Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30517
Effects of Mobile Phone Generated High Frequency Electromagnetic Field on the Viability and Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus aureus
Abstract:Staphylococcus aureus, one of the microflora in a human external auditory canal (EAC) is frequently exposed to highfrequency electromagnetic field (HF-EMF) generated by mobile phones. It is normally non-pathogenic but in certain circumstances, it can cause infections. This study investigates the changes in the physiology of S. aureus when exposed to HF-EMF of a mobile phone. Exponentially grown S. aureus were exposed to two conditions of EMF irradiation (standby-mode and on-call mode) at four durations; 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Changes in the viability and biofilm production of the S. aureus were compared between the two conditions of exposure. EMF from the standby-mode has enhanced the growth of S. aureus but during on-call, the growth was suppressed. No significant difference in the amount of biofilm produced in both modes of exposure was observed. Thus, HF-EMF of mobile phone affects the viability of S. aureus but not its ability to produce biofilm.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1078422Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1606
 H. C. Christensen, J. Sch├╝z, M. Kosteljanetz, H. S. Poulsen, J. Thomsen, and C. Johansen, "Cellular Telephone Use and Risk of Acoustic Neuroma," American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 159, pp. 277-283, February 1, 2004.
 T. Takebayashi, N. Varsier, Y. Kikuchi, K. Wake, M. Taki, S. Watanabe, S. Akiba, and N. Yamaguchi, "Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a casecontrol study," British Journal of Cancer, vol. 98, pp. 652-659, 2008.
 P. D. Inskip, R. N. Hoover, and S. S. Devesa, "Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the United States," Neuro- Oncology, vol. 12, pp. 1147-1151, November 1, 2010.
 J. E. Muscat, M. G. Malkin, S. Thompson, R. E. Shore, S. D. Stellman, D. McRee, A. I. Neugut, and E. L. Wynder, "Handheld Cellular Telephone Use and Risk of Brain Cancer," JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 284, pp. 3001-3007, December 20, 2000.
 G. Oftedal, J. Wilen, M. Sandstrom, and K. H. Mild, "Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use," Occupational Medicine-Oxford, vol. 50, pp. 237-245, May 2000.
 B. Hocking and R. Westerman, "Neurological abnormalities associated with mobile phone use," Occupational Medicine (London), vol. 50, pp. 366-8, Jul 2000.
 A. A. Borbely, R. Huber, T. Graf, B. Fuchs, E. Gallmann, and P. Achermann, "Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram," Neuroscience Letters, vol. 275, pp. 207-10, Nov 19 1999.
 S. Braune, C. Wrocklage, J. Raczek, T. Gailus, and C. H. Lucking, "Resting blood pressure increase during exposure to a radio-frequency electromagnetic field," Lancet, vol. 351, pp. 1857-8, Jun 20 1998.
 A. W. Preece, G. Iwi, A. Davies-Smith, K. Wesnes, S. Butler, E. Lim, and A. Varey, "Effect of a 915-MHz simulated mobile phone signal on cognitive function in man," International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 75, pp. 447-456, Apr 1999.
 SCEHIHR, "Preliminary opinion on possible effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health," H. a. C. P. D.-G. European Commision, Ed., ed: European Commision, 2006.
 I. Brook, "Microbiological studies of the bacterial flora of the external auditory canal in children," Acta Otolaryngol, vol. 91, pp. 285-7, Mar- Apr 1981.
 D. W. Stroman, P. S. Roland, J. Dohar, and W. Burt, "Microbiology of normal external auditory canal," Laryngoscope, vol. 111, pp. 2054-9, Nov 2001.
 M. N. Battikhi and S. I. Ammar, "Otitis externa infection in Jordan. Clinical and microbiological features," Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 25, pp. 1199-203, Sep 2004.
 R. Sander, "Otitis externa: a practical guide to treatment and prevention," American Family Physician, vol. 63, pp. 927-36, 941-2, Mar 1 2001.
 D. G. Keay and J. A. Murray, "Malignant otitis externa due to Staphylococcus infection," J Laryngol Otol, vol. 102, pp. 926-7, Oct 1988.
 A. Mamoon, "Biological potential hazards of electromagnetic field: The case of mobile phones," presented at the Twenteith National Radio Science Conference, Cairo, Egypt, 2003.
 G. J. Hyland, "Physics and biology of mobile telephony," Lancet, vol. 356, pp. 1833-1836, Nov 25 2000.
 B. Anderstam, Y. Hamnerius, S. Hussain, and L. Ehrenberg, "Studies of possible genetic effects in bacteria of high frequency electromagnetic fields," Hereditas, vol. 98, pp. 11-32, 1983.
 B. Del Re, F. Garoia, P. Mesirca, C. Agostini, F. Bersani, and G. Giorgi, "Extremely low frequency magnetic fields affect transposition activity in Escherichia coli," Radiation Enviromental Biophysics, vol. 42, pp. 113- 8, Jul 2003.
 S. Nakasono, M. Ikehata, M. Dateki, S. Yoshie, T. Shigemitsu, and T. Negishi, "Intermediate frequency magnetic fields do not have mutagenic, co-mutagenic or gene conversion potentials in microbial genotoxicity tests," Mutation Research, vol. 649, pp. 187-200, Jan 8 2008.
 E. A. Gaafar, M. S. Hanafy, E. Y. Tohamy, and M. H. Ibrahim, "Stimulatin and control of E.coli by using an extremely low frequency magnetic field.," Romanian Journal of Biophysics., vol. 16, pp. 283- 296, 2006.
 L. Cellini, R. Grande, E. Di Campli, S. Di Bartolomeo, M. Di Giulio, I. Robuffo, O. Trubiani, and M. A. Mariggio, "Bacterial response to the exposure of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields," Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 29, pp. 302-11, May 2008.
 L. Fojt, L. Strasak, V. Vetterl, and J. Smarda, "Comparison of the lowfrequency magnetic field effects on bacteria Escherichia coli, Leclercia adecarboxylata and Staphylococcus aureus," Bioelectrochemistry, vol. 63, pp. 337-41, Jun 2004.
 S. Turkyilmaz and O. Kaya, "Determination of some virulence factors in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from various clinical samples," Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, vol. 30, pp. 127-132, 2006.
 L. Strasak, V. Vetterl, and J. Smarda, "Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on bacteria Escherichia coli," Bioelectrochemistry, vol. 55, pp. 161-4, Jan 2002.
 L. Fojt, L. Strasak, and V. Vetterl, "Effect of electromagnetic fields on the denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans," Bioelectrochemistry, vol. 70, pp. 91-5, Jan 2007.
 S. H. Li and K. C. Chow, "Magnetic field exposure induces DNA degradation," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 280, pp. 1385-1388, Feb 9 2001.
 R. Goodman and M. Blank, "Insights into electromagnetic interaction mechanisms," Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 192, pp. 16-22, Jul 2002.
 M. Otto and K. E. von Muhlendahl, "Electromagnetic fields (EMF): Do they play a role in children's environmental health (CEH)?," International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 210, pp. 635-644, Oct 2007.
 E. Di Campli, S. Di Bartolomeo, R. Grande, M. Di Giulio, and L. Cellini, "Effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on Helicobacter pylori biofilm," Current Microbioliolgy, vol. 60, pp. 412- 8, Jun 2010.