Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3679

Search results for: Vicker's hardness number.

3679 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Microhardness of Polymer Blends of Poly (Ethyl Methacrylate)(Pema) and Poly (Ethylene Oxide) (Peo)

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Awasthi, Sunil Kumar Bajpai, Surendra Kumar Pandey, Ajay Utiye

Abstract:

The effect of gamma irradiation on micro-hardness of polymer blends of poly (ethyl methacrylate)(PEMA) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) has been investigated to detect the radiation induced crosslinking. The blend system comprises a noncrystallizable polymer, PEMA and a crystallizable polymer, PEO. On irradiation, the overall hardness of the blend specimens for different dose levels infers occurrence of a crosslinking process. The radiation-induced crosslinking was greater for blends having lower concentration of PEO. However, increase in radiation dose causes softening of blend system due to radiation induced scissioning of the chains

Keywords: Microhardness, Radiation induced crosslinking, Solution cast technique, Vicker's hardness number.

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3678 Enhancement of Mechanical Properties for Al-Mg-Si Alloy Using Equal Channel Angular Pressing

Authors: A. Nassef, S. Samy, W. H. El Garaihy

Abstract:

Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) of commercial Al-Mg-Si alloy was conducted using two strain rates. The ECAP processing was conducted at room temperature and at 250°C. Route A was adopted up to a total number of four passes in the present work. Structural evolution of the aluminum alloy discs was investigated before and after ECAP processing using optical microscopy (OM). Following ECAP, simple compression tests and Vicker’s hardness were performed. OM micrographs showed that, the average grain size of the as-received Al-Mg-Si disc tends to be larger than the size of the ECAP processed discs. Moreover, significant difference in the grain morphologies of the as-received and processed discs was observed. Intensity of deformation was observed via the alignment of the Al-Mg-Si consolidated particles (grains) in the direction of shear, which increased with increasing the number of passes via ECAP. Increasing the number of passes up to 4 resulted in increasing the grains aspect ratio up to ~5. It was found that the pressing temperature has a significant influence on the microstructure, Hv-values, and compressive strength of the processed discs. Hardness measurements demonstrated that 1-pass resulted in increase of Hv-value by 42% compared to that of the as-received alloy. 4-passes of ECAP processing resulted in additional increase in the Hv-value. A similar trend was observed for the yield and compressive strength. Experimental data of the Hv-values demonstrated that there is a lack of any significant dependence on the processing strain rate.

Keywords: Al-Mg-Si alloy, Equal channel angular pressing, Grain refinement, Severe plastic deformation.

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3677 Influence of Deep Cold Rolling and Low Plasticity Burnishing on Surface Hardness and Surface Roughness of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma

Abstract:

Deep cold rolling (DCR) and low plasticity burnishing (LPB) process are cold working processes, which easily produce a smooth and work-hardened surface by plastic deformation of surface irregularities. The present study focuses on the surface roughness and surface hardness aspects of AISI 4140 work material, using fractional factorial design of experiments. The assessment of the surface integrity aspects on work material was done, in order to identify the predominant factors amongst the selected parameters. They were then categorized in order of significance followed by setting the levels of the factors for minimizing surface roughness and/or maximizing surface hardness. In the present work, the influence of main process parameters (force, feed rate, number of tool passes/overruns, initial roughness of the work piece, ball material, ball diameter and lubricant used) on the surface roughness and the hardness of AISI 4140 steel were studied for both LPB and DCR process and the results are compared. It was observed that by using LPB process surface hardness has been improved by 167% and in DCR process surface hardness has been improved by 442%. It was also found that the force, ball diameter, number of tool passes and initial roughness of the workpiece are the most pronounced parameters, which has a significant effect on the work piece-s surface during deep cold rolling and low plasticity burnishing process.

Keywords: Deep cold rolling, burnishing, surface roughness, surface hardness, design of experiments, AISI4140 steel.

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3676 Hardness Variations as Affected by Bar Diameter of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: Hamad K. Al-Khalid, Ayman M. Alaskari, Samy E. Oraby

Abstract:

Hardness of the widely used structural steel is of vital importance since it may help in the determination of many mechanical properties of a material under loading situations. In order to obtain reliable information for design, properties homogeneity should be validated. In the current study the hardness variation over the different diameters of the same AISI 4140 bar is investigated. Measurements were taken on the two faces of the stock at equally spaced eight sectors and fifteen layers. Statistical and graphical analysis are performed to asses the distribution of hardness measurements over the specified area. Hardness measurements showed some degree of dispersion with about ± 10% of its nominal value provided by manufacturer. Hardness value is found to have a slight decrease trend as the diameter is reduced. However, an opposite behavior is noticed regarding the sequence of the sector indicating a nonuniform distribution over the same area either on the same face or considering the corresponding sector on the other face (cross section) of the same material bar.

Keywords: Hardness; Hardness variation; AISI 4140 steel; Bardiameter; Statistical Analysis.

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3675 The Effect of Ageing on Impact Toughness and Microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu-Mg Alloy

Authors: Swami Naidu Gurugubelli

Abstract:

The present study aims at determining the effect of ageing on the impact toughness and microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu - Mg alloy. Following the 2 h solutionizing treatment at 450°C and water quench, the specimens were aged at 200°C for various periods (1 to 18 h). The precipitation stages during ageing were monitored by hardness measurements. For each specimen group, Charpy impact and hardness tests were carried out. During ageing the impact toughness of the alloy first increased, and then, following a maxima decreased due to the precipitation of intermediate phases, finally it reached its minimum at the peak hardness. Correlations between hardness and impact toughness were investigated.

Keywords: Ageing, alloy, hardness, microstructure.

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3674 Temperature-Dependence of Hardness and Wear Resistance of Stellite Alloys

Authors: S. Kapoor, R. Liu, X. J. Wu, M. X. Yao

Abstract:

A group of Stellite alloys are studied in consideration of temperature effects on their hardness and wear resistance. The hardness test is conducted on a micro-hardness tester with a hot stage equipped that allows heating the specimen up to 650°C. The wear resistance of each alloy is evaluated using a pin-on-disc tribometer with a heating furnace built-in that provides the temperature capacity up to 450°C. The experimental results demonstrate that the hardness and wear resistance of Stellite alloys behave differently at room temperature and at high temperatures. The wear resistance of Stellite alloys at room temperature mainly depends on their carbon content and also influenced by the tungsten content in the alloys. However, at high temperatures the wear mechanisms of Stellite alloys become more complex, involving multiple factors. The relationships between chemical composition, microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of these alloys are studied, with focus on temperature effect on these relations.

Keywords: Stellite alloy, temperature, hardness, wear resistance

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3673 Optimization of Artificial Ageing Time and Temperature on Evaluation of Hardness and Resistivity of Al-Si-Mg (Cu or/& Ni) Alloys

Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny

Abstract:

The factors necessary to obtain an optimal heat treatment that influence the hardness and resistivity of Al-6Si-0.5Mg casting alloys with Cu or/and Ni additions were investigated. The alloys were homogenised (24hr at 500oC), solutionized (2hr at 540oC) and artificially ageing at various times and temperatures. The alloys were aged isochronally for 60 minutes at temperatures up to 400oC and isothermally at 150, 175, 200, 225, 250 & 300oC for different periods in the range 15 to 360 minutes. The hardness and electrical resistivity of the alloys were measured for various artificial ageing times and temperatures. From the isochronal ageing treatment, hardness found maximum ageing at 225oC. And from the isothermal ageing treatment, hardness found maximum for 60 minutes at 225oC. So the optimal heat treatment consists of 60 minutes ageing at 225oC.

Keywords: Ageing, Al-Si-Mg alloy, hardness, resistivity.

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3672 Response Surface Methodology for Optimum Hardness of TiN on Steel Substrate

Authors: R. Joseph Raviselvan, K. Ramanathan, P. Perumal, M. R. Thansekhar

Abstract:

Hard coatings are widely used in cutting and forming tool industries. Titanium Nitride (TiN) possesses good hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. The coating properties are influenced by many process parameters. The coatings were deposited on steel substrate by changing the process parameters such as substrate temperature, nitrogen flow rate and target power in a D.C planer magnetron sputtering. The structure of coatings were analysed using XRD. The hardness of coatings was found using Micro hardness tester. From the experimental data, a regression model was developed and the optimum response was determined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

Keywords: Hardness, RSM, sputtering, TiN XRD.

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3671 Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness, and Near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U.

Abstract:

In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the surface hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor hobson talysurf tester, micro vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer. 

Keywords: Surface hardness, response surface methodology, microstructure, central composite design, deep cold rolling, surface roughness.

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3670 Aging Behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC Composite in T4 and T6 Treatments

Authors: Melby Chacko, Jagannath Nayak

Abstract:

The aging behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC composite was investigated using Rockwell B hardness measurement. The composite was solutionized at 350°C and quenched in water. The composite was aged at room temperature (T4 treatment) and also at 140°C, 160°C, 180°C and 200°C (T6 treatment). The natural and artificial aging behaviour of composite was studied using aging curves determined at different temperatures. The aging period for peak aging for different temperatures was identified. The time required for attaining peak aging decreased with increase in the aging temperature. The peak hardness was found to increase with increase with aging temperature and the highest peak hardness was observed at 180ºC. Beyond 180ºC the peak hardness was found to be decreasing.

Keywords: 6061 Al-SiC composite, Aging curve, Rockwell B hardness, T4, T6 treatments.

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3669 An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Deep cold Rolling Parameters on Surface Roughness and Hardness of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma

Abstract:

Deep cold rolling (DCR) is a cold working process, which easily produces a smooth and work-hardened surface by plastic deformation of surface irregularities. In the present study, the influence of main deep cold rolling process parameters on the surface roughness and the hardness of AISI 4140 steel were studied by using fractional factorial design of experiments. The assessment of the surface integrity aspects on work material was done, in terms of identifying the predominant factor amongst the selected parameters, their order of significance and setting the levels of the factors for minimizing surface roughness and/or maximizing surface hardness. It was found that the ball diameter, rolling force, initial surface roughness and number of tool passes are the most pronounced parameters, which have great effects on the work piece-s surface during the deep cold rolling process. A simple, inexpensive and newly developed DCR tool, with interchangeable collet for using different ball diameters, was used throughout the experimental work presented in this paper.

Keywords: Deep cold rolling, design of experiments, surface hardness, surface roughness

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3668 Nanoindentation of Thin Films Prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition

Authors: Dhiflaoui Hafedh, Khlifi Kaouthar, Ben Cheikh Larbi Ahmed

Abstract:

These Monolayer and multilayer coatings of CrN and AlCrN deposited on 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The microstructures of the coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM analysis revealed the presence of domes and craters that are uniformly distributed over all surfaces of the various layers. Nanoindentation measurement of CrN coating showed maximum hardness (H) and modulus (E) of 14 GPa and 190 GPa, respectively. The measured H and E values of AlCrN coatings were found to be 30 GPa and 382 GPa, respectively. The improved hardness in both the coatings was attributed mainly to a reduction in crystallite size and decrease in surface roughness. The incorporation of Al into the CrN coatings has improved both hardness and Young’s modulus.

Keywords: CrN/AlCrN, coatings, hardness, nano-indentation.

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3667 Effect of Natural Binder on Pang-Rum Hardness

Authors: Pattaranut Eakwaropas, Khemjira Jarmkom, Warachate Khobjai, Surachai Techaoei

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to improve Pang-Rum (PR) hardness by adding natural binders. PR is one of Thai tradition aroma products. In the past, it was used for aesthetic propose on face and body with good odor. Nowadays, PR is not popular and going to be disappeared. Five natural materials, i.e. agar, rice flour, glutinous flour, corn starch, and tapioca starch were selected to use as binders. Binders were dissolved with boiled water into concentration 5% and 10% w/w except agar that was prepared 0.5% and 1% w/w. PR with and without binder were formulated. Physical properties, i.e. weight, shape, color, and hardness were evaluated. PR with 10% of corn starch solution had suitable hardness (14.2±0.9 kg) and the best appearance. In the future, it would be planned to study about odor and physical stability for decorated product development.

Keywords: Aromatic water, hardness, natural binder, pang-rum.

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3666 Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels

Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels, it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio, hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.

Keywords: Hot Forging, hot rolling, heat treatment, hardness (hv), impact toughness (j), microstructure, low alloy steels.

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3665 Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloy 7449

Authors: Suleiman E. Al-lubani, Mohammad E. Matarneh, Hussien M. Al-Wedyan, Ala M. Rayes

Abstract:

Aluminum alloy has an extensive range of industrial application due to its consistent mechanical properties and structural integrity. The heat treatment by precipitation technique affected the Magnesium, Silicon Manganese and copper crystals dissolved in the Aluminum alloy. The crystals dislocated to precipitate on the crystal’s boundaries of the Aluminum alloy when given a thermal energy increased its hardness. In this project various times and temperature were varied to find out the best combination of these variables to increase the precipitation of the metals on the Aluminum crystal’s boundaries which will lead to get the highest hardness. These specimens are then tested for their hardness and tensile strength. It is noticed that when the temperature increases, the precipitation increases and consequently the hardness increases. A threshold temperature value (264C0) of Aluminum alloy should not be reached due to the occurrence of recrystalization which causes the crystal to grow. This recrystalization process affected the ductility of the alloy and decrease hardness. In addition, and while increasing the temperature the alloy’s mechanical properties will decrease. The mechanical properties, namely tensile and hardness properties are investigated according to standard procedures. In this research, different temperature and time have been applied to increase hardening.The highest hardness at 100°c in 6 hours equals to 207.31 HBR, while at the same temperature and time the lowest elongation equals to 146.5.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, recrystalization process, heat treatment, hardness properties, precipitation, intergranular breakage.

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3664 Effect of Water Hardness and Free Residual Chlorine on Black Tea Brew

Authors: P. Murugesan, G. Venkateswaran, V. A. Shanmuga Selvan

Abstract:

Water used for brewing tea plays a major role in the quality of tea. Water with higher hardness gives very dark coloured brew. This study was conducted to determine the effect of water hardness and free residual chlorine on the quality of black tea liquor. Theaflavin (TF) and Thearubigin (TR) levels are lower in comparison with the tea brewed in distilled water. At the same time, there is an increase in High Polymerized Substance (HPS) and Total Liquor Colour (TLC). While water with higher hardness has a negative impact on tea brew, water with high concentration of free residual chlorine did not affect the quality of tea brew.

Keywords: Theaflavin, Thearubigin, high polymerized substance, total liquor colour, hardness, residual chlorine.

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3663 Strength Optimization of Induction Hardened Splined Shaft – Material and Geometric Aspects

Authors: I. Barsoum, F. Khan

Abstract:

the current study presents a modeling framework to determine the torsion strength of an induction hardened splined shaft by considering geometry and material aspects with the aim to optimize the static torsion strength by selection of spline geometry and hardness depth. Six different spline geometries and seven different hardness profiles including non-hardened and throughhardened shafts have been considered. The results reveal that the torque that causes initial yielding of the induction hardened splined shaft is strongly dependent on the hardness depth and the geometry of the spline teeth. Guidelines for selection of the appropriate hardness depth and spline geometry are given such that an optimum static torsion strength of the component can be achieved.

Keywords: Static strength, splined shaft, torsion, induction hardening, hardness profile, finite element, optimization, design.

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3662 Influence of Combined Drill Coulters on Seedbed Compaction under Conservation Tillage Technologies

Authors: E. Šarauskis, L. Masilionyte, Z. Kriaučiūniene, K. Romaneckas

Abstract:

All over the world, including the Middle and East European countries, sustainable tillage and sowing technologies are applied increasingly broadly with a view to optimising soil resources, mitigating soil degradation processes, saving energy resources, preserving biological diversity, etc. As a result, altered conditions of tillage and sowing technological processes are faced inevitably. The purpose of this study is to determine the seedbed topsoil hardness when using a combined sowing coulter in different sustainable tillage technologies. The research involved a combined coulter consisting of two dissected blade discs and a shoe coulter. In order to determine soil hardness at the seedbed area, a multipenetrometer was used. It was found by experimental studies that in loosened soil, a combined sowing coulter equally suppresses the furrow bottom, walls and soil near the furrow; therefore, here, soil hardness was similar at all researched depths and no significant differences were established. In loosened and compacted (double-rolled) soil, the impact of a combined coulter on the hardness of seedbed soil surface was more considerable at a depth of 2 mm. Soil hardness at the furrow bottom and walls to a distance of up to 26 mm was 1.1 MPa. At a depth of 10 mm, the greatest hardness was established at the furrow bottom. In loosened and heavily compacted (rolled for 6 times) soil, at a depth of 2 and 10 mm a combined coulter most of all compacted the furrow bottom, which has a hardness of 1.8 MPa. At a depth of 20 mm, soil hardness within the whole investigated area varied insignificantly and fluctuated by around 2.0 MPa. The hardness of furrow walls and soil near the furrow was by approximately 1.0 MPa lower than that at the furrow bottom

Keywords: Coulters design, seedbed, soil hardness, combined coulters, soil compaction.

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3661 Friction Stir Welded Joint Aluminum Alloy H20-H20 with Different Type of Tools Mechanical Properties

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

In this project three type of tools, straight cylindrical, taper cylindrical and triangular tool all made of High speed steel (Wc-Co) used for the friction stir welding (FSW) aluminum alloy H20–H20 and the mechanical properties of the welded joint tested by tensile test and vicker hardness test. Besides, mentioned mechanical properties compared with each other to make conclusion. The result helped design of welding parameter optimization for different types of friction stir process like rotational speed, depth of welding, travel speed, type of material, type of joint, work piece dimension, joint dimension, tool material and tool geometry. Previous investigations in different types of materials work pieces; joint type, machining parameter and preheating temperature take placed. In this investigation 3 mentioned tool types that are popular in FSW tested and the results completed other aspects of the process. Hope this paper can open a new horizon in experimental investigation of mechanical properties for friction stir welded joint with other different type of tools like oval shape probe, paddle shape probe, three flat sided probe, and three sided re-entrant probe and other materials and alloys like titanium or steel in near future.

Keywords: Friction stir welding (FSW), tool, CNC milling machine, aluminum alloy H20, Vickers hardness test, tensile test, straight cylindrical tool, taper cylindrical tool, triangular tool.

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3660 Study on the Effect of Volume Fraction of Dual Phase Steel to Corrosion Behaviour and Hardness

Authors: R. Nadlene, H. Esah, S. Norliana, M.A. Mohd Irwan

Abstract:

The objective of this project is to study the corrosion behaviour and hardness based on the presence of martensite in dual phase steel. This study was conducted on six samples of dual phase steel which have different percentage of martensite. A total of 9 specimens were prepared by intercritical annealing process to study the effect of temperature to the formation of martensite. The low carbon steels specimens were heated for 25 minutes in a specified temperature ranging from 7250C to 8250C followed by rapid cooling in water. The measurement of corrosion rate was done by using extrapolation tafel method, while potentiostat was used to control and measured the current produced. This measurement is performed through a system named CMS105. The result shows that a specimen with higher percentage of martensite is likely to corrode faster. Hardness test for each specimen was conducted to compare its hardness with low carbon steel. The results obtained indicate that the specimen hardness is proportional to the amount of martensite in dual phase steel.

Keywords: dual phase steel, corrosion behaviour, hardness, intercritical annealing, martensite

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3659 Influence of Vegetable Oil-Based Controlled Cutting Fluid Impinging Supply System on Micro Hardness in Machining of Ti-6Al-4V

Authors: Salah Gariani, Islam Shyha, Fawad Inam, Dehong Huo

Abstract:

A controlled cutting fluid impinging supply system (CUT-LIST) was developed to deliver an accurate amount of cutting fluid into the machining zone via well-positioned coherent nozzles based on a calculation of the heat generated. The performance of the CUT-LIST was evaluated against a conventional flood cutting fluid supply system during step shoulder milling of Ti-6Al-4V using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. In this paper, the micro-hardness of the machined surface was used as the main criterion to compare the two systems. CUT-LIST provided significant reductions in cutting fluid consumption (up to 42%). Both systems caused increased micro-hardness value at 100 µm from the machined surface, whereas a slight reduction in micro-hardness of 4.5% was measured when using CUL-LIST. It was noted that the first 50 µm is the soft sub-surface promoted by thermal softening, whereas down to 100 µm is the hard sub-surface caused by the cyclic internal work hardening and then gradually decreased until it reached the base material nominal hardness. It can be concluded that the CUT-LIST has always given lower micro-hardness values near the machined surfaces in all conditions investigated.

Keywords: Impinging supply system, micro-hardness, shoulder milling, Ti-6Al-4V, vegetable oil-based cutting fluid.

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3658 Cyclic Heating Effect on Hardness of Copper

Authors: Tahany W. Sadak

Abstract:

Presented work discusses research results concerning the effect of the heat treatment process. Thermal fatigue which expresses repeated heating and cooling processes affect the ductility or the brittleness of the material. In this research, 70 specimens of copper (1.5 mm thickness, 85 mm length, 32 mm width) are subjected to thermal fatigue at different conditions. Heating temperatures Th are 100, 300 and 500 °C. Number of repeated cycles N is from 1 to 100. Heating time th =600 Sec, and Cooling time; tC= 900 Sec.  Results are evaluated and then compared to each other and to that of specimens without subjected to thermal fatigue.

Keywords: Copper, hardness, heat treatment, thermal fatigue, thermal analysis.

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3657 Current Density Effect on Nickel Electroplating Using Post Supercritical CO2 Mixed Watts Electrolyte

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Van Cuong Nguyen, Hung-Wei Chuang

Abstract:

In this study, a nickel film with nano-crystalline grains, high hardness and smooth surface was electrodeposited using a post supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) mixed Watts electrolyte. Although the hardness was not as high as its Sc-CO2 counterpart, the thin coating contained significantly less number of nano-sized pinholes. By measuring the escape concentration of the dissolved CO2 in post Sc-CO2 mixed electrolyte with the elapsed time, it was believed that the residue of dissolved CO2 bubbles should closely relate to the improvement in hardness and surface roughness over its conventional plating counterpart. Therefore, shortening the duration of electroplating with the raise of current density up to 0.5 A/cm2 could effectively retain more post Sc-CO2 mixing effect. This study not only confirms the roles of dissolved CO2 bubbles in electrolyte but also provides a potential process to overcome most issues associated with the cost in building high-pressure chamber for large size products and continuous plating using supercritical method.

Keywords: Additive-free electrolyte, electroplating, nickel, supercritical CO2.

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3656 Experimental Investigation and Hardness Analysis of Chromoly Steel Multipass Welds Using GMAW

Authors: Ramesh S., Sasiraaju A. S., Sidhaarth K., Sudhan Rajkumar N., Manivel Muralidaran V.

Abstract:

This work presents the result of investigations aimed at determining the hardness of the welded Chromoly (A 4130) steel plate of 2” thickness. Multi pass welding for the thick sections was carried out and analyzed for the Chromoly alloy steel plates. The study of hardness at the weld metal reveals that there is the presence of different micro structure products which yields diverse properties. The welding carried out using GMAW with ER70s-2 electrode. Single V groove design was selected for the butt joint configuration. The presence of hydrogen has been suppressed by selecting low hydrogen electrode. Preheating of the plate prior to welding reduces the cooling rate which also affects the weld metal microstructure. The shielding gas composition used in this analysis is 80% Ar-20% CO2. The experimental analysis gives the detailed study of the hardness of the material.

Keywords: Chromoly, Gas Metal Arc Weld (GMAW), Hardness, Multi pass weld, Shielding gas composition.

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3655 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long

Abstract:

Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.

Keywords: Irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy, microstructures, hardness.

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3654 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah

Abstract:

Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: Burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, Surface hardness, Surface roughness.

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3653 Interaction Effect of Feed Rate and Cutting Speed in CNC-Turning on Chip Micro-Hardness of 304- Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: G. H. Senussi

Abstract:

The present work is concerned with the effect of turning process parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut) and distance from the center of work piece as input variables on the chip micro-hardness as response or output. Three experiments were conducted; they were used to investigate the chip micro-hardness behavior at diameter of work piece for 30[mm], 40[mm], and 50[mm]. Response surface methodology (R.S.M) is used to determine and present the cause and effect of the relationship between true mean response and input control variables influencing the response as a two or three dimensional hyper surface. R.S.M has been used for designing a three factor with five level central composite rotatable factors design in order to construct statistical models capable of accurate prediction of responses. The results obtained showed that the application of R.S.M can predict the effect of machining parameters on chip micro-hardness. The five level factorial designs can be employed easily for developing statistical models to predict chip micro-hardness by controllable machining parameters. Results obtained showed that the combined effect of cutting speed at it?s lower level, feed rate and depth of cut at their higher values, and larger work piece diameter can result increasing chi micro-hardness.

Keywords: Machining Parameters, Chip Micro-Hardness, CNCMachining, 304-Austenic Stainless Steel.

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3652 Evaluation of Texture of Packhams Pears

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Bruno L. Marques

Abstract:

The textural parameters, together with appearance and flavor, are sensory attributes of great importance for the product to be accepted by the consumer. The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the textural attributes of Packhams pears in the fresh state, after drying in a chamber with forced convection at 50ºC, lyophilized and re-hydrated. In texture analysis it was used the method of Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). The parameters analyzed were hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, elasticity and chewiness. From the results obtained is possible to see that the drying operation greatly affected some textural properties of the pears, so that the hardness diminished very much with drying, for both drying methods.

Keywords: Drying, pear, texture, hardness.

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3651 Effect of Composition on Work Hardening Coefficient of Bismuth-Lead Binary Alloy

Authors: K. A. Mistry, I. B. Patel, A. H. Prajapati

Abstract:

In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported.

Keywords: EDAX, hardening coefficient, Micro hardness, Bi-Pb alloy.

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3650 Fabrication of Single Crystal of Mg Alloys Containing Rare Earth Elements

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Single crystals of Magnesium alloys such as Mg-1Al, Mg-1Zn-0.5Y, Mg-3Li, and AZ31 alloys were successfully fabricated in this study by employing the modified Bridgman method. Single crystals of pure Mg were also made in this study. To determine the exact orientation of crystals, Laue back-reflection method and pole figure measurement were carried out on each single crystal. Dimensions of single crystals were 10 mm in diameter and 120 mm in length. Hardness and compression tests were conducted and the results revealed that hardness and the strength strongly depended on the orientation. The closer to basal one the orientation was, the higher hardness and compressive strength were. The effect of alloying was not higher than that of orientation. After compressive deformation of single crystals, the orientation of the crystals was found to rotate and to be parallel to the basal orientation.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Hardness, Mg alloys, Modified Bridgman method, Orientation, Pole figure, Single crystal.

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