Search results for: Moral Judgment
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 100

Search results for: Moral Judgment

100 Explorations in the Role of Emotion in Moral Judgment

Authors: Arthur Yan

Abstract:

Recent theorizations on the cognitive process of moral judgment have focused on the role of intuitions and emotions, marking a departure from previous emphasis on conscious, step-by-step reasoning. My study investigated how being in a disgusted mood state affects moral judgment. Participants were induced to enter a disgusted mood state through listening to disgusting sounds and reading disgusting descriptions. Results shows that they, when compared to control who have not been induced to feel disgust, are more likely to endorse actions that are emotionally aversive but maximizes utilitarian return The result is analyzed using the 'emotion-as-information' approach to decision making. The result is consistent with the view that emotions play an important role in determining moral judgment.

Keywords: Disgust, mood induction, moral judgment, emotion-as-information.

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99 Antecedent Factors of Ethical Ideologies in Moral Judgment: Evidence from the Mixed Method Study

Authors: N. Mustamil, M. Quaddus

Abstract:

This research investigates the factors that influence moral judgments when dealing with ethical dilemmas in the organizational context. It also investigates the antecedents of individual ethical ideology (idealism and relativism). A mixed method study, which combines qualitative (field study) and quantitative (survey) approaches, was used in this study. An initial model was developed first, which was then fine-tuned based on field studies. Data were collected from managers in Malaysian large organizations. The results of this study reveal that in-group collectivism culture, power distance culture, parental values, and religiosity were significant as antecedents of ethical ideology. However, direct effects of these variables on moral judgment were not significant. Furthermore, the results of this study confirm the significant effects of ethical ideology on moral judgment. This study provides valuable insight into evaluating the validity of existing theory as proposed in the literature and offers significant practical implications.

Keywords: Antecedents Factors, Ethical Ideology, Mixed Method, Moral Judgment

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98 Moral Reasoning and Behaviour in Adulthood

Authors: O. Matarazzo, L. Abbamonte, G. Nigro

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This study aimed at assessing whether and to what extent moral judgment and behaviour were: 1. situation-dependent; 2. selectively dependent on cognitive and affective components; 3. influenced by gender and age; 4. reciprocally congruent. In order to achieve these aims, four different types of moral dilemmas were construed and five types of thinking were presented for each of them – representing five possible ways to evaluate the situation. The judgment criteria included selfishness, altruism, sense of justice, and the conflict between selfishness and the two moral issues. The participants were 250 unpaid volunteers (50% male; 50% female) belonging to two age-groups: young people and adults. The study entailed a 2 (gender) x 2 (age-group) x 5 (type of thinking) x 4 (situation) mixed design: the first two variables were betweensubjects, the others were within-subjects. Results have shown that: 1. moral judgment and behaviour are at least partially affected by the type of situations and by interpersonal variables such as gender and age; 2. moral reasoning depends in a similar manner on cognitive and affective factors; 3. there is not a gender polarity between the ethic of justice and the ethic of cure/ altruism; 4. moral reasoning and behavior are perceived as reciprocally congruent even though their congruence decreases with a more objective assessment. Such results were discussed in the light of contrasting theories on morality.

Keywords: Contextual-pragmatic approach to morality, ethic ofcare, ethic of justice, Kohlbergian approach, moral behaviour, moralreasoning.

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97 Individualistic and Social Moral Concerns in Hawthorne’s Novels

Authors: Mohsen Mahmoud Rowshanzamir

Abstract:

In all his novels, Hawthorne, the American writer, created settings in which his moral concerns could be presented through the actions of his characters. He illustrated his concern over the moral fall of man in the nineteenth century obsession for technological advancement. In “The Blithedale Romance” and “The House of Seven Gable” quite vividly, he pictured individualistic moral vices as the result of outside forces which caused social immorality. “The Marble Faun”, in its own turn, has the same type of social moral concerns to present: the story of nineteenth century modern man and his individualistic moral issues which lead to his social moral fall. He depicted the dominant themes of individualistic moral vices which all lead to social alienation and rejection. He showed hypocrisy and evil intentions as leading to social immoral atmosphere.

Keywords: American literature, immorality, individuals, sin, social moral concerns.

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96 Study on the Relations between One's Personality Dimensions and his Personality Judgment about Friend based on Reality Distortion

Authors: Bahareh Babaei, Hadi Bahrami Ehsan, Reza Reza-zadeh, Hossien Kaviani

Abstract:

Judgment is affected by many agents and distortion in this assessment is unpreventable. Personality dimensions are among those factors that interfere with the distortion. In this research, the relations between personality dimensions of subject and his judgment on friends- personality dimensions is investigated. One-hundred friend couples completed both NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEOFFI) and Ahvaz Reality Distortion Inventory (ARDI) to make judgments about themselves and their friends. Observations show that judge-s Agreement and Neuroticism dimensions are impressed by reality distortion. On the other hand, this reality distortion interferes with one-s evaluation of his friend-s Agreement, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness dimensions. Conscientiousness with suppressive effect on judge-s other dimensions plays the irrelevant role on personality judgment. Therefore, observer-rating tools which are used as a conventional criterion seem to be not valid because of the reality distortion due to judge-s personality dimensions.

Keywords: Personality dimensions, reality distortion, judgmental accuracy.

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95 Cluster Analysis for the Statistical Modeling of Aesthetic Judgment Data Related to Comics Artists

Authors: George E. Tsekouras, Evi Sampanikou

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We compare three categorical data clustering algorithms with respect to the problem of classifying cultural data related to the aesthetic judgment of comics artists. Such a classification is very important in Comics Art theory since the determination of any classes of similarities in such kind of data will provide to art-historians very fruitful information of Comics Art-s evolution. To establish this, we use a categorical data set and we study it by employing three categorical data clustering algorithms. The performances of these algorithms are compared each other, while interpretations of the clustering results are also given.

Keywords: Aesthetic judgment, comics artists, cluster analysis, categorical data.

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94 Post Earthquake Volunteer Learning That Build Up Caring Learning Communities

Authors: Naoki Okamura

Abstract:

From a perspective of moral education, this study has examined the experiences of a group of college students who volunteered in disaster areas after the magnitude 9.0 Earthquake, which struck the Northeastern region of Japan in March, 2011. The research, utilizing the method of grounded theory, has uncovered that most of the students have gone through positive changes in their development of moral and social characters, such as attaining deeper sense of empathy and caring personalities. The study expresses, in identifying the nature of those transformations, that the importance of volunteer work should strongly be recognized by the colleges and universities in Japan, in fulfilling their public responsibility of creating and building learning communities that are responsible and caring.

Keywords: Moral development, moral education, service learning, volunteer learning.

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93 In Search of Bauman’s Moral Impulse in Shadow Factories of China

Authors: Akram Hatami, Naser Firoozi, Vesa Puhakka

Abstract:

Ethics and responsibility are rapidly becoming a distinguishing feature of organizations. In this paper, we analyze ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. We engage ourselves with Bauman’s moral impulse perspective because his idea can contextualize ethics and responsibility. Moral impulse is a feeling of a selfless, infinite and unconditional responsibility towards, and care for, Others. We analyze a case study from a secondary data source because, for such a critical phenomenon as business ethics in shadow factories, collecting primary data is difficult, since they are unregistered factories. We argue that there has not been enough attention given to the ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. Our main goal is to demonstrate that, considering the Other, more importantly the employees, in ethical decision-making is a simple instruction beyond the narrow version of ethics by ethical codes and rules.

Keywords: Moral impulse, responsibility, shadow factories, the other.

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92 Overriding Moral Intuitions – Does It Make Us Immoral? Dual-Process Theory of Higher Cognition Account for Moral Reasoning

Authors: Michał Białek, Simon J. Handley

Abstract:

Moral decisions are considered as an intuitive process, while conscious reasoning is mostly used only to justify those intuitions. This problem is described in few different dual-process theories of mind, that are being developed e.g. by Frederick and Kahneman, Stanovich and Evans. Those theories recently evolved into tri-process theories with a proposed process that makes ultimate decision or allows to paraformal processing with focal bias.. Presented experiment compares the decision patterns to the implications of those models. In presented study participants (n=179) considered different aspects of trolley dilemma or its footbridge version and decided after that. Results show that in the control group 70% of people decided to use the lever to change tracks for the running trolley, and 20% chose to push the fat man down the tracks. In contrast, after experimental manipulation almost no one decided to act. Also the decision time difference between dilemmas disappeared after experimental manipulation. The result supports the idea of three co-working processes: intuitive (TASS), paraformal (reflective mind) and algorithmic process.

Keywords: Moral reasoning, moral decision, reflection, trolley problem, dual-process theory of reasoning, tri-process theory of cognition.

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91 Is School Misbehavior a Decision? Implications for School Guidance

Authors: Rachel C. F. Sun

Abstract:

This study examined the predictive effects of moral competence, prosocial norms and positive behavior recognition on school misbehavior among Chinese junior secondary school students. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that students were more likely to misbehave in school when they had lower levels of moral competence and prosocial norms, and when they perceived their positive behavior being less likely recognized. Practical implications were discussed on how to guide students to make the right choices to behave appropriately in school. Implications for future research were also discussed.

Keywords: Moral competence, positive behavior recognition, prosocial norms, school misbehavior.

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90 A Quantitative Study on the Effects of School Development on Character Development

Authors: Merve Gücen

Abstract:

One of the aims of education is to educate individuals who have embraced universal moral principles and transform universal moral principles into moral values. Character education aims to educate behaviors of individuals in their mental activities to transform moral principles into moral values in their lives. As the result of this education, individuals are expected to develop positive character traits and become morally indifferent individuals. What are the characteristics of the factors that influence character education at this stage? How should character education help individuals develop positive character traits? Which methods are more effective? These questions come to mind when studying character education. Our research was developed within the framework of these questions. The aim of our study is to provide the most effective use of the education factor that affects character. In this context, we tried to explain character definition, character development, character education and the factors affecting character education using qualitative research methods. At this stage, character education programs applied in various countries were examined and a character education program consisting of Islamic values was prepared and implemented in an International Imam Hatip High School in Istanbul. Our application was carried out with the collaboration of school and families. Various seminars were organized in the school and participation of families was ensured. In the last phase of our study, we worked with the students and their families on the effectiveness of the events held during the program. In this study, it was found that activities such as storytelling and theater in character education programs were effective in recognizing wrong behaviors in individuals. It was determined that our program had a positive effect on the quality of education. It was seen that applications of this educational program affected the behavior of the employees in the educational institution.

Keywords: Character development, values education, family activities, education program.

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89 Designing an Adventure: University of Southern California’s Experiment in Using Alternate Reality Games to Educate Students and Inspire Change

Authors: Anahita Dalmia

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There has been a recent rise in ‘audience-centric’ and immersive storytelling. This indicates audiences are gaining interest in experiencing real adventure with everything that encompasses the struggle, the new friendships, skill development, and growth. This paper examines two themed alternate reality games created by a group of students at the University of Southern California as an experiment in how to design an adventure and to evaluate its impact on participants. The experiences combined immersive improvisational theatre and live-action roleplaying to create socially aware experiences within the timespan of four hours, using Harry Potter and mythology as themes. In each experiment, over 500 players simultaneously embarked on quests -a series of challenges including puzzle-solving, scavenger-hunting, and character interactions- to join a narrative faction. While playing, the participants were asked to choose faction alignments based on the characters they interacted with, as well as their own backgrounds and moral values. During the narrative finale, the impact of their individual choices on the larger story and game were revealed. After the conclusion of each experience, participants filled out questionnaires and were interviewed. Through this, it was discovered that participants developed transferable problem-solving, team-work, and persuasion skills. They also learned about the theme of the experience and reflected on their own moral values and judgment-making abilities after they realized the consequences of their actions in the game-world, inspiring some participants to make changes outside of it. This reveals that alternative reality games can lead to socialization, educational development, and real-world change in a variety of contexts when implemented correctly. This experiment has begun to discover the value of alternate reality games in a real-world context and to develop a reproducible format to continue to create such an impact.

Keywords: Adventure, alternate reality games, education, immersive entertainment, interactive entertainment.

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88 A Descriptive Study of Self-Compassion in Polytechnic Students in Indonesia

Authors: Emma Dwi Ariyani, Dini Hadiani

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This article reports the descriptive analysis of self-compassion in polytechnic students. It has been long believed that self-compassion can improve students’ motivation in completing their studies. This research was conducted with the aim to see the degree of self-compassion in polytechnic students in Indonesia by using Neff's Self-Compassion Scale (short form) measurement tool consisting of 12 items. The research method used was descriptive study with survey technique on 255 students. The results showed that 78% of students had low self-compassion and 22% had high self-compassion. This revealed that polytechnic students still criticize themselves harshly, make a poor judgment and bad self-appraisal, and they also cannot accept their imperfection and consider it as a self-judgment. The students also tend to think that they are the only ones that experience failure and suffering. This can lead to a sense of isolation (self-isolation). Furthermore, the students are often too concerned with aspects that are not liked both in themselves and in life (over-identification). Improving the students’ level of self-compassion can be done by building an educational climate that not only criticizes the students but provides feedback as well. This should focus on the students’ real behavior rather than the students’ general character.

Keywords: Descriptive study, polytechnic students, Indonesia, self-compassion.

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87 A New Automatic System of Cell Colony Counting

Authors: U. Bottigli, M.Carpinelli, P.L. Fiori, B. Golosio, A. Marras, G. L. Masala, P. Oliva

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The counting process of cell colonies is always a long and laborious process that is dependent on the judgment and ability of the operator. The judgment of the operator in counting can vary in relation to fatigue. Moreover, since this activity is time consuming it can limit the usable number of dishes for each experiment. For these purposes, it is necessary that an automatic system of cell colony counting is used. This article introduces a new automatic system of counting based on the elaboration of the digital images of cellular colonies grown on petri dishes. This system is mainly based on the algorithms of region-growing for the recognition of the regions of interest (ROI) in the image and a Sanger neural net for the characterization of such regions. The better final classification is supplied from a Feed-Forward Neural Net (FF-NN) and confronted with the K-Nearest Neighbour (K-NN) and a Linear Discriminative Function (LDF). The preliminary results are shown.

Keywords: Automatic cell counting, neural network, region growing, Sanger net.

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86 The Emerging Global Judicial Ethics: Issues and Problems

Authors: Caroline Foulquier-Expert

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In many states around the world, actions to improve judicial ethics are developing significantly through the production of professional standards for judges. The quest to improve the ethics of judges is legitimate. However, as this development tends to be very important at the moment, some risks it presents must be highlighted. Indeed, if the objective of improving Judges’ Ethics is legitimate, it can also lead to banalization of justice, reinforcement of criticism against the judiciary and to broach incidentally the question of the limits of judgment, which is most perilous for the independence of the judiciary. This research, based on case studies, interviews with judges and an analysis of the literature on this topic (mainly from the United States of America and European Union Member States), tends to draw attention to the fact that the result of the development of these professional standards is that the ethical requirements of judges become ethical requirements of justice, which is an undesirable effect of which we must be aware, in order to prevent it.

Keywords: Judicial Ethics, Codes of conduct, Independence, Limits of Judgment.

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85 Trust Managementfor Pervasive Computing Environments

Authors: Denis Trcek

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Trust is essential for further and wider acceptance of contemporary e-services. It was first addressed almost thirty years ago in Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria standard by the US DoD. But this and other proposed approaches of that period were actually solving security. Roughly some ten years ago, methodologies followed that addressed trust phenomenon at its core, and they were based on Bayesian statistics and its derivatives, while some approaches were based on game theory. However, trust is a manifestation of judgment and reasoning processes. It has to be dealt with in accordance with this fact and adequately supported in cyber environment. On the basis of the results in the field of psychology and our own findings, a methodology called qualitative algebra has been developed, which deals with so far overlooked elements of trust phenomenon. It complements existing methodologies and provides a basis for a practical technical solution that supports management of trust in contemporary computing environments. Such solution is also presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: internet security, trust management, multi-agent systems, reasoning and judgment, modeling and simulation, qualitativealgebra

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84 Models of Copyrights System

Authors: A. G. Matveev

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The copyrights system is a combination of different elements. The number, content and the correlation of these elements are different for different legal orders. The models of copyrights systems display this system in terms of the interaction of economic and author's moral rights. Monistic and dualistic models are the most popular ones. The article deals with different points of view on the monism and dualism in copyright system. A specific model of the copyright in Switzerland in the XXth century is analyzed. The evolution of a French dualistic model of copyright is shown. The author believes that one should talk not about one, but rather about a number of dualism forms of copyright system.

Keywords: Copyright, exclusive copyright, economic rights, author's moral rights, rights of personality, monistic model, dualistic model.

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83 The Accuracy of the Flight Derivative Estimates Derived from Flight Data

Authors: Jung-hoon Lee, Eung Tai Kim, Byung-hee Chang, In-hee Hwang, Dae-sung Lee

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The accuracy of estimated stability and control derivatives of a light aircraft from flight test data were evaluated. The light aircraft, named ChangGong-91, is the first certified aircraft from the Korean government. The output error method, which is a maximum likelihood estimation technique and considers measurement noise only, was used to analyze the aircraft responses measures. The multi-step control inputs were applied in order to excite the short period mode for the longitudinal and Dutch-roll mode for the lateral-directional motion. The estimated stability/control derivatives of Chan Gong-91 were analyzed for the assessment of handling qualities comparing them with those of similar aircraft. The accuracy of the flight derivative estimates derived from flight test measurement was examined in engineering judgment, scatter and Cramer-Rao bound, which turned out to be satisfactory with minor defects..

Keywords: Light Aircraft, Flight Test, Accuracy, Engineering Judgment, Scatter, Cramer-Rao Bound

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82 Unveiling the Indonesian Identity through Proverbial Expressions: The Relation of Meaning between Authority and Globalization

Authors: Prima Gusti Yanti, Fairul Zabadi

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The purpose of the study is to find out relation of moral massage between the authority and globalization in proverb. Proverb is one of the many forms of cultural identity of the Indonesian/Malay people filled with moral values. The values contained within those proverbs are beneficial not only to the society, but also to those who held power amidst on this era of globalization. The method being used is qualitative research through content analysis which is done by describing and uncovering the forms and meanings of proverbs used within Indonesia Minangkabau society. Sources for this study’s data were extracted from a Minangkabau native speaker in the sub district of Tanah Abang, Jakarta. Said sources were retrieved through a series of interviews with the Minangkabau native speaker, whose speech is still adorned with idiomatic expressions. The research findings show that there are 30 existed proverbs or idiomatic expressions in the Minangkabau language often used by its indigenous people. The thirty data contain moral values which are closely interwoven with the matter of power and globalization. Analytical results show that the fourteen moral values contained within proverbs reflect a firm connection between rule and power in globalization; such as: responsible, brave, togetherness and consensus, tolerance, politeness, thorough and meticulous, honest and keeping promise, ingenious and learning, care, self-correction, be fair, alert, arbitrary, self-awareness. Structurally, proverbs possess an unchangeably formal construction; symbolically, proverbs possess meanings that are clearly decided through ethnographic communicative factors along with situational and cultural contexts. Values contained within proverbs may be used as a guide in social management, be it between fellow men, between men and nature, or even between men and their Creator. Therefore, the meanings and values contained within the morals of proverbs could also be utilized as a counsel for those who rule and in charge of power in order to stem the tides of globalization that had already spread into sectoral, territorial and educational continuums.

Keywords: Continuum, globalization, identity, proverb, rule-power.

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81 Several Aspects of the Conceptual Framework of Financial Reporting

Authors: Nadezhda Kvatashidze

Abstract:

The conceptual framework of International Financial Reporting Standards determines the basic principles of accounting. The said principles have multiple applications, with professional judgments being one of those. Recognition and assessment of the information contained in financial reporting, especially so the somewhat uncertain events and transactions and/or the ones regarding which there is no standard or interpretation are based on professional judgments. Professional judgments aim at the formulation of expert assumptions regarding the specifics of the circumstances and events to be entered into the report based on the conceptual framework terms and principles. Experts have to make a choice in favor of one of the aforesaid and simulate the situations applying multi-variant accounting estimates and judgment. In making the choice, one should consider all the factors, which may help represent the information in the best way possible. Professional judgment determines the relevance and faithful representation of the presented information, which makes it more useful for the existing and potential investors. In order to assess the prospected net cash flows, the information must be predictable and reliable. The publication contains critical analysis of the aforementioned problems. The fact that the International Financial Reporting Standards are developed continuously makes the issue all the more important and that is another point discussed in the study.

Keywords: Conceptual Framework for financial reporting, Qualitative characteristics of financial information, Professional judgement, Cost constraints, Financial reporting.

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80 Corruption in India: Causes and Remedial Measures

Authors: Ghulam Nabi Naz

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After independence, the popular belief that Gandhian will not indulge in corruption got a setback, post-independence setup paved the way for heavy corruption. The menace which would have dealt with strong legal provisions has become a way of life of Indian society. Corruption is recognized as the single biggest problem facing the country today. It undermines democracy and rule of law, violates human rights, distorts market and corrodes the moral fibre of people. The paper discusses the causes and possible remedial measures of corruption and response of people in Indian society. It emphasizes the factors which provide fertile ground for growth of corruption like, degradation of moral values, absence of a strong anti-corruption law and its effective enforcement, accountability, consistency and a defective system of fighting elections. The paper also highlights the reforms necessary for fighting corruption in India.

Keywords: Embezzlement, colonial, licence Raj, good governance, misappropriation, Sangh ideologue, Anna movement.

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79 An Intelligent Nondestructive Testing System of Ultrasonic Infrared Thermal Imaging Based on Embedded Linux

Authors: Hao Mi, Ming Yang, Tian-yue Yang

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Ultrasonic infrared nondestructive testing is a kind of testing method with high speed, accuracy and localization. However, there are still some problems, such as the detection requires manual real-time field judgment, the methods of result storage and viewing are still primitive. An intelligent non-destructive detection system based on embedded linux is put forward in this paper. The hardware part of the detection system is based on the ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) core and an embedded linux system is built to realize image processing and defect detection of thermal images. The CLAHE algorithm and the Butterworth filter are used to process the thermal image, and then the boa server and CGI (Common Gateway Interface) technology are used to transmit the test results to the display terminal through the network for real-time monitoring and remote monitoring. The system also liberates labor and eliminates the obstacle of manual judgment. According to the experiment result, the system provides a convenient and quick solution for industrial non-destructive testing.

Keywords: Remote monitoring, non-destructive testing, embedded linux system, image processing.

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78 Cross-Border Shopping Motivation, Behaviours and Ethnocentrism of Malaysian in Hatyai, Thailand

Authors: Wanwisa Kuncharin, Badaruddin Mohamed

Abstract:

There have been few studies of cross-border shopping. However, many have focused on macroeconomic effects rather than on discovering the motivation and behaviour of cross-border shoppers who purchase abroad. Hatyai, Thailand is located about 30 km from the Malaysian border. The statistics reports that each year more than 400,000 Malaysian visitors visited Hatyai. The aims of this study are fourfold: (1) to investigate factors motivating cross-border shoppers to shop in Hatyai, Thailand; (2) to examine the relationship between ethnicity and shopper ethnocentrism; (3) to discover the impact of shopper ethnocentrism on foreign product judgment; and (4) to explore the impact of shopper ethnocentrism on the willingness to buy foreign products. The results reveal that the three most popular consumption items were food and beverages, clothing, and grocery products. Factor analysis shows that the three key reasons for choosing Hatyai as the cross-border shopping destination included product and store, close distance, and low exchange rate. Moreover, there were significant differences in ethnocentrism by three ethnic groups. Shopper ethnocentrism had a significant negative correlation with foreign product judgment, while shopper ethnocentrism was not significantly correlated with willingness to buy foreign products.

Keywords: Cross-border shopping behaviours, Malaysian shoppers, Ethnocentrism, Hatyai, Thailand.

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77 Directors’ Duties, Civil Liability, and the Business Judgment Rule under the Portuguese Legal Framework

Authors: Marisa Catarina da Conceição Dinis

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The commercial companies’ management has suffered an important material and legal transformation in the last years, mainly related to the changes in the Portuguese legal framework and because of the fact they were recently object of great expansion. In fact, next to the smaller family businesses, whose management is regularly assumed by partners, companies with social investment highly scattered, whose owners are completely out from administration, are now arising. In those particular cases, the business transactions are much more complex and require from the companies’ managers a highly technical knowledge and some specific professionals’ skills and abilities. This kind of administration carries a high-level risk that can both result in great success or in great losses. Knowing that the administration performance can result in important losses to the companies, the Portuguese legislator has created a legal structure to impute them some responsibilities and sanctions. The main goal of this study is to analyze the Portuguese law and some jurisprudence about companies’ management rules and about the conflicts between the directors and the company. In order to achieve these purposes we have to consider, on the one hand, the legal duties directly connected to the directors’ functions and on the other hand the disrespect for those same rules. The Portuguese law in this matter, influenced by the common law, determines that the directors’ attitude should be guided by loyalty and honesty. Consequently, we must reflect in which cases the administrators should respond to losses that they might cause to companies as a result of their duties’ disrespect. In this way is necessary to study the business judgment rule wich is a rule that refers to a liability exclusion rule. We intend, in the same way, to evaluate if the civil liability that results from the directors’ duties disrespect can extend itself to those who have elected them ignoring or even knowing that they don´t have the necessary skills or appropriate knowledge to the position they hold. To charge directors’, without ruining entrepreneurship, charging, in the same way, those who select them reinforces the need for more responsible and cautious attitudes which will lead consequently to more confidence in the markets.

Keywords: Duty of loyalty, duty of care, business judgment rule, civil liability of directors.

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76 Role of Leaders in Managing Employees’ Dysfunctional Behavior at Workplace

Authors: Aya Maher, Pakinam Youssef

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The objective of this theoretical study is to explore in depth the role of leaders in managing employees’ dysfunctional behavior at workplace in an effort to recommend strategies and solutions for these destructive behaviors that affect employees’ performance. The significance of the study lies in the fact that dysfunctional behavior has been widely spread in almost all organizations, public and private, with its very destructive manifestations. Dysfunctional behavior may be classified into thefts, sabotage, sexual harassment, jealousy, envy, revenge, vulgarity all of which affect employees’ moral, self-esteem and satisfaction level drastically which will be reflected negatively on their performance and productivity. The main research question will focus on the role of leaders in managing employees’ dysfunctional behavior effectively at the workplace through the different strategies and control measures. In this study, the data will be collected from different academic literature and through some primary data by conducting interviews with some public and private employees from different managerial levels and fields.

Keywords: Dysfunctional behavior, employees’ deviant behavior, employees moral, leaders’ role.

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75 Confucius about the Ideals of Man and the Moral Dignity

Authors: N. Kudaibergenova, S. Edilbay, S. Rysbekova, Zh. Amirkulova, G. Zhumatayev

Abstract:

Confucius was a fifth-century BCE Chinese thinker whose influence upon East Asian intellectual and social history is immeasurable. Better known is in China as “Master Kong”. As a culturally symbolic figure, he has been alternately idealized, deified, dismissed, vilified, and rehabilitated over the millennia by both Asian and non-Asian thinkers and regimes. Given his extraordinary impact on Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese thought, it is ironic that so little can be known about Confucius. The tradition that bears his name – “Confucianizm” (Chinese: Rujia) – ultimately traces itself to the sayings and biographical fragments recorded in the text known as the Analects (Chinese: Lunyu). In the Analects, two types of persons are opposed to one another – not in terms of basic potential, but in terms of developed potential. These are the junzi (literally, “lord’s son” or “gentleman”) and the xiaoren (“small person”). The junzi is the person who always manifests the quality of ren in his person and the displays the quality of lee in his actions. In this article examines the category of the ideal man and the spiritual and moral values of the philosophy of Confucius. According to Confucius high-morality Jun-zi is characterized by two things: a sense of humanity and duty. This article provides an analysis of the ethical category for the ideal man. 

Keywords: Confucius, Humanity, Men Zi, Lun Yui, Ideal man, Zhun Yun.

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74 Developing Islamic Module Project for Preschool Teachers Using Modified Delphi Technique

Authors: Mazeni Ismail, Nurul Aliah, Hasmadi Hassan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to gather the consensus of experts regarding the use of moral guidance amongst preschool teachers vis-a-vis the Islamic Project module (I-Project Module). This I-Project Module seeks to provide pertinent data on the assimilation of noble values in subject-matter teaching. To obtain consensus for the various components of the module, the Modified Delphi technique was used to develop the module. 12 subject experts from various educational fields of Islamic education, early childhood education, counselling and language fully participated in the development of this module. The Modified Delphi technique was administered in two mean cycles. The standard deviation value derived from questionnaires completed by the participating panel of experts provided the value of expert consensus reached. This was subsequently analyzed using SPSS version 22. Findings revealed that the panel of experts reached a discernible degree of agreement on five topics outlined in the module, viz; content (mean value 3.36), teaching strategy (mean value 3.28), programme duration (mean value 3.0), staff involved and attention-grabbing strategy of target group participating in the value program (mean value 3.5), and strategy to attract attention of target group to utilize i-project (mean value 3.0). With regard to the strategy to attract the attention of the target group, the experts proposed for creative activities to be added in order to enhance teachers’ creativity.

Keywords: Islamic project, modified Delphi technique, project approach, teacher moral guidance.

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73 Pedometer Development Utilizing an Accelerometer Sensor

Authors: Ling-Mei Wu, Jia-Shing Sheu, Wei-Cian Jheng, Ying-Tung Hsiao

Abstract:

This paper develops a pedometer with a three-axis acceleration sensor that can be placed with any angle. The proposed pedometer measures the number of steps while users walk, jog or run. It can be worn on users’ waistband or placed within pocket or backpack. The work address to improve on the general pedometers, which can only be used in a single direction or can only count of steps without the continuous exercise judgment mechanism. Finally, experimental results confirm the superior performance of the proposed pedometer.

Keywords: Accelerometer sensor, Angle estimation, Pedometer.

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72 Non-Destructive Evaluation of Launch Tube Welds with Radiography

Authors: Tosapolporn Pornpibunsompop

Abstract:

The non-destructive testing of launch tube weld with radiography was investigated and evaluated with AWS D1.1 standard. The paper started with preparation of launch tube and radiographic inspection. X-Ray inspection then was done and gotten the result. The judgment of inspection results were concluded by certified person and finally, the evaluation with AWS D1.1 standard was conducted as well. The result shown that weld position P1 was not conformed to AWS D1.1 which allowed size of incomplete penetration did not exceed 4 mm. The other welds were corresponded to as mentioned standard. Additionally, the corrective actions for incomplete penetration either provided for future actions.

Keywords: Non-destructive evaluation, Weld, Launch tube, Radiography

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71 Maintenance of Philosophical, Humanistic and Religious Values of Security of the Kazakh Nation

Authors: K. K. Kaldybay, T. K. Abdrassilov, G. K. Abdygalieva, P. M. Suleymenov, M. O. Nassimov

Abstract:

People have always needed to believe in some supernatural power, which could explain nature phenomena. Different kinds of religions like Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism have thought believers in all world, how to behave themselves. We think the most important role of religion in modern society most important role of religion in modern society is safety of the People. World and traditional religion played a prominent role in the socio-cultural progress, and in the development of man as a spiritual being. At the heart of religious morals the belief in god and responsibility before it lies and specifies religious and ethical values and categories . The religion is based on ethical standards historically developed by society, requirements and concepts, but it puts all social and moral relations of the person in dependence on religious values. For everything that the believer makes on a debt or a duty, he bears moral responsibility before conscience, people and god. The concept of value of religious morals takes the central place because the religion from all forms of public consciousness most values is painted as it is urged to answer vital questions. Any religion not only considers questions of creation of the world, sense of human existence, relationship of god and the person, but also offers the ethical concept, develops rules of behavior of people. The religion a long time dominated in the history of culture, and during this time created a set of cultural and material values. The identity of Kazakh culture can be defined as a Cultural identity traditional ,national identity and the identity values developed by Kazakh people in process of cultural-historical development, promoting formation of Kazakh culture identity on public consciousness. Identity is the historical process but always the tradition exists in it as a component of stability, as a component of self that what this identity formed .

Keywords: Philosophy, religion, education, culture, human, national value, security, religious value.

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