S. Bhattacharyya, Partha P. Gopmandal

Abstract:

In this study, we have analyzed the transport of analytes under a two dimensional steady incompressible flow of power-law fluids through rectangular nanochannel. A mathematical model based on the Cauchy momentum-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations is considered to study the combined effect of mixed electroosmotic (EO) and pressure driven (PD) flow. The coupled governing equations are solved numerically by finite volume method. We have studied extensively the effect of key parameters, e.g., flow behavior index, concentration of the electrolyte, surface potential, imposed pressure gradient and imposed electric field strength on the net average flow across the channel. In addition to study the effect of mixed EOF and PD on the analyte distribution across the channel, we consider a nonlinear model based on general convective-diffusion-electromigration equation. We have also presented the retention factor for various values of electrolyte concentration and flow behavior index.

Keywords: Electric double layer, finite volume method, flow behavior index, mixed electroosmotic/pressure driven flow, Non-Newtonian power-law fluids, numerical simulation.

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8484 MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel

Authors: B. Fersadou, H. Kahalerras

Abstract:

This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined. The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule heating is neglected.

Keywords: Heat sources, magnetic field, mixed convection, porous channel.

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8483 A Scatter Search and Help Policies Approaches for a New Mixed Model Assembly Lines Sequencing Problem

Authors: N. Manavizadeh , M. Rabbani , H. Sotudian , F. Jolai

Abstract:

Mixed Model Production is the practice of assembling several distinct and different models of a product on the same assembly line without changeovers and then sequencing those models in a way that smoothes the demand for upstream components. In this paper, we consider an objective function which minimizes total stoppage time and total idle time and it is presented sequence dependent set up time. Many studies have been done on the mixed model assembly lines. But in this paper we specifically focused on reducing the idle times. This is possible through various help policies. For improving the solutions, some cases developed and about 40 tests problem was considered. We use scatter search for optimization and for showing the efficiency of our algorithm, experimental results shows behavior of method. Scatter search and help policies can produce high quality answers, so it has been used in this paper.

Keywords: mixed model assembly lines, Scatter search, help policies, idle time, Stoppage time

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8482 Spatial Time Series Models for Rice and Cassava Yields Based On Bayesian Linear Mixed Models

Authors: Panudet Saengseedam, Nanthachai Kantanantha

Abstract:

This paper proposes a linear mixed model (LMM) with spatial effects to forecast rice and cassava yields in Thailand at the same time. A multivariate conditional autoregressive (MCAR) model is assumed to present the spatial effects. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation via Gibbs sampling Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The model is applied to the rice and cassava yields monthly data which have been extracted from the Office of Agricultural Economics, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives of Thailand. The results show that the proposed model has better performance in most provinces in both fitting part and validation part compared to the simple exponential smoothing and conditional auto regressive models (CAR) from our previous study.

Keywords: Bayesian method, Linear mixed model, Multivariate conditional autoregressive model, Spatial time series.

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8481 Mixed Model Assembly Line Sequencing In Make to Order System with Available to Promise Consideration

Authors: N. Manavizadeh, A. Dehghani, M. Rabbani

Abstract:

Mixed model assembly lines (MMAL) are a type of production line where a variety of product models similar in product characteristics are assembled. The effective design of these lines requires that schedule for assembling the different products is determined. In this paper we tried to fit the sequencing problem with the main characteristics of make to order (MTO) environment. The problem solved in this paper is a multiple objective sequencing problem in mixed model assembly lines sequencing using weighted Sum Method (WSM) using GAMS software for small problem and an effective GA for large scale problems because of the nature of NP-hardness of our problem and vast time consume to find the optimum solution in large problems. In this problem three practically important objectives are minimizing: total utility work, keeping a constant production rate variation, and minimizing earliness and tardiness cost which consider the priority of each customer and different due date which is a real situation in mixed model assembly lines and it is the first time we consider different attribute to prioritize the customers which help the company to reduce the cost of earliness and tardiness. This mechanism is a way to apply an advance available to promise (ATP) in mixed model assembly line sequencing which is the main contribution of this paper.

Keywords: Available to promise, Earliness & Tardiness, GA, Mixed-Model assembly line Sequencing.

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8480 Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Inclined Cavity using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Arash Karimipour, A. Hossein Nezhad, E. Shirani, A. Safaei

Abstract:

In this paper, Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to study laminar flow with mixed convection heat transfer inside a two-dimensional inclined lid-driven rectangular cavity with aspect ratio AR = 3. Bottom wall of the cavity is maintained at lower temperature than the top lid, and its vertical walls are assumed insulated. Top lid motion results in fluid motion inside the cavity. Inclination of the cavity causes horizontal and vertical components of velocity to be affected by buoyancy force. To include this effect, calculation procedure of macroscopic properties by LBM is changed and collision term of Boltzmann equation is modified. A computer program is developed to simulate this problem using BGK model of lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the variations of Richardson number and inclination angle on the thermal and flow behavior of the fluid inside the cavity are investigated. The results are presented as velocity and temperature profiles, stream function contours and isotherms. It is concluded that LBM has good potential to simulate mixed convection heat transfer problems.

Keywords: gravity, inclined lid driven cavity, lattice Boltzmannmethod, mixed convection.

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8479 Microbial Oil Production by Mixed Culture of Microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and Yeast Torulaspora maleeae Y30

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Rattanaporn Baojungharn, Thidarat Papone

Abstract:

Compared to oil production from microorganisms, little work has been performed for mixed culture of microalgae and yeast. In this article it is aimed to show high oil accumulation potential of mixed culture of microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and oleaginous yeast Torulaspora maleeae Y30 using sugarcane molasses as substrate. The monoculture of T. maleeae Y30 grew faster than that of microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2. In monoculture of yeast, a biomass of 6.4g/L with specific growth rate (m) of 0.265 (1/d) and lipid yield of 0.466g/L were obtained, while 2.53g/L of biomass with m of 0.133 (1/d) and lipid yield of 0.132g/L were obtained for monoculture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2. The biomass concentration in the mixed culture of T. maleeae Y30 with Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 increased faster and was higher compared with that in the monoculture and mixed culture of microalgae. In mixed culture of microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and C. vulgaris TISTR8580, a biomass of 3.47g/L and lipid yield of 0.123 g/L were obtained. In mixed culture of T. maleeae Y30 with Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, a maximum biomass of 7.33 g/L and lipid yield of 0.808g/L were obtained. Maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, 0.229g/L), specific yield of lipid (YP/X, 0.11g lipid/g cells) and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, 0.115 g/L/d) were obtained in mixed culture of yeast and microalgae. Clearly, T. maleeae Y30 and Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 use sugarcane molasses as organic nutrients efficiently in mixed culture under mixotrophic growth. The biomass productivity and lipid yield are notably enhanced in comparison with monoculture.

Keywords: Microbial oil, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, Chlorella vulgaris, Torulaspora maleeae Y30, mixed culture, biodiesel.

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8478 A New Approach for Classifying Large Number of Mixed Variables

Authors: Hashibah Hamid

Abstract:

The issue of classifying objects into one of predefined groups when the measured variables are mixed with different types of variables has been part of interest among statisticians in many years. Some methods for dealing with such situation have been introduced that include parametric, semi-parametric and nonparametric approaches. This paper attempts to discuss on a problem in classifying a data when the number of measured mixed variables is larger than the size of the sample. A propose idea that integrates a dimensionality reduction technique via principal component analysis and a discriminant function based on the location model is discussed. The study aims in offering practitioners another potential tool in a classification problem that is possible to be considered when the observed variables are mixed and too large.

Keywords: classification, location model, mixed variables, principal component analysis.

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8477 pth Moment Exponential Synchronization of a Class of Chaotic Neural Networks with Mixed Delays

Authors: Zixin Liu, Shu Lü, Shouming Zhong, Mao Ye

Abstract:

This paper studies the pth moment exponential synchronization of a class of stochastic neural networks with mixed delays. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, by establishing a new integrodifferential inequality with mixed delays, several sufficient conditions have been derived to ensure the pth moment exponential stability for the error system. The criteria extend and improve some earlier results. One numerical example is presented to illustrate the validity of the main results.

Keywords: pth Moment Exponential synchronization, Stochastic, Neural networks, Mixed time delays

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8476 Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow from a Vertical Cone in a Porous Medium Filled with a Nanofluid

Authors: Ezzah Liana Ahmad Fauzi, Syakila Ahmad, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

The steady mixed convection boundary layer flow from a vertical cone in a porous medium filled with a nanofluid is numerically investigated using different types of nanoparticles as Cu (copper), Al2O3 (alumina) and TiO2 (titania). The boundary value problem is solved by using the shooting technique by reducing it into an ordinary differential equation. Results of interest for the local Nusselt number with various values of the constant mixed convection parameter and nanoparticle volume fraction parameter are evaluated. It is found that dual solutions exist for a certain range of mixed convection parameter.

Keywords: boundary layer, mixed convection, nanofluid, porous medium, vertical cone.

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8475 Mixed Convection Enhancement in a 3D Lid-Driven Cavity Containing a Rotating Cylinder by Applying an Artificial Roughness

Authors: Ali Khaleel Kareem, Shian Gao, Ahmed Qasim Ahmed

Abstract:

A numerical investigation of unsteady mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D moving top wall enclosure, which has a central rotating cylinder and uses either artificial roughness on the bottom hot plate or smooth bottom hot plate to study the heat transfer enhancement, is completed for fixed circular cylinder, and anticlockwise and clockwise rotational speeds, -1 ≤ Ω ≤ 1, at Reynolds number of 5000. The top lid-driven wall was cooled, while the other remaining walls that completed obstructed cubic were kept insulated and motionless. A standard k-ε model of Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) method is involved to deal with turbulent flow. It has been clearly noted that artificial roughness can strongly control the thermal fields and fluid flow patterns. Ultimately, the heat transfer rate has been dramatically increased by involving artificial roughness on the heated bottom wall in the presence of rotating cylinder.

Keywords: Artificial roughness, Lid-driven cavity, Mixed convection heat transfer, Rotating cylinder, URANS method.

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8474 Conjugate Heat transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Sheet Mixed Convection with Magnetic Effect

Authors: Kai-Long Hsiao

Abstract:

A conjugate heat transfer for steady two-dimensional mixed convection with magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible quiescent fluid over an unsteady thermal forming stretching sheet has been studied. A parameter, M, which is used to represent the dominance of the magnetic effect has been presented in governing equations. The similar transformation and an implicit finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem. The numerical solutions of the flow velocity distributions, temperature profiles, the wall unknown values of f''(0) and '(θ (0) for calculating the heat transfer of the similar boundary-layer flow are carried out as functions of the unsteadiness parameter (S), the Prandtl number (Pr), the space-dependent parameter (A) and temperature-dependent parameter (B) for heat source/sink and the magnetic parameter (M). The effects of these parameters have also discussed. At the results, it will produce greater heat transfer effect with a larger Pr and M, S, A, B will reduce heat transfer effects. At last, conjugate heat transfer for the free convection with a larger G has a good heat transfer effect better than a smaller G=0.

Keywords: Finite-difference method, Conjugate heat transfer, Unsteady Stretching Sheet, MHD, Mixed convection.

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