Search results for: Spectrum Sensing
693 Performance of Nakagami Fading Channel over Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing
Authors: M. Ranjeeth, S. Anuradha
Spectrum sensing is the main feature of cognitive radio technology. Spectrum sensing gives an idea of detecting the presence of the primary users in a licensed spectrum. In this paper we compare the theoretical results of detection probability of different fading environments like Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m fading channels with the simulation results using energy detection based spectrum sensing. The numerical results are plotted as Pf Vs Pd for different SNR values, fading parameters. It is observed that Nakagami fading channel performance is better than other fading channels by using energy detection in spectrum sensing. A MATLAB simulation test bench has been implemented to know the performance of energy detection in different fading channel environment.
Keywords: Spectrum sensing, Energy detection, fading channels, Probability of detection, probability of false alarm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2994
692 Reliability Factors Based Fuzzy Logic Scheme for Spectrum Sensing
Authors: Tallataf Rasheed, Adnan Rashdi, Ahmad Naeem Akhtar
Abstract:The accurate spectrum sensing is a fundamental requirement of dynamic spectrum access for deployment of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). To acheive this requirement a Reliability factors based Fuzzy Logic (RFL) Scheme for Spectrum Sensing has been proposed in this paper. Cognitive Radio User (CRU) predicts the presence or absence of Primary User (PU) using energy detector and calculates the Reliability factors which are SNR of sensing node, threshold of energy detector and decision difference of each node with other nodes in a cooperative spectrum sensing environment. Then the decision of energy detector is combined with Reliability factors of sensing node using Fuzzy Logic. These Reliability Factors used in RFL Scheme describes the reliability of decision made by a CRU to improve the local spectrum sensing. This Fuzzy combining scheme provides the accuracy of decision made by sensornode. The simulation results have shown that the proposed technique provide better PU detection probability than existing Spectrum Sensing Techniques.
Keywords: Cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, energy detector, reliability factors, fuzzy logic.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 852
691 Wavelet-Based Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios using Hilbert Transform
Authors: Shiann-Shiun Jeng, Jia-Ming Chen, Hong-Zong Lin, Chen-Wan Tsung
Abstract:For cognitive radio networks, there is a major spectrum sensing problem, i.e. dynamic spectrum management. It is an important issue to sense and identify the spectrum holes in cognitive radio networks. The first-order derivative scheme is usually used to detect the edge of the spectrum. In this paper, a novel spectrum sensing technique for cognitive radio is presented. The proposed algorithm offers efficient edge detection. Then, simulation results show the performance of the first-order derivative scheme and the proposed scheme and depict that the proposed scheme obtains better performance than does the first-order derivative scheme.
Keywords: cognitive radio, Spectrum Sensing, wavelet, edgedetectionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2746
690 Spectrum Sensing Based On the Cyclostationarity of PU Signals in High Traffic Environments
Authors: Keunhong Chae, Youngpo Lee, Seokho Yoon
In cognitive radio (CR) systems, the primary user (PU) signal would randomly depart or arrive during the sensing period of a CR user, which is referred to as the high traffic environment. In this paper, we propose a novel spectrum sensing scheme based on the cyclostationarity of PU signals in high traffic environments. Specifically, we obtain a test statistic by applying an estimate of spectral autocoherence function of the PU signal to the generalized- likelihood ratio. From numerical results, it is confirmed that the proposed scheme provides a better spectrum sensing performance compared with the conventional spectrum sensing scheme based on the energy of the PU signals in high traffic environments.
Keywords: Spectrum sensing, cyclostationarity, high traffic environments.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1743
689 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation
Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov
Abstract:Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).
Keywords: Cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 996
688 A Cooperative Weighted Discriminator Energy Detector Technique in Fading Environment
Authors: Muhammad R. Alrabeiah, Ibrahim S. Alnomay
The need in cognitive radio system for a simple, fast, and independent technique to sense the spectrum occupancy has led to the energy detection approach. Energy detector is known by its dependency on noise variation in the system which is one of its major drawbacks. In this paper, we are aiming to improve its performance by utilizing a weighted collaborative spectrum sensing, it is similar to the collaborative spectrum sensing methods introduced previously in the literature. These weighting methods give more improvement for collaborative spectrum sensing as compared to no weighting case. There is two method proposed in this paper: the first one depends on the channel status between each sensor and the primary user while the second depends on the value of the energy measured in each sensor.
Keywords: Cognitive radio, Spectrum sensing, Collaborative sensors, Weighted Decisions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1620
687 Capacity Optimization in Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks
Authors: Mahdi Pirmoradian, Olayinka Adigun, Christos Politis
Abstract:Cooperative spectrum sensing is a crucial challenge in cognitive radio networks. Cooperative sensing can increase the reliability of spectrum hole detection, optimize sensing time and reduce delay in cooperative networks. In this paper, an efficient central capacity optimization algorithm is proposed to minimize cooperative sensing time in a homogenous sensor network using OR decision rule subject to the detection and false alarm probabilities constraints. The evaluation results reveal significant improvement in the sensing time and normalized capacity of the cognitive sensors.
Keywords: Cooperative networks, normalized capacity, sensing time.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1591
686 An Energy Detection-Based Algorithm for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Rayleigh Fading Channel
Authors: H. Bakhshi, E. Khayyamian
Abstract:Cognitive radios have been recognized as one of the most promising technologies dealing with the scarcity of the radio spectrum. In cognitive radio systems, secondary users are allowed to utilize the frequency bands of primary users when the bands are idle. Hence, how to accurately detect the idle frequency bands has attracted many researchers’ interest. Detection performance is sensitive toward noise power and gain fluctuation. Since signal to noise ratio (SNR) between primary user and secondary users are not the same and change over the time, SNR and noise power estimation is essential. In this paper, we present a cooperative spectrum sensing algorithm using SNR estimation to improve detection performance in the real situation.
Keywords: Cognitive radio, cooperative spectrum sensing, energy detection, SNR estimation, spectrum sensing, Rayleigh fading channel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1233
685 A Novel Spectrum Sensing Scheme Based on Periodicity of DVB-T Pilot Signals
Authors: Hyung-Weon Cho, Youngyoon Lee, Seung Goo Kang, Dahae Chong, Myungsoo Lee, Chonghan Song, Seokho Yoon
Abstract:This paper proposes a novel spectrum sensing technique for the digital video broadcasting-terrestrial (DVB-T) systems, which utilizes the periodicity of pilot signals in the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols. The proposed scheme can overcome the effect of the timing synchronization error by recorrelating the correlation values in the same sample distances. The numerical results demonstrate that the detection probability performance of the proposed scheme outperforms that of the conventional scheme when there exists a timing synchronization error.
Keywords: DVB-T, spectrum sensing, OFDM, timing synchronizationerror.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1808
684 Capacity Optimization for Local and Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks
Authors: Ayman A. El-Saleh, Mahamod Ismail, Mohd. A. M. Ali, Ahmed N. H. Alnuaimy
Abstract:The dynamic spectrum allocation solutions such as cognitive radio networks have been proposed as a key technology to exploit the frequency segments that are spectrally underutilized. Cognitive radio users work as secondary users who need to constantly and rapidly sense the presence of primary users or licensees to utilize their frequency bands if they are inactive. Short sensing cycles should be run by the secondary users to achieve higher throughput rates as well as to provide low level of interference to the primary users by immediately vacating their channels once they have been detected. In this paper, the throughput-sensing time relationship in local and cooperative spectrum sensing has been investigated under two distinct scenarios, namely, constant primary user protection (CPUP) and constant secondary user spectrum usability (CSUSU) scenarios. The simulation results show that the design of sensing slot duration is very critical and depends on the number of cooperating users under CPUP scenario whereas under CSUSU, cooperating more users has no effect if the sensing time used exceeds 5% of the total frame duration.
Keywords: Capacity, cognitive radio, optimization, spectrumsensing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1506
683 Energy Detection Based Sensing and Primary User Traffic Classification for Cognitive Radio
Authors: Urvee B. Trivedi, U. D. Dalal
Abstract:As wireless communication services grow quickly; the seriousness of spectrum utilization has been on the rise gradually. An emerging technology, cognitive radio has come out to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. To support the spectrum reuse functionality, secondary users are required to sense the radio frequency environment, and once the primary users are found to be active, the secondary users are required to vacate the channel within a certain amount of time. Therefore, spectrum sensing is of significant importance. Once sensing is done, different prediction rules apply to classify the traffic pattern of primary user. Primary user follows two types of traffic patterns: periodic and stochastic ON-OFF patterns. A cognitive radio can learn the patterns in different channels over time. Two types of classification methods are discussed in this paper, by considering edge detection and by using autocorrelation function. Edge detection method has a high accuracy but it cannot tolerate sensing errors. Autocorrelation-based classification is applicable in the real environment as it can tolerate some amount of sensing errors.
Keywords: Cognitive radio (CR), probability of detection (PD), probability of false alarm (PF), primary User (PU), secondary user (SU), Fast Fourier transform (FFT), signal to noise ratio (SNR).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1352
682 BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio
Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi
Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy. Besides, it's a lot of generic as receivers doesn't would like any information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz, FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz. The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210 (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) values.
Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, GNU Radio, OFDM, SDR, WiMAX.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4412
681 Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey
Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar
The main aim of a communication system is to achieve maximum performance. In Cognitive Radio any user or transceiver has ability to sense best suitable channel, while channel is not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of a licensed user without any interference. Though, the spectrum sensing consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). In this survey paper we discuss the use of different learning models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to increase the learning and decision making capacity of CRN without affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Cognitive Radio, Cognitive Radio Networks, Back Propagation, Spectrum Sensing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3951
680 Centralized Cooperative Spectrum Sensing with MIMO in the Reporting Network over κ − μ Fading Channel
Authors: S Hariharan, K Chaitanya, P Muthuchidambaranathan
The IEEE 802.22 working group aims to drive the Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (DVB-T) bands for data communication to the rural area without interfering the TV broadcast. In this paper, we arrive at a closed-form expression for average detection probability of Fusion center (FC) with multiple antenna over the κ − μ fading channel model. We consider a centralized cooperative multiple antenna network for reporting. The DVB-T samples forwarded by the secondary user (SU) were combined using Maximum ratio combiner at FC, an energy detection is performed to make the decision. The fading effects of the channel degrades the detection probability of the FC, a generalized independent and identically distributed (IID) κ − μ and an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel is considered for reporting and sensing respectively. The proposed system performance is verified through simulation results.
Keywords: IEEE 802.22, Cooperative spectrum sensing, Multiple antenna, κ − μ .Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5336
679 Performance Analysis of the Time-Based and Periodogram-Based Energy Detector for Spectrum Sensing
Authors: Sadaf Nawaz, Adnan Ahmed Khan, Asad Mahmood, Chaudhary Farrukh Javed
Classically, an energy detector is implemented in time domain (TD). However, frequency domain (FD) based energy detector has demonstrated an improved performance. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches as to analyze their pros and cons. A detailed performance analysis of the classical TD energy-detector and the periodogram based detector is performed. Exact and approximate mathematical expressions for probability of false alarm (Pf) and probability of detection (Pd) are derived for both approaches. The derived expressions naturally lead to an analytical as well as intuitive reasoning for the improved performance of (Pf) and (Pd) in different scenarios. Our analysis suggests the dependence improvement on buffer sizes. Pf is improved in FD, whereas Pd is enhanced in TD based energy detectors. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations results demonstrate the analysis reached by the derived expressions.
Keywords: Cognitive radio, energy detector, periodogram, spectrum sensing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 804
678 Real Time Multi-Sensory Force Sensing Mat for Sports Biomechanics and Human Gait Analysis
Authors: D. Gouwanda, S. M. N. A. Senanayake
Abstract:This paper presents a real time force sensing instrument that is designed for human gait analysis purposes. It is capable of recording and monitoring ground reaction forces exerted by human foot during various activities such as walking, running and jumping in real time. In overall, force sensing mat mainly consists of three elements: the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and data acquisition device. Force sensing mat is the mat that contains an array of force sensing elements. To control and process the incoming signal from the force sensing mat, Force-Logger and Force-Reloader are developed using National Instrument Labview. This paper describes the architecture of the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and the real time streaming of the incoming data from the force sensing mat. Additionally, a preliminary experiment dataset is presented in this paper.
Keywords: Force platform, force sensing resistor, human gait analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2176
677 Performance Evaluation of Qos Parameters in Cognitive Radio Using Genetic Algorithm
Authors: Maninder Jeet Kaur, Moin Uddin, Harsh K. Verma
Abstract:The efficient use of available licensed spectrum is becoming more and more critical with increasing demand and usage of the radio spectrum. This paper shows how the use of spectrum as well as dynamic spectrum management can be effectively managed and spectrum allocation schemes in the wireless communication systems be implemented and used, in future. This paper would be an attempt towards better utilization of the spectrum. This research will focus on the decision-making process mainly, with an assumption that the radio environment has already been sensed and the QoS requirements for the application have been specified either by the sensed radio environment or by the secondary user itself. We identify and study the characteristic parameters of Cognitive Radio and use Genetic Algorithm for spectrum allocation. Performance evaluation is done using MATLAB toolboxes.
Keywords: Cognitive Radio, Fitness Functions, Fuzzy Logic, Quality of Service (QoS)Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2286
676 An Optical Sensing Film for Fe(III) Determination Based on 1,1′- diethyl 2,2′- cyanine Iodide Immobilized in Nafion Film
Authors: K. Kajsanthia, J. Wittayakun, S. Prayoonpokarach
Abstract:An optical chemical sensing film based on immobilizing of 1,1′- diethyl 2,2′-cyanine (pseudocyanine iodide) in nafion film was developed for the determination of Fe(III). The sensing film was homogeneous, transparent, and mechanically stable. Decrease of the absorbance measured at 518 nm was observed when the sensing film was immersed in a solution of Fe(III). The optimum response of the sensing film to Fe(III) was obtained in a solution with pH 4.0. Linear calibration curve over an Fe(III) concentration range of 1-30 ppm with a limit of detection of 0.71 ppm was obtained. Cd(II) is the major interference. The sensing film exhibited good stability for 2 months and high reproducibility. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Fe(III) in water samples with satisfactory results.
Keywords: iron(III), _nafion, optical sensing film, pseudocyanine iodideProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1375
675 Linear Maps That Preserve Left Spectrum of Diagonal Quaternionic Matrices
Authors: Geng Yuan, Yiwan Guo, Fahui Zhai, Shuhua Zhang
Abstract:In this paper, we discuss some properties of left spectrum and give the representation of linear preserver map the left spectrum of diagonal quaternionic matrices.
Keywords: Quaternionic matrix, left spectrum, linear preserver map.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 960
674 Sensing Pressure for Authentication System Using Keystroke Dynamics
Authors: Hidetoshi Nonaka, Masahito Kurihara
In this paper, an authentication system using keystroke dynamics is presented. We introduced pressure sensing for the improvement of the accuracy of measurement and durability against intrusion using key-logger, and so on, however additional instrument is needed. As the result, it has been found that the pressure sensing is also effective for estimation of real moment of keystroke.
Keywords: Biometric authentication, Keystroke dynamics, Pressure sensing, Time-frequency analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2097
673 Real Time Force Sensing Mat for Human Gait Analysis
Authors: Darwin Gouwanda, S. M. N. Arosha Senanayake, M. M. Danushka Ranjana Marasinghe, Mervin Chandrapal, Jeya Mithra Kumar, Tung Mun Hon, Yulius
Abstract:This paper presents a real time force sensing instrument that is designed for human gait analysis purposes. This instrument mainly consists of three main elements: the force sensing mat, signal conditioning and switching circuit and data acquisition device. In order to control and to process the incoming signals from the force sensing mat, Force-Logger and Force-Reloader program are developed using Labview 8.0. This paper describes the architecture of the force sensing mat, signal conditioning and switching circuit and the real time streaming of the incoming data from the force sensing mat.
Keywords: Force platform, Force sensing resistor, human gait analysisProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2358
672 Fast Wavelength Calibration Algorithm for Optical Spectrum Analyzers
Authors: Thomas Fuhrmann
In this paper an algorithm for fast wavelength calibration of Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) using low power reference gas spectra is proposed. In existing OSAs a reference spectrum with low noise for precise detection of the reference extreme values is needed. To generate this spectrum costly hardware with high optical power is necessary. With this new wavelength calibration algorithm it is possible to use a noisy reference spectrum and therefore hardware costs can be cut. With this algorithm the reference spectrum is filtered and the key information is extracted by segmenting and finding the local minima and maxima. Afterwards slope and offset of a linear correction function for best matching the measured and theoretical spectra are found by correlating the measured with the stored minima. With this algorithm a reliable wavelength referencing of an OSA can be implemented on a microcontroller with a calculation time of less than one second.
Keywords: correlation, gas reference, optical spectrum analyzer, wavelength calibrationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1311
671 Spherical Spectrum Properties of Quaternionic Operators
Authors: Yiwan Guo, Fahui Zhai
Abstract:In this paper, the similarity invariant and the upper semi-continuity of spherical spectrum, and the spherical spectrum properties for infinite direct sums of quaternionic operators are characterized, respectively. As an application of some results established, a concrete example about the computation of the spherical spectrum of a compact quaternionic operator with form of infinite direct sums of quaternionic matrices is also given.
Keywords: Spherical spectrum, Quaternionic operator, Upper semi-continuity, Direct sum of operators.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1311
670 Microfluidic Plasmonic Bio-Sensing of Exosomes by Using a Gold Nano-Island Platform
Authors: Srinivas Bathini, Duraichelvan Raju, Simona Badilescu, Muthukumaran Packirisamy
A bio-sensing method, based on the plasmonic property of gold nano-islands, has been developed for detection of exosomes in a clinical setting. The position of the gold plasmon band in the UV-Visible spectrum depends on the size and shape of gold nanoparticles as well as on the surrounding environment. By adsorbing various chemical entities, or binding them, the gold plasmon band will shift toward longer wavelengths and the shift is proportional to the concentration. Exosomes transport cargoes of molecules and genetic materials to proximal and distal cells. Presently, the standard method for their isolation and quantification from body fluids is by ultracentrifugation, not a practical method to be implemented in a clinical setting. Thus, a versatile and cutting-edge platform is required to selectively detect and isolate exosomes for further analysis at clinical level. The new sensing protocol, instead of antibodies, makes use of a specially synthesized polypeptide (Vn96), to capture and quantify the exosomes from different media, by binding the heat shock proteins from exosomes. The protocol has been established and optimized by using a glass substrate, in order to facilitate the next stage, namely the transfer of the protocol to a microfluidic environment. After each step of the protocol, the UV-Vis spectrum was recorded and the position of gold Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) band was measured. The sensing process was modelled, taking into account the characteristics of the nano-island structure, prepared by thermal convection and annealing. The optimal molar ratios of the most important chemical entities, involved in the detection of exosomes were calculated as well. Indeed, it was found that the results of the sensing process depend on the two major steps: the molar ratios of streptavidin to biotin-PEG-Vn96 and, the final step, the capture of exosomes by the biotin-PEG-Vn96 complex. The microfluidic device designed for sensing of exosomes consists of a glass substrate, sealed by a PDMS layer that contains the channel and a collecting chamber. In the device, the solutions of linker, cross-linker, etc., are pumped over the gold nano-islands and an Ocean Optics spectrometer is used to measure the position of the Au plasmon band at each step of the sensing. The experiments have shown that the shift of the Au LSPR band is proportional to the concentration of exosomes and, thereby, exosomes can be accurately quantified. An important advantage of the method is the ability to discriminate between exosomes having different origins.
Keywords: Exosomes, gold nano-islands, microfluidics, plasmonic biosensing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 818
669 Comparison of Parameterization Methods in Recognizing Spoken Arabic Digits
Authors: Ali Ganoun
This paper proposes evaluation of sound parameterization methods in recognizing some spoken Arabic words, namely digits from zero to nine. Each isolated spoken word is represented by a single template based on a specific recognition feature, and the recognition is based on the Euclidean distance from those templates. The performance analysis of recognition is based on four parameterization features: the Burg Spectrum Analysis, the Walsh Spectrum Analysis, the Thomson Multitaper Spectrum Analysis and the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) features. The main aim of this paper was to compare, analyze, and discuss the outcomes of spoken Arabic digits recognition systems based on the selected recognition features. The results acqired confirm that the use of MFCC features is a very promising method in recognizing Spoken Arabic digits.
Keywords: Speech Recognition, Spectrum Analysis, Burg Spectrum, Walsh Spectrum Analysis, Thomson Multitaper Spectrum, MFCC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1455
668 Analysis of Gamma-Ray Spectra Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method
Authors: A. H. Fatah, A. H. Ahmed
Abstract:Levenberg-Marquardt method (LM) was proposed to be applied as a non-linear least-square fitting in the analysis of a natural gamma-ray spectrum that was taken by the Hp (Ge) detector. The Gaussian function that composed of three components, main Gaussian, a step background function and tailing function in the lowenergy side, has been suggested to describe each of the y-ray lines mathematically in the spectrum. The whole spectrum has been analyzed by determining the energy and relative intensity for the strong y-ray lines.
Keywords: Gamma-Ray, Spectrum analysis, Non-linear leastsquare fitting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2271
667 Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio
Authors: O. S. Omorogiuwa, E. J. Omozusi
The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses secondary frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilised. The design was done by analysing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5-108 MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.
Keywords: Spectrum, interference, telecommunication, cognitive radio, frequency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 634
666 Spread Spectrum Code Estimation by Genetic Algorithm
Authors: V. R. Asghari, M. Ardebilipour
Abstract:In the context of spectrum surveillance, a method to recover the code of spread spectrum signal is presented, whereas the receiver has no knowledge of the transmitter-s spreading sequence. The approach is based on a genetic algorithm (GA), which is forced to model the received signal. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are well known for their robustness in solving complex optimization problems. Experimental results show that the method provides a good estimation, even when the signal power is below the noise power.
Keywords: Code estimation, genetic algorithms, spread spectrum.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1465
665 3D Sensing and Mapping for a Tracked Mobile Robot with a Movable Laser Ranger Finder
Authors: Toyomi Fujita
Abstract:This paper presents a sensing system for 3D sensing and mapping by a tracked mobile robot with an arm-type sensor movable unit and a laser range finder (LRF). The arm-type sensor movable unit is mounted on the robot and the LRF is installed at the end of the unit. This system enables the sensor to change position and orientation so that it avoids occlusions according to terrain by this mechanism. This sensing system is also able to change the height of the LRF by keeping its orientation flat for efficient sensing. In this kind of mapping, it may be difficult for moving robot to apply mapping algorithms such as the iterative closest point (ICP) because sets of the 2D data at each sensor height may be distant in a common surface. In order for this kind of mapping, the authors therefore applied interpolation to generate plausible model data for ICP. The results of several experiments provided validity of these kinds of sensing and mapping in this sensing system.
Keywords: Laser Range Finder, Arm-Type Sensor Movable Unit, Tracked Mobile Robot, 3D Mapping.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1694
664 An Adaptive Opportunistic Transmission for Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing in Heterogeneous Networks
Authors: Daehyoung Kim, Pervez Khan, Hoon Kim
Abstract:Efficient utilization of spectrum resources is a fundamental issue of wireless communications due to its scarcity. To improve the efficiency of spectrum utilization, the spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands is being regarded as one of key technologies in the next generation wireless networks. A number of schemes such as Listen-Before-Talk(LBT) and carrier sensor adaptive transmission (CSAT) have been suggested from this aspect, but more efficient sharing schemes are required for improving spectrum utilization efficiency. This work considers an opportunistic transmission approach and a dynamic Contention Window (CW) adjustment scheme for LTE-U users sharing the unlicensed spectrum with Wi-Fi, in order to enhance the overall system throughput. The decision criteria for the dynamic adjustment of CW are based on the collision evaluation, derived from the collision probability of the system. The overall performance can be improved due to the adaptive adjustment of the CW. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme outperforms the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) mechanism of IEEE 802.11 MAC.
Keywords: Spectrum sharing, adaptive opportunistic transmission, unlicensed bands, heterogeneous networks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1281