Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Pressure Vessel

18 Effect of Filler Metal Diameter on Weld Joint of Carbon Steel SA516 Gr 70 and Filler Metal SFA 5.17 in Submerged Arc Welding SAW

Authors: A. Nait Salah, M. Kaddami

Abstract:

This work describes an investigation on the effect of filler metals diameter to weld joint, and low alloy carbon steel A516 Grade 70 is the base metal. Commercially SA516 Grade70 is frequently used for the manufacturing of pressure vessels, boilers and storage tank, etc. In fabrication industry, the hardness of the weld joint is between the important parameters to check, after heat treatment of the weld. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is used with two filler metal diameters, and this solid wire electrode is used for SAW non-alloy and for fine grain steels (SFA 5.17). The different diameters were selected (Ø = 2.4 mm and Ø = 4 mm) to weld two specimens. Both specimens were subjected to the same preparation conditions, heat treatment, macrograph, metallurgy micrograph, and micro-hardness test. Samples show almost similar structure with highest hardness. It is important to indicate that the thickness used in the base metal is 22 mm, and all specifications, preparation and controls were according to the ASME section IX. It was observed that two different filler metal diameters performed on two similar specimens demonstrated that the mechanical property (hardness) increases with decreasing diameter. It means that even the heat treatment has the same effect with the same conditions, the filler metal diameter insures a depth weld penetration and better homogenization. Hence, the SAW welding technique mentioned in the present study is favorable to implicate for the industry using the small filler metal diameter.

Keywords: ASME, base metal, filler metal, micro-hardness test, submerged arc welding.

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17 CFD Simulation for Flow Behavior in Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Upper Pool under Decommissioning Condition

Authors: Y. T. Ku, S. W. Chen, J. R. Wang, C. Shih, Y. F. Chang

Abstract:

In order to respond the policy decision of non-nuclear homes, Tai Power Company (TPC) will provide the decommissioning project of Kuosheng Nuclear power plant (KSNPP) to meet the regulatory requirement in near future. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology has been employed to develop a flow prediction model for boiling water reactor (BWR) with upper pool under decommissioning stage. The model can be utilized to investigate the flow behavior as the vessel combined with upper pool and continuity cooling system. At normal operating condition, different parameters are obtained for the full fluid area, including velocity, mass flow, and mixing phenomenon in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and upper pool. Through the efforts of the study, an integrated simulation model will be developed for flow field analysis of decommissioning KSNPP under normal operating condition. It can be expected that a basis result for future analysis application of TPC can be provide from this study.

Keywords: CFD, BWR, decommissioning, upper pool.

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16 Characterization of Two Hybrid Welding Techniques on SA 516 Grade 70 Weldments

Authors: M. T. Z. Butt, T. Ahmad, N. A. Siddiqui

Abstract:

Commercially SA 516 Grade 70 is frequently used for the manufacturing of pressure vessels, boilers and storage tanks etc. in fabrication industry. Heat input is the major parameter during welding that may bring significant changes in the microstructure as well as the mechanical properties. Different welding technique has different heat input rate per unit surface area. Materials with large thickness are dealt with different combination of welding techniques to achieve required mechanical properties. In the present research two schemes: Scheme 1: SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) & GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) and Scheme 2: SMAW & SAW (Submerged Arc Welding) of hybrid welding techniques have been studied. The purpose of these schemes was to study hybrid welding effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldment, heat affected zone and base metal area. It is significant to note that the thickness of base plate was 12 mm, also welding conditions and parameters were set according to ASME Section IX. It was observed that two different hybrid welding techniques performed on two different plates demonstrated that the mechanical properties of both schemes are more or less similar. It means that the heat input, welding techniques and varying welding operating conditions & temperatures did not make any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties. Hence, the hybrid welding techniques mentioned in the present study are favorable to implicate for the industry using the plate thickness around 12 mm thick.

Keywords: Grade 70, GTAW, hybrid welding, SAW, SMAW.

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15 Modeling of Steady State Creep in Thick-Walled Cylinders under Internal Pressure

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Ishavneet Singh

Abstract:

The present study focused on carrying out the creep analysis in an isotropic thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessel composed of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon-carbide in particulate form. The creep behavior of the composite material has been described by the threshold stress based creep law. The values of stress exponent appearing in the creep law were selected as 3, 5 and 8. The constitutive equations were developed using well known von-Mises yield criteria. Models were developed to find out the distributions of creep stress and strain rate in thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessels under internal pressure. In order to obtain the stress distributions in the cylinder, the equilibrium equation of the continuum mechanics and the constitutive equations are solved together. It was observed that the radial stress, tangential stress and axial stress increases along with the radial distance. The cross-over was also obtained almost at the middle region of cylindrical vessel for tangential and axial stress for different values of stress exponent. The strain rates were also decreasing in nature along the entire radius.

Keywords: Steady state creep, composite, cylinder, pressure.

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14 An Overview of Corroded Pipe Repair Techniques Using Composite Materials

Authors: K. S. Lim, S. N. A. Azraai, N. M. Noor, N. Yahaya

Abstract:

Polymeric composites are being increasingly used as repair material for repairing critical infrastructures such as building, bridge, pressure vessel, piping and pipeline. Technique in repairing damaged pipes is one of the major concerns of pipeline owners. Considerable researches have been carried out on the repair of corroded pipes using composite materials. This article attempts a short review of the subject matter to provide insight into various techniques used in repairing corroded pipes, focusing on a wide range of composite repair systems. These systems including pre-cured layered, flexible wet lay-up, pre-impregnated, split composite sleeve and flexible tape systems. Both advantages and limitations of these repair systems were highlighted. Critical technical aspects have been discussed through the current standards and practices. Research gaps and future study scopes in achieving more effective design philosophy are also presented.

Keywords: Composite materials, pipeline, repair technique, polymers.

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13 A Coupled Model for Two-Phase Simulation of a Heavy Water Pressure Vessel Reactor

Authors: Damian Ramajo, Santiago Corzo, Norberto Nigro

Abstract:

A Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) two-phase model was developed with the aim to simulate the in-core coolant circuit of a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) of a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP). Due to the fact that this PHWR is a Reactor Pressure Vessel type (RPV), three-dimensional (3D) detailed modelling of the large reservoirs of the RPV (the upper and lower plenums and the downcomer) were coupled with an in-house finite volume one-dimensional (1D) code in order to model the 451 coolant channels housing the nuclear fuel. Regarding the 1D code, suitable empirical correlations for taking into account the in-channel distributed (friction losses) and concentrated (spacer grids, inlet and outlet throttles) pressure losses were used. A local power distribution at each one of the coolant channels was also taken into account. The heat transfer between the coolant and the surrounding moderator was accurately calculated using a two-dimensional theoretical model. The implementation of subcooled boiling and condensation models in the 1D code along with the use of functions for representing the thermal and dynamic properties of the coolant and moderator (heavy water) allow to have estimations of the in-core steam generation under nominal flow conditions for a generic fission power distribution. The in-core mass flow distribution results for steady state nominal conditions are in agreement with the expected from design, thus getting a first assessment of the coupled 1/3D model. Results for nominal condition were compared with those obtained with a previous 1/3D single-phase model getting more realistic temperature patterns, also allowing visualize low values of void fraction inside the upper plenum. It must be mentioned that the current results were obtained by imposing prescribed fission power functions from literature. Therefore, results are showed with the aim of point out the potentiality of the developed model.

Keywords: CFD, PHWR, Thermo-hydraulic, Two-phase flow.

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12 Evaluation of Longitudinal and Hoop Stresses and a Critical Study of Factor of Safety (FoS) in Design of a Glass-Fiber Pressure Vessel

Authors: Zainul Huda, Muhammad Hani Ajani

Abstract:

The design, manufacture, and operation of thin-walled pressure vessels must be based on maximum safe operating pressure and an adequate factor of safety (FoS). This research paper first reports experimental evaluation of longitudinal and hoops stresses based on working pressure as well as maximum pressure; and then includes a critical study of factor of safety (FoS) in the design of a glass fiber pressure vessel. Experimental work involved the use of measuring instruments and the readings from pressure gauges. Design calculations involved the computations of design stress and FoS; the latter was based on breaking strength of 55 MPa for the glass fiber (pressure-vessel material). The experimentally determined FoS value has been critically compared with the general FoS allowed in the design of glass fiber pressure vessels.

Keywords: Thin-walled pressure vessel, hoop stress, longitudinal stress, factor of safety (FoS), fiberglass.

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11 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma

Abstract:

This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in ANSYS. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and ANSYS software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, Pressure Vessel, Saddle, Support.

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10 An Improvement of Flow Forming Process for Pressure Vessels by Four Rollers Machine

Authors: P. Sawitri, S. Cdr. Sittha, T. Kritsana

Abstract:

Flow forming is widely used in many industries, especially in defence technology industries. Pressure vessels requirements are high precision, light weight, seamless and optimum strength. For large pressure vessels, flow forming by 3 rollers machine were used. In case of long range rocket motor case flow forming and welding of pressure vessels have been used for manufacturing. Due to complication of welding process, researchers had developed 4 meters length pressure vessels without weldment by 4 rollers flow forming machine. Design and preparation of preform work pieces are performed. The optimization of flow forming parameter such as feed rate, spindle speed and depth of cut will be discussed. The experimental result shown relation of flow forming parameters to quality of flow formed tube and prototype pressure vessels have been made.

Keywords: Flow forming, Pressure vessel, four rollers, feed rate, spindle speed, cold work.

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9 Yield Onset of Thermo-Mechanical Loading of FGM Thick Walled Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

Authors: S. Ansari Sadrabadi, G. H. Rahimi

Abstract:

In this paper, thick walled Cylindrical tanks or tubes made of functionally graded material under internal pressure and temperature gradient are studied. Material parameters have been considered as power functions. They play important role in the elastoplastic behavior of these materials. To clarify their role, different materials with different parameters have been used under temperature gradient. Finally, their effect and loading effect have been determined in first yield point. Also, the important role of temperature gradient was also shown. At the end the study has been results obtained from changes in the elastic modulus and yield stress. Also special attention is also given to the effects of this internal pressure and temperature gradient in the creation of tensile and compressive stresses.

Keywords: FGM, Cylindrical pressure tubes, Small deformation theory, Yield onset, Thermal loading.

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8 A Computational Design Algorithm for Manufacturing of Reinforced Structures with Wire Winding

Authors: Amer Ezoji, Mohammad Sedighi

Abstract:

In the article, the wire winding process for the reinforcement of a pressure vessel frame has been studied. Firstly, the importance of the wire winding method has been explained and literature was reviewed. The main step in the design process is the methodology axial force control. The frame consists of two columns and two semi-cylinders with circumstantial wires. A computational algorithm has been presented based on the governing equations and relations on stress-strain behavior of the whole system of the frame.  Then a case study was studied to calculate the frame dimensions and wire winding procedure.

Keywords: Wire winding, Frame, stress, Design for Manufacturing.

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7 Comparison of Numerical and Theoretical Friction Effect in the Wire Winding for Reinforced Structures with Wire Winding

Authors: Amer Ezoji, Mohammad Sedighi

Abstract:

In the article, the wire winding process for the reinforcement of a pressure vessel frame has been studied. Firstly, the importance of the wire winding method has been explained. The main step in the design process is the methodology axial force control and wire winding process. The hot isostatic press and wire winding process introduce. With use the equilibrium term in the pressure vessel and frame, stresses in the frame wires analyzed. A case study frame was studied to control axial force in the hot isostatic press. Frame and them wires simulated then friction effect and wires effect in elastic yoke in the simulation model considered. Then theoretical and simulate resulted compare and vessel pressure import to frame because we assurance wire wounded not received to yielding point.   

Keywords: Wire winding, Frame, stress, friction.

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6 Ductile Crack Growth in Surface Cracked Pressure Vessels

Authors: Osama A. Terfas, Abdusalam A. Alaktiwi

Abstract:

Pressure vessels are usually operating at temperatures where the conditions of linear elastic fracture mechanics are no longer met because massive plasticity precedes crack propagation. In this work the development of a surface crack in a pressure vessel subject to bending and tension under elastic-plastic fracture mechanics conditions was investigated. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate the hydrostatic stress, the J-integral and crack growth for semi-elliptical surface-breaking cracks. The results showed non-uniform stress triaxiality and crack driving force around the crack front at large deformation levels. Different ductile crack extensions were observed which emphasis the dependent of ductile tearing on crack geometry and type of loading. In bending the crack grew only beneath the surface, and growth was suppressed at the deepest segment. This contrasts to tension where the crack breaks through the thickness with uniform growth along the entire crack front except at the free surface. Current investigations showed that the crack growth developed under linear elastic fracture mechanics conditions will no longer be applicable under ductile tearing scenarios.

Keywords: Bending, ductile tearing, fracture toughness, stress triaxiality, tension.

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5 The Effect of Stress Biaxiality on Crack Shape Development

Authors: Osama A. Terfas

Abstract:

The development of shape and size of a crack in a pressure vessel under uniaxial and biaxial loadings is important in fitness-for-service evaluations such as leak-before-break. In this work finite element modelling was used to evaluate the mean stress and the J-integral around a front of a surface-breaking crack. A procedure on the basis of ductile tearing resistance curves of high and low constrained fracture mechanics geometries was developed to estimate the amount of ductile crack extension for surface-breaking cracks and to show the evolution of the initial crack shape. The results showed non-uniform constraint levels and crack driving forces around the crack front at large deformation levels. It was also shown that initially semi-elliptical surface cracks under biaxial load developed higher constraint levels around the crack front than in uniaxial tension. However similar crack shapes were observed with more extensions associated with cracks under biaxial loading.

Keywords: biaxial load, crack shape, fracture toughness, surface crack, uniaxial load.

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4 Big Bang – Big Crunch Optimization Method in Optimum Design of Complex Composite Laminates

Authors: Pavel Y. Tabakov

Abstract:

An accurate optimal design of laminated composite structures may present considerable difficulties due to the complexity and multi-modality of the functional design space. The Big Bang – Big Crunch (BB-BC) optimization method is a relatively new technique and has already proved to be a valuable tool for structural optimization. In the present study the exceptional efficiency of the method is demonstrated by an example of the lay-up optimization of multilayered anisotropic cylinders based on a three-dimensional elasticity solution. It is shown that, due to its simplicity and speed, the BB-BC is much more efficient for this class of problems when compared to the genetic algorithms.

Keywords: Big Bang – Big Crunch method, optimization, composite laminates, pressure vessel.

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3 Hydrogen Embrittlement in a Coupled Mass Diffusion with Stress near a Blunting Crack Tip for AISI 4135 Pressure Vessel

Authors: H. Dehghan, E. Mahdavi, M. M. Heyhat

Abstract:

In pressure vessels contain hydrogen, the role of hydrogen will be important because of hydrogen cracking problem. It is difficult to predict what is happened in metallurgical field spite of a lot of studies have been searched. The main role in controlling the mass diffusion as driving force is related to stress. In this study, finite element analysis is implemented to estimate material-s behavior associated with hydrogen embrittlement. For this purpose, one model of a pressure vessel is introduced that it has definite boundary and initial conditions. In fact, finite element is employed to solve the sequentially coupled mass diffusion with stress near a crack front in a pressure vessel. Modeling simulation intergrarnular fracture of AISI 4135 steel due to hydrogen is investigated. So, distribution of hydrogen and stress are obtained and they indicate that their maximum amounts occur near the crack front. This phenomenon is happened exactly the region between elastic and plastic field. Therefore, hydrogen is highly mobile and can diffuse through crystal lattice so that this zone is potential to trap high volume of hydrogen. Consequently, crack growth and fast fracture will be happened.

Keywords: Stress Intensity Factor, Mass Diffusion, FEM, Pressure Vessel

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2 Optimum Design of Pressure Vessel Subjected to Autofrettage Process

Authors: Abu Rayhan Md. Ali, Nidul Ch. Ghosh, Tanvir-E-Alam

Abstract:

The effect of autofrettage process in strain hardened thick-walled pressure vessels has been investigated theoretically by finite element modeling. Equivalent von Mises stress is used as yield criterion to evaluate the optimum autofrettage pressure and the optimum radius of elastic-plastic junction. It has been observed that the optimum autofrettage pressure increases along with the working pressure. For two different working pressures, the effect of the ratio of outer to inner radius (b/a=k) value on the optimum autofrettage pressure is also noticed. The Optimum autofrettage pressure solely depends on K value rather than on the inner or outer radius. Furthermore, percentage reduction of von Mises stresses is compared for different working pressures and different k values. Maximum von Mises stress developed at different autofrettage pressure is equated for elastic perfectly plastic and elastic-plastic material with different slope of strain hardening segment. Cylinder material having higher slope of strain hardening segment provides better benedictions in the autofrettage process.

Keywords: Autofrettage, elastic plastic junction, pressure vessel, von Mises stress.

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1 Springback Simulations of Monolithic and Layered Steels Used for Pressure Equipment

Authors: Anish H. Gandhi, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

Carbon steel is used in boilers, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, piping, structural elements and other moderatetemperature service systems in which good strength and ductility are desired. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II Part A (2004) provides specifications of ferrous materials for construction of pressure equipment, covering wide range of mechanical properties including high strength materials for power plants application. However, increased level of springback is one of the major problems in fabricating components of high strength steel using bending. Presented work discuss the springback simulations for five different steels (i.e. SA-36, SA-299, SA-515 grade 70, SA-612 and SA-724 grade B) using finite element analysis of air V-bending. Analytical springback simulations of hypothetical layered materials are presented. Result shows that; (i) combination of the material property parameters controls the springback, (ii) layer of the high ductility steel on the high strength steel greatly suppresses the springback.

Keywords: Carbon steel, Finite element analysis, Layeredmaterial, Springback

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