Search results for: automatic speech recognition
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1475

Search results for: automatic speech recognition

1475 Possibilities, Challenges and the State of the Art of Automatic Speech Recognition in Air Traffic Control

Authors: Van Nhan Nguyen, Harald Holone

Abstract:

Over the past few years, a lot of research has been conducted to bring Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) into various areas of Air Traffic Control (ATC), such as air traffic control simulation and training, monitoring live operators for with the aim of safety improvements, air traffic controller workload measurement and conducting analysis on large quantities controller-pilot speech. Due to the high accuracy requirements of the ATC context and its unique challenges, automatic speech recognition has not been widely adopted in this field. With the aim of providing a good starting point for researchers who are interested bringing automatic speech recognition into ATC, this paper gives an overview of possibilities and challenges of applying automatic speech recognition in air traffic control. To provide this overview, we present an updated literature review of speech recognition technologies in general, as well as specific approaches relevant to the ATC context. Based on this literature review, criteria for selecting speech recognition approaches for the ATC domain are presented, and remaining challenges and possible solutions are discussed.

Keywords: Automatic Speech Recognition, ASR, Air Traffic Control, ATC.

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1474 Automatic Recognition of Emotionally Coloured Speech

Authors: Theologos Athanaselis, Stelios Bakamidis, Ioannis Dologlou

Abstract:

Emotion in speech is an issue that has been attracting the interest of the speech community for many years, both in the context of speech synthesis as well as in automatic speech recognition (ASR). In spite of the remarkable recent progress in Large Vocabulary Recognition (LVR), it is still far behind the ultimate goal of recognising free conversational speech uttered by any speaker in any environment. Current experimental tests prove that using state of the art large vocabulary recognition systems the error rate increases substantially when applied to spontaneous/emotional speech. This paper shows that recognition rate for emotionally coloured speech can be improved by using a language model based on increased representation of emotional utterances.

Keywords: Statistical language model, N-grams, emotionallycoloured speech

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1473 Using Teager Energy Cepstrum and HMM distancesin Automatic Speech Recognition and Analysis of Unvoiced Speech

Authors: Panikos Heracleous

Abstract:

In this study, the use of silicon NAM (Non-Audible Murmur) microphone in automatic speech recognition is presented. NAM microphones are special acoustic sensors, which are attached behind the talker-s ear and can capture not only normal (audible) speech, but also very quietly uttered speech (non-audible murmur). As a result, NAM microphones can be applied in automatic speech recognition systems when privacy is desired in human-machine communication. Moreover, NAM microphones show robustness against noise and they might be used in special systems (speech recognition, speech conversion etc.) for sound-impaired people. Using a small amount of training data and adaptation approaches, 93.9% word accuracy was achieved for a 20k Japanese vocabulary dictation task. Non-audible murmur recognition in noisy environments is also investigated. In this study, further analysis of the NAM speech has been made using distance measures between hidden Markov model (HMM) pairs. It has been shown the reduced spectral space of NAM speech using a metric distance, however the location of the different phonemes of NAM are similar to the location of the phonemes of normal speech, and the NAM sounds are well discriminated. Promising results in using nonlinear features are also introduced, especially under noisy conditions.

Keywords: Speech recognition, unvoiced speech, nonlinear features, HMM distance measures

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1472 A System of Automatic Speech Recognition based on the Technique of Temporal Retiming

Authors: Samir Abdelhamid, Noureddine Bouguechal

Abstract:

We report in this paper the procedure of a system of automatic speech recognition based on techniques of the dynamic programming. The technique of temporal retiming is a technique used to synchronize between two forms to compare. We will see how this technique is adapted to the field of the automatic speech recognition. We will expose, in a first place, the theory of the function of retiming which is used to compare and to adjust an unknown form with a whole of forms of reference constituting the vocabulary of the application. Then we will give, in the second place, the various algorithms necessary to their implementation on machine. The algorithms which we will present were tested on part of the corpus of words in Arab language Arabdic-10 [4] and gave whole satisfaction. These algorithms are effective insofar as we apply them to the small ones or average vocabularies.

Keywords: Continuous speech recognition, temporal retiming, phonetic decoding, algorithms, vocal signal, dynamic programming.

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1471 Investigation of Combined use of MFCC and LPC Features in Speech Recognition Systems

Authors: К. R. Aida–Zade, C. Ardil, S. S. Rustamov

Abstract:

Statement of the automatic speech recognition problem, the assignment of speech recognition and the application fields are shown in the paper. At the same time as Azerbaijan speech, the establishment principles of speech recognition system and the problems arising in the system are investigated. The computing algorithms of speech features, being the main part of speech recognition system, are analyzed. From this point of view, the determination algorithms of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) and Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) coefficients expressing the basic speech features are developed. Combined use of cepstrals of MFCC and LPC in speech recognition system is suggested to improve the reliability of speech recognition system. To this end, the recognition system is divided into MFCC and LPC-based recognition subsystems. The training and recognition processes are realized in both subsystems separately, and recognition system gets the decision being the same results of each subsystems. This results in decrease of error rate during recognition. The training and recognition processes are realized by artificial neural networks in the automatic speech recognition system. The neural networks are trained by the conjugate gradient method. In the paper the problems observed by the number of speech features at training the neural networks of MFCC and LPC-based speech recognition subsystems are investigated. The variety of results of neural networks trained from different initial points in training process is analyzed. Methodology of combined use of neural networks trained from different initial points in speech recognition system is suggested to improve the reliability of recognition system and increase the recognition quality, and obtained practical results are shown.

Keywords: Speech recognition, cepstral analysis, Voice activation detection algorithm, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients, features of speech, Cepstral Mean Subtraction, neural networks, Linear Predictive Coding.

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1470 A Two-Stage Adaptation towards Automatic Speech Recognition System for Malay-Speaking Children

Authors: Mumtaz Begum Mustafa, Siti Salwah Salim, Feizal Dani Rahman

Abstract:

Recently, Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems were used to assist children in language acquisition as it has the ability to detect human speech signal. Despite the benefits offered by the ASR system, there is a lack of ASR systems for Malay-speaking children. One of the contributing factors for this is the lack of continuous speech database for the target users. Though cross-lingual adaptation is a common solution for developing ASR systems for under-resourced language, it is not viable for children as there are very limited speech databases as a source model. In this research, we propose a two-stage adaptation for the development of ASR system for Malay-speaking children using a very limited database. The two stage adaptation comprises the cross-lingual adaptation (first stage) and cross-age adaptation. For the first stage, a well-known speech database that is phonetically rich and balanced, is adapted to the medium-sized Malay adults using supervised MLLR. The second stage adaptation uses the speech acoustic model generated from the first adaptation, and the target database is a small-sized database of the target users. We have measured the performance of the proposed technique using word error rate, and then compare them with the conventional benchmark adaptation. The two stage adaptation proposed in this research has better recognition accuracy as compared to the benchmark adaptation in recognizing children’s speech.

Keywords: Automatic speech recognition system, children speech, adaptation, Malay.

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1469 Voice Features as the Diagnostic Marker of Autism

Authors: Elena Lyakso, Olga Frolova, Yuri Matveev

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to determine the acoustic features of voice and speech of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as a possible additional diagnostic criterion. The participants in the study were 95 children with ASD aged 5-16 years, 150 typically development (TD) children, and 103 adults – listening to children’s speech samples. Three types of experimental methods for speech analysis were performed: spectrographic, perceptual by listeners, and automatic recognition. In the speech of children with ASD, the pitch values, pitch range, values of frequency and intensity of the third formant (emotional) leading to the “atypical” spectrogram of vowels are higher than corresponding parameters in the speech of TD children. High values of vowel articulation index (VAI) are specific for ASD children’s speech signals. These acoustic features can be considered as diagnostic marker of autism. The ability of humans and automatic recognition of the psychoneurological state of children via their speech is determined.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders, biomarker of autism, child speech, voice features.

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1468 On Developing an Automatic Speech Recognition System for Standard Arabic Language

Authors: R. Walha, F. Drira, H. El-Abed, A. M. Alimi

Abstract:

The Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) applied to Arabic language is a challenging task. This is mainly related to the language specificities which make the researchers facing multiple difficulties such as the insufficient linguistic resources and the very limited number of available transcribed Arabic speech corpora. In this paper, we are interested in the development of a HMM-based ASR system for Standard Arabic (SA) language. Our fundamental research goal is to select the most appropriate acoustic parameters describing each audio frame, acoustic models and speech recognition unit. To achieve this purpose, we analyze the effect of varying frame windowing (size and period), acoustic parameter number resulting from features extraction methods traditionally used in ASR, speech recognition unit, Gaussian number per HMM state and number of embedded re-estimations of the Baum-Welch Algorithm. To evaluate the proposed ASR system, a multi-speaker SA connected-digits corpus is collected, transcribed and used throughout all experiments. A further evaluation is conducted on a speaker-independent continue SA speech corpus. The phonemes recognition rate is 94.02% which is relatively high when comparing it with another ASR system evaluated on the same corpus.

Keywords: ASR, HMM, acoustical analysis, acoustic modeling, Standard Arabic language

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1467 Efficient DTW-Based Speech Recognition System for Isolated Words of Arabic Language

Authors: Khalid A. Darabkh, Ala F. Khalifeh, Baraa A. Bathech, Saed W. Sabah

Abstract:

Despite the fact that Arabic language is currently one of the most common languages worldwide, there has been only a little research on Arabic speech recognition relative to other languages such as English and Japanese. Generally, digital speech processing and voice recognition algorithms are of special importance for designing efficient, accurate, as well as fast automatic speech recognition systems. However, the speech recognition process carried out in this paper is divided into three stages as follows: firstly, the signal is preprocessed to reduce noise effects. After that, the signal is digitized and hearingized. Consequently, the voice activity regions are segmented using voice activity detection (VAD) algorithm. Secondly, features are extracted from the speech signal using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) algorithm. Moreover, delta and acceleration (delta-delta) coefficients have been added for the reason of improving the recognition accuracy. Finally, each test word-s features are compared to the training database using dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm. Utilizing the best set up made for all affected parameters to the aforementioned techniques, the proposed system achieved a recognition rate of about 98.5% which outperformed other HMM and ANN-based approaches available in the literature.

Keywords: Arabic speech recognition, MFCC, DTW, VAD.

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1466 The Capacity of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients for Speech Recognition

Authors: Fawaz S. Al-Anzi, Dia AbuZeina

Abstract:

Speech recognition is of an important contribution in promoting new technologies in human computer interaction. Today, there is a growing need to employ speech technology in daily life and business activities. However, speech recognition is a challenging task that requires different stages before obtaining the desired output. Among automatic speech recognition (ASR) components is the feature extraction process, which parameterizes the speech signal to produce the corresponding feature vectors. Feature extraction process aims at approximating the linguistic content that is conveyed by the input speech signal. In speech processing field, there are several methods to extract speech features, however, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) is the popular technique. It has been long observed that the MFCC is dominantly used in the well-known recognizers such as the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Sphinx and the Markov Model Toolkit (HTK). Hence, this paper focuses on the MFCC method as the standard choice to identify the different speech segments in order to obtain the language phonemes for further training and decoding steps. Due to MFCC good performance, the previous studies show that the MFCC dominates the Arabic ASR research. In this paper, we demonstrate MFCC as well as the intermediate steps that are performed to get these coefficients using the HTK toolkit.

Keywords: Speech recognition, acoustic features, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients.

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1465 Voice Driven Applications in Non-stationary and Chaotic Environment

Authors: C. Kwan, X. Li, D. Lao, Y. Deng, Z. Ren, B. Raj, R. Singh, R. Stern

Abstract:

Automated operations based on voice commands will become more and more important in many applications, including robotics, maintenance operations, etc. However, voice command recognition rates drop quite a lot under non-stationary and chaotic noise environments. In this paper, we tried to significantly improve the speech recognition rates under non-stationary noise environments. First, 298 Navy acronyms have been selected for automatic speech recognition. Data sets were collected under 4 types of noisy environments: factory, buccaneer jet, babble noise in a canteen, and destroyer. Within each noisy environment, 4 levels (5 dB, 15 dB, 25 dB, and clean) of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) were introduced to corrupt the speech. Second, a new algorithm to estimate speech or no speech regions has been developed, implemented, and evaluated. Third, extensive simulations were carried out. It was found that the combination of the new algorithm, the proper selection of language model and a customized training of the speech recognizer based on clean speech yielded very high recognition rates, which are between 80% and 90% for the four different noisy conditions. Fourth, extensive comparative studies have also been carried out.

Keywords: Non-stationary, speech recognition, voice commands.

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1464 Analysis of Combined Use of NN and MFCC for Speech Recognition

Authors: Safdar Tanweer, Abdul Mobin, Afshar Alam

Abstract:

The performance and analysis of speech recognition system is illustrated in this paper. An approach to recognize the English word corresponding to digit (0-9) spoken by 2 different speakers is captured in noise free environment. For feature extraction, speech Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) has been used which gives a set of feature vectors from recorded speech samples. Neural network model is used to enhance the recognition performance. Feed forward neural network with back propagation algorithm model is used. However other speech recognition techniques such as HMM, DTW exist. All experiments are carried out on Matlab.

Keywords: Speech Recognition, MFCC, Neural Network, classifier.

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1463 Combined Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation in Business Correspondence Domain for English-Croatian

Authors: Sanja Seljan, Ivan Dunđer

Abstract:

The paper presents combined automatic speech recognition (ASR) of English and machine translation (MT) for English and Croatian and Croatian-English language pairs in the domain of business correspondence. The first part presents results of training the ASR commercial system on English data sets, enriched by error analysis. The second part presents results of machine translation performed by free online tool for English and Croatian and Croatian-English language pairs. Human evaluation in terms of usability is conducted and internal consistency calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, enriched by error analysis. Automatic evaluation is performed by WER (Word Error Rate) and PER (Position-independent word Error Rate) metrics, followed by investigation of Pearson’s correlation with human evaluation.

Keywords: Automatic machine translation, integrated language technologies, quality evaluation, speech recognition.

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1462 Accent Identification by Clustering and Scoring Formants

Authors: Dejan Stantic, Jun Jo

Abstract:

There have been significant improvements in automatic voice recognition technology. However, existing systems still face difficulties, particularly when used by non-native speakers with accents. In this paper we address a problem of identifying the English accented speech of speakers from different backgrounds. Once an accent is identified the speech recognition software can utilise training set from appropriate accent and therefore improve the efficiency and accuracy of the speech recognition system. We introduced the Q factor, which is defined by the sum of relationships between frequencies of the formants. Four different accents were considered and experimented for this research. A scoring method was introduced in order to effectively analyse accents. The proposed concept indicates that the accent could be identified by analysing their formants.

Keywords: Accent Identification, Formants, Q Factor.

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1461 Advances in Artificial Intelligence Using Speech Recognition

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

Abstract:

This research study aims to present a retrospective study about speech recognition systems and artificial intelligence. Speech recognition has become one of the widely used technologies, as it offers great opportunity to interact and communicate with automated machines. Precisely, it can be affirmed that speech recognition facilitates its users and helps them to perform their daily routine tasks, in a more convenient and effective manner. This research intends to present the illustration of recent technological advancements, which are associated with artificial intelligence. Recent researches have revealed the fact that speech recognition is found to be the utmost issue, which affects the decoding of speech. In order to overcome these issues, different statistical models were developed by the researchers. Some of the most prominent statistical models include acoustic model (AM), language model (LM), lexicon model, and hidden Markov models (HMM). The research will help in understanding all of these statistical models of speech recognition. Researchers have also formulated different decoding methods, which are being utilized for realistic decoding tasks and constrained artificial languages. These decoding methods include pattern recognition, acoustic phonetic, and artificial intelligence. It has been recognized that artificial intelligence is the most efficient and reliable methods, which are being used in speech recognition.

Keywords: Speech recognition, acoustic phonetic, artificial intelligence, Hidden Markov Models (HMM), statistical models of speech recognition, human machine performance.

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1460 Automatic Lip Contour Tracking and Visual Character Recognition for Computerized Lip Reading

Authors: Harshit Mehrotra, Gaurav Agrawal, M.C. Srivastava

Abstract:

Computerized lip reading has been one of the most actively researched areas of computer vision in recent past because of its crime fighting potential and invariance to acoustic environment. However, several factors like fast speech, bad pronunciation, poor illumination, movement of face, moustaches and beards make lip reading difficult. In present work, we propose a solution for automatic lip contour tracking and recognizing letters of English language spoken by speakers using the information available from lip movements. Level set method is used for tracking lip contour using a contour velocity model and a feature vector of lip movements is then obtained. Character recognition is performed using modified k nearest neighbor algorithm which assigns more weight to nearer neighbors. The proposed system has been found to have accuracy of 73.3% for character recognition with speaker lip movements as the only input and without using any speech recognition system in parallel. The approach used in this work is found to significantly solve the purpose of lip reading when size of database is small.

Keywords: Contour Velocity Model, Lip Contour Tracking, LipReading, Visual Character Recognition.

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1459 Hybrid Modeling Algorithm for Continuous Tamil Speech Recognition

Authors: M. Kalamani, S. Valarmathy, M. Krishnamoorthi

Abstract:

In this paper, Fuzzy C-Means clustering with Expectation Maximization-Gaussian Mixture Model based hybrid modeling algorithm is proposed for Continuous Tamil Speech Recognition. The speech sentences from various speakers are used for training and testing phase and objective measures are between the proposed and existing Continuous Speech Recognition algorithms. From the simulated results, it is observed that the proposed algorithm improves the recognition accuracy and F-measure up to 3% as compared to that of the existing algorithms for the speech signal from various speakers. In addition, it reduces the Word Error Rate, Error Rate and Error up to 4% as compared to that of the existing algorithms. In all aspects, the proposed hybrid modeling for Tamil speech recognition provides the significant improvements for speechto- text conversion in various applications.

Keywords: Speech Segmentation, Feature Extraction, Clustering, HMM, EM-GMM, CSR.

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1458 Assamese Numeral Speech Recognition using Multiple Features and Cooperative LVQ -Architectures

Authors: Manash Pratim Sarma, Kandarpa Kumar Sarma

Abstract:

A set of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based methods for the design of an effective system of speech recognition of numerals of Assamese language captured under varied recording conditions and moods is presented here. The work is related to the formulation of several ANN models configured to use Linear Predictive Code (LPC), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and other features to tackle mood and gender variations uttering numbers as part of an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system in Assamese. The ANN models are designed using a combination of Self Organizing Map (SOM) and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) constituting a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) block trained in a cooperative environment to handle male and female speech samples of numerals of Assamese- a language spoken by a sizable population in the North-Eastern part of India. The work provides a comparative evaluation of several such combinations while subjected to handle speech samples with gender based differences captured by a microphone in four different conditions viz. noiseless, noise mixed, stressed and stress-free.

Keywords: Assamese, Recognition, LPC, Spectral, ANN.

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1457 Assamese Numeral Corpus for Speech Recognition using Cooperative ANN Architecture

Authors: Mousmita Sarma, Krishna Dutta, Kandarpa Kumar Sarma

Abstract:

Speech corpus is one of the major components in a Speech Processing System where one of the primary requirements is to recognize an input sample. The quality and details captured in speech corpus directly affects the precision of recognition. The current work proposes a platform for speech corpus generation using an adaptive LMS filter and LPC cepstrum, as a part of an ANN based Speech Recognition System which is exclusively designed to recognize isolated numerals of Assamese language- a major language in the North Eastern part of India. The work focuses on designing an optimal feature extraction block and a few ANN based cooperative architectures so that the performance of the Speech Recognition System can be improved.

Keywords: Filter, Feature, LMS, LPC, Cepstrum, ANN.

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1456 Various Speech Processing Techniques For Speech Compression And Recognition

Authors: Jalal Karam

Abstract:

Years of extensive research in the field of speech processing for compression and recognition in the last five decades, resulted in a severe competition among the various methods and paradigms introduced. In this paper we include the different representations of speech in the time-frequency and time-scale domains for the purpose of compression and recognition. The examination of these representations in a variety of related work is accomplished. In particular, we emphasize methods related to Fourier analysis paradigms and wavelet based ones along with the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches.

Keywords: Time-Scale, Wavelets, Time-Frequency, Compression, Recognition.

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1455 A Modified Speech Enhancement Using Adaptive Gain Equalizer with Non linear Spectral Subtraction for Robust Speech Recognition

Authors: C. Ganesh Babu, P. T. Vanathi

Abstract:

In this paper we present an enhanced noise reduction method for robust speech recognition using Adaptive Gain Equalizer with Non linear Spectral Subtraction. In Adaptive Gain Equalizer method (AGE), the input signal is divided into a number of subbands that are individually weighed in time domain, in accordance to the short time Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in each subband estimation at every time instant. Instead of focusing on suppression the noise on speech enhancement is focused. When analysis was done under various noise conditions for speech recognition, it was found that Adaptive Gain Equalizer method algorithm has an obvious failing point for a SNR of -5 dB, with inadequate levels of noise suppression for SNR less than this point. This work proposes the implementation of AGE when coupled with Non linear Spectral Subtraction (AGE-NSS) for robust speech recognition. The experimental result shows that out AGE-NSS performs the AGE when SNR drops below -5db level.

Keywords: Adaptive Gain Equalizer, Non Linear Spectral Subtraction, Speech Enhancement, and Speech Recognition.

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1454 Speech Coding and Recognition

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of a speech recognizer in an interactive voice response system for various coded speech signals, coded by using a vector quantization technique namely Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization Technique. The process of recognizing the coded output can be used in Voice banking application. The recognition technique used for the recognition of the coded speech signals is the Hidden Markov Model technique. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity, and memory requirements of Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization Technique and the performance of the speech recognizer at various bit rates have been computed. From results it is found that the speech recognizer is showing better performance at 24 bits/frame and it is found that the percentage of recognition is being varied from 100% to 93.33% for various bit rates.

Keywords: Linear predictive coding, Speech Recognition, Voice banking, Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization, Hidden Markov Model, Linear Predictive Coefficients.

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1453 Sentence Modality Recognition in French based on Prosody

Authors: Pavel Král, Jana Klečková, Christophe Cerisara

Abstract:

This paper deals with automatic sentence modality recognition in French. In this work, only prosodic features are considered. The sentences are recognized according to the three following modalities: declarative, interrogative and exclamatory sentences. This information will be used to animate a talking head for deaf and hearing-impaired children. We first statistically study a real radio corpus in order to assess the feasibility of the automatic modeling of sentence types. Then, we test two sets of prosodic features as well as two different classifiers and their combination. We further focus our attention on questions recognition, as this modality is certainly the most important one for the target application.

Keywords: Automatic sentences modality recognition (ASMR), fundamental frequency (F0), energy, modal corpus, prosody.

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1452 Bidirectional Dynamic Time Warping Algorithm for the Recognition of Isolated Words Impacted by Transient Noise Pulses

Authors: G. Tamulevičius, A. Serackis, T. Sledevič, D. Navakauskas

Abstract:

We consider the biggest challenge in speech recognition – noise reduction. Traditionally detected transient noise pulses are removed with the corrupted speech using pulse models. In this paper we propose to cope with the problem directly in Dynamic Time Warping domain. Bidirectional Dynamic Time Warping algorithm for the recognition of isolated words impacted by transient noise pulses is proposed. It uses simple transient noise pulse detector, employs bidirectional computation of dynamic time warping and directly manipulates with warping results. Experimental investigation with several alternative solutions confirms effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in the reduction of impact of noise on recognition process – 3.9% increase of the noisy speech recognition is achieved.

Keywords: Transient noise pulses, noise reduction, dynamic time warping, speech recognition.

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1451 Speaker Independent Quranic Recognizer Basedon Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression

Authors: Ehab Mourtaga, Ahmad Sharieh, Mousa Abdallah

Abstract:

An automatic speech recognition system for the formal Arabic language is needed. The Quran is the most formal spoken book in Arabic, it is spoken all over the world. In this research, an automatic speech recognizer for Quranic based speakerindependent was developed and tested. The system was developed based on the tri-phone Hidden Markov Model and Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR). The MLLR computes a set of transformations which reduces the mismatch between an initial model set and the adaptation data. It uses the regression class tree, as well as, estimates a set of linear transformations for the mean and variance parameters of a Gaussian mixture HMM system. The 30th Chapter of the Quran, with five of the most famous readers of the Quran, was used for the training and testing of the data. The chapter includes about 2000 distinct words. The advantages of using the Quranic verses as the database in this developed recognizer are the uniqueness of the words and the high level of orderliness between verses. The level of accuracy from the tested data ranged 68 to 85%.

Keywords: Hidden Markov Model (HMM), MaximumLikelihood Linear Regression (MLLR), Quran, Regression ClassTree, Speech Recognition, Speaker-independent.

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1450 Face Recognition: A Literature Review

Authors: A. S. Tolba, A.H. El-Baz, A.A. El-Harby

Abstract:

The task of face recognition has been actively researched in recent years. This paper provides an up-to-date review of major human face recognition research. We first present an overview of face recognition and its applications. Then, a literature review of the most recent face recognition techniques is presented. Description and limitations of face databases which are used to test the performance of these face recognition algorithms are given. A brief summary of the face recognition vendor test (FRVT) 2002, a large scale evaluation of automatic face recognition technology, and its conclusions are also given. Finally, we give a summary of the research results.

Keywords: Combined classifiers, face recognition, graph matching, neural networks.

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1449 Improved Weighted Matching for Speaker Recognition

Authors: Ozan Mut, Mehmet Göktürk

Abstract:

Matching algorithms have significant importance in speaker recognition. Feature vectors of the unknown utterance are compared to feature vectors of the modeled speakers as a last step in speaker recognition. A similarity score is found for every model in the speaker database. Depending on the type of speaker recognition, these scores are used to determine the author of unknown speech samples. For speaker verification, similarity score is tested against a predefined threshold and either acceptance or rejection result is obtained. In the case of speaker identification, the result depends on whether the identification is open set or closed set. In closed set identification, the model that yields the best similarity score is accepted. In open set identification, the best score is tested against a threshold, so there is one more possible output satisfying the condition that the speaker is not one of the registered speakers in existing database. This paper focuses on closed set speaker identification using a modified version of a well known matching algorithm. The results of new matching algorithm indicated better performance on YOHO international speaker recognition database.

Keywords: Automatic Speaker Recognition, Voice Recognition, Pattern Recognition, Digital Audio Signal Processing.

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1448 The Performance Improvement of Automatic Modulation Recognition Using Simple Feature Manipulation, Analysis of the HOS, and Voted Decision

Authors: Heroe Wijanto, Sugihartono, Suhartono Tjondronegoro, Kuspriyanto

Abstract:

The use of High Order Statistics (HOS) analysis is expected to provide so many candidates of features that can be selected for pattern recognition. More candidates of the feature can be extracted using simple manipulation through a specific mathematical function prior to the HOS analysis. Feature extraction method using HOS analysis combined with Difference to the Nth-Power manipulation has been examined in application for Automatic Modulation Recognition (AMR) to perform scheme recognition of three digital modulation signal, i.e. QPSK-16QAM-64QAM in the AWGN transmission channel. The simulation results is reported when the analysis of HOS up to order-12 and the manipulation of Difference to the Nth-Power up to N = 4. The obtained accuracy rate of AMR using the method of Simple Decision obtained 90% in SNR > 10 dB in its classifier, while using the method of Voted Decision is 96% in SNR > 2 dB.

Keywords: modulation, automatic modulation recognition, feature analysis, feature manipulation.

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1447 Neural Network Based Speech to Text in Malay Language

Authors: H. F. A. Abdul Ghani, R. R. Porle

Abstract:

Speech to text in Malay language is a system that converts Malay speech into text. The Malay language recognition system is still limited, thus, this paper aims to investigate the performance of ten Malay words obtained from the online Malay news. The methodology consists of three stages, which are preprocessing, feature extraction, and speech classification. In preprocessing stage, the speech samples are filtered using pre emphasis. After that, feature extraction method is applied to the samples using Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC). Lastly, speech classification is performed using Feedforward Neural Network (FFNN). The accuracy of the classification is further investigated based on the hidden layer size. From experimentation, the classifier with 40 hidden neurons shows the highest classification rate which is 94%.  

Keywords: Feed-Forward Neural Network, FFNN, Malay speech recognition, Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient, MFCC, speech-to-text.

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1446 Automatic Distance Compensation for Robust Voice-based Human-Computer Interaction

Authors: Randy Gomez, Keisuke Nakamura, Kazuhiro Nakadai

Abstract:

Distant-talking voice-based HCI system suffers from performance degradation due to mismatch between the acoustic speech (runtime) and the acoustic model (training). Mismatch is caused by the change in the power of the speech signal as observed at the microphones. This change is greatly influenced by the change in distance, affecting speech dynamics inside the room before reaching the microphones. Moreover, as the speech signal is reflected, its acoustical characteristic is also altered by the room properties. In general, power mismatch due to distance is a complex problem. This paper presents a novel approach in dealing with distance-induced mismatch by intelligently sensing instantaneous voice power variation and compensating model parameters. First, the distant-talking speech signal is processed through microphone array processing, and the corresponding distance information is extracted. Distance-sensitive Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), pre-trained to capture both speech power and room property are used to predict the optimal distance of the speech source. Consequently, pre-computed statistic priors corresponding to the optimal distance is selected to correct the statistics of the generic model which was frozen during training. Thus, model combinatorics are post-conditioned to match the power of instantaneous speech acoustics at runtime. This results to an improved likelihood in predicting the correct speech command at farther distances. We experiment using real data recorded inside two rooms. Experimental evaluation shows voice recognition performance using our method is more robust to the change in distance compared to the conventional approach. In our experiment, under the most acoustically challenging environment (i.e., Room 2: 2.5 meters), our method achieved 24.2% improvement in recognition performance against the best-performing conventional method.

Keywords: Human Machine Interaction, Human Computer Interaction, Voice Recognition, Acoustic Model Compensation, Acoustic Speech Enhancement.

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