Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Dermot Diamond

45 Effect of Surface Pretreatments on Nanocrystalline Diamond Deposited On Silicon Nitride Substrates

Authors: D.N Awang Sh'ri, E. Hamzah

Abstract:

The deposition of diamond films on a Si3N4 substrate is an attractive technique for industrial applications because of the excellent properties of diamond. Pretreatment of substrate is very important prior to diamond deposition to promote nucleation and adhesion between coating and substrate. Deposition of nanocrystalline diamonds films on silicon nitride substrate have been carried out by HF-CVD technique using mixture of methane and hydrogen gases. Different pretreatment of substrate including chemical etching consists of hot acid etching and basic etching and mechanical etching were used to study the quality of diamond formed on the substrate. The structure and morphology of diamond coating have been studied using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) while diamond film quality has been characterized using Raman spectroscopy. AFM was used to investigate the effect of chemical etching and mechanical pretreatment on the surface roughness of the substrates and the resultant morphology of nanocrystalline diamond. It was found that diamond film deposited on as-received, basic etched and grinded substrate shows the morphology of cauliflower while blasted and acidic etched substrates produce smooth, continuous diamond film. However, the Raman investigation did not show any deviation in quality of diamond film for any pretreatment.

Keywords: Nanocrystalline diamond, Chemical VaporDeposition, Pretreatment, Silicon Nitride

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44 Development of an Autonomous Greenhouse Gas Monitoring System

Authors: Breda M. Kiernan, Cormac Fay, Stephen Beirne, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

This paper describes the designs of a first and second generation autonomous gas monitoring system and the successful field trial of the final system (2nd generation). Infrared sensing technology is used to detect and measure the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) at point sources. The ability to monitor real-time events is further enhanced through the implementation of both GSM and Bluetooth technologies to communicate these data in real-time. These systems are robust, reliable and a necessary tool where the monitoring of gas events in real-time are needed.

Keywords: Environmental monitoring, infrared sensing, autonomous system.

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43 Landfill Gas Monitoring at Borehole Wells using an Autonomous Environmental Monitoring System

Authors: Breda M. Kiernan, Stephen Beirne, Cormac Fay, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

An autonomous environmental monitoring system (Smart Landfill) has been constructed for the quantitative measurement of the components of landfill gas found at borehole wells at the perimeter of landfill sites. The main components of landfill gas are the greenhouse gases, methane and carbon dioxide and have been monitored in the range 0-5 % volume. This monitoring system has not only been tested in the laboratory but has been deployed in multiple field trials and the data collected successfully compared with on-site monitors. This success shows the potential of this system for application in environments where reliable gas monitoring is crucial.

Keywords: Environmental monitoring, greenhouse gas, landfill gas, sensor deployment

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42 Analysis of Phosphate in Wastewater Using an Autonomous Microfluidics-Based Analyser

Authors: John Cleary, Conor Slater, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

A portable sensor for the analysis of phosphate in aqueous samples has been developed. The sensor incorporates microfluidic technology, colorimetric detection, and wireless communications into a compact and rugged portable device. The detection method used is the molybdenum yellow method, in which a phosphate-containing sample is mixed with a reagent containing ammonium metavanadate and ammonium molybdate in an acidic medium. A yellow-coloured compound is generated and the absorption of this compound is measured using a light emitting diode (LED) light source and a photodiode detector. The absorption is directly proportional to the phosphate concentration in the original sample. In this paper we describe the application of this phosphate sensor to the analysis of wastewater at a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Co. Kildare, Ireland.

Keywords: Microfluidic, phosphate, sensor, wastewater.

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41 Chemical Species Concentration Measurement via Wireless Sensors

Authors: Jer Hayes, Stephen Beirne, Breda M. Kiernan, Conor Slater, King-Tong Lau, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

This paper describes studies carried out to investigate the viability of using wireless cameras as a tool in monitoring changes in air quality. A camera is used to monitor the change in colour of a chemically responsive polymer within view of the camera as it is exposed to varying chemical species concentration levels. The camera captures this image and the colour change is analyzed by averaging the RGB values present. This novel chemical sensing approach is compared with an established chemical sensing method using the same chemically responsive polymer coated onto LEDs. In this way, the concentration levels of acetic acid in the air can be tracked using both approaches. These approaches to chemical plume tracking have many applications for air quality monitoring.

Keywords: Environmental sensing, chemical sensors, wirelesssensor networks.

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40 Wearable Sensing Application- Carbon Dioxide Monitoring for Emergency Personnel Using Wearable Sensors

Authors: Tanja Radu, Cormac Fay, King Tong Lau, Rhys Waite, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

The development of wearable sensing technologies is a great challenge which is being addressed by the Proetex FP6 project (www.proetex.org). Its main aim is the development of wearable sensors to improve the safety and efficiency of emergency personnel. This will be achieved by continuous, real-time monitoring of vital signs, posture, activity, and external hazards surrounding emergency workers. We report here the development of carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing boot by incorporating commercially available CO2 sensor with a wireless platform into the boot assembly. Carefully selected commercially available sensors have been tested. Some of the key characteristics of the selected sensors are high selectivity and sensitivity, robustness and the power demand. This paper discusses some of the results of CO2 sensor tests and sensor integration with wireless data transmission

Keywords: Proetex, gas sensing, wireless, wearable sensors, carbon dioxide

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39 Preparation and Cutting Performance of Boron-Doped Diamond Coating on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools with High Cobalt Content

Authors: Zhaozhi Liu, Feng Xu, Junhua Xu, Xiaolong Tang, Ying Liu, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated cutting tool has excellent cutting performance, it is the most ideal tool for the processing of nonferrous metals and alloys, composites, nonmetallic materials and other difficult-to-machine materials efficiently and accurately. Depositing CVD diamond coating on the cemented carbide with high cobalt content can improve its toughness and strength, therefore, it is very important to research on the preparation technology and cutting properties of CVD diamond coated cemented carbide cutting tool with high cobalt content. The preparation technology of boron-doped diamond (BDD) coating has been studied and the coated drills were prepared. BDD coating were deposited on the drills by using the optimized parameters and the SEM results show that there are no cracks or collapses in the coating. Cutting tests with the prepared drills against the silumin and aluminum base printed circuit board (PCB) have been studied. The results show that the wear amount of the coated drill is small and the machined surface has a better precision. The coating does not come off during the test, which shows good adhesion and cutting performance of the drill.

Keywords: Cemented carbide with high cobalt content, CVD boron-doped diamond, cutting test, drill.

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38 An Analysis of New Service Interchange Designs

Authors: Joseph E. Hummer

Abstract:

An efficient freeway system will be essential to the development of Africa, and interchanges are a key to that efficiency. Around the world, many interchanges between freeways and surface streets, called service interchanges, are of the diamond configuration, and interchanges using roundabouts or loop ramps are also popular. However, many diamond interchanges have serious operational problems, interchanges with roundabouts fail at high demand levels, and loops use lots of expensive land. Newer service interchange designs provide other options. The most popular new interchange design in the US at the moment is the double crossover diamond (DCD), also known as the diverging diamond. The DCD has enormous potential, but also has several significant limitations. The objectives of this paper are to review new service interchange options and to highlight some of the main features of those alternatives. The paper tests four conventional and seven unconventional designs using seven measures related to efficiency, cost, and safety. The results show that there is no superior design in all measures investigated. The DCD is better than most designs tested on most measures examined. However, the DCD was only superior to all other designs for bridge width. The DCD performed relatively poorly for capacity and for serving pedestrians. Based on the results, African freeway designers are encouraged to investigate the full range of alternatives that could work at the spot of interest. Diamonds and DCDs have their niches, but some of the other designs investigated could be optimum at some spots.

Keywords: Alternative, design, diverging diamond, freeway, interchange.

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37 Second-order Time Evolution Scheme for Time-dependent Neutron Transport Equation

Authors: Zhenying Hong, Guangwei Yuan, Xuedong Fu, Shulin Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, the typical exponential method, diamond difference and modified time discrete scheme is researched for self adaptive time step. The second-order time evolution scheme is applied to time-dependent spherical neutron transport equation by discrete ordinates method. The numerical results show that second-order time evolution scheme associated exponential method has some good properties. The time differential curve about neutron current is more smooth than that of exponential method and diamond difference and modified time discrete scheme.

Keywords: Exponential method, diamond difference, modified time discrete scheme, second-order time evolution scheme.

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36 Magnetization of Thin-Film Permalloy Ellipses used for Programmable Motion of Magnetic Particles

Authors: P. Warnicke

Abstract:

Simulations of magnetic microstructure in elliptical Permalloy elements used for controlled motion of magnetic particles are discussed. The saturating field of the elliptical elements was studied with respect to lateral dimensions for one-vortex, cross-tie, diamond and double-diamond states as initial zero-field domain configurations. With aspect ratio of 1:3 the short axis was varied from 125 nm to 1000 nm, whereas the thickness was kept constant at 50 nm.

Keywords: Domain structure, magnetization, micromagnetics, Permalloy.

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35 Application of Femtosecond Laser pulses for Nanometer Accuracy Profiling of Quartz and Diamond Substrates and for Multi-Layered Targets and Thin-Film Conductors Processing

Authors: Dmitry S. Sitnikov, Andrey V. Ovchinnikov

Abstract:

Research results and optimal parameters investigation of laser cut and profiling of diamond and quartz substrates by femtosecond laser pulses are presented. Profiles 10 μm in width, ~25 μm in depth and several millimeters long were made. Investigation of boundaries quality has been carried out with the use of AFM «Vecco». Possibility of technological formation of profiles and micro-holes in diamond and quartz substrates with nanometer-scale boundaries is shown. Experimental results of multilayer dielectric cover treatment are also presented. Possibility of precise upper layer (thickness of 70–140 nm) removal is demonstrated. Processes of thin metal film (60 nm and 350 nm thick) treatment are considered. Isolation tracks (conductance ~ 10-11 S) 1.6–2.5 μm in width in conductive metal layers are formed.

Keywords: Femtosecond laser ablation, microhole and nanoprofileformation, micromachining

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34 Joint Adaptive Block Matching Search (JABMS) Algorithm

Authors: V.K.Ananthashayana, Pushpa.M.K

Abstract:

In this paper a new Joint Adaptive Block Matching Search (JABMS) algorithm is proposed to generate motion vector and search a best match macro block by classifying the motion vector movement based on prediction error. Diamond Search (DS) algorithm generates high estimation accuracy when motion vector is small and Adaptive Rood Pattern Search (ARPS) algorithm can handle large motion vector but is not very accurate. The proposed JABMS algorithm which is capable of considering both small and large motions gives improved estimation accuracy and the computational cost is reduced by 15.2 times compared with Exhaustive Search (ES) algorithm and is 1.3 times less compared with Diamond search algorithm.

Keywords: Adaptive rood pattern search, Block matching, Diamond search, Joint Adaptive search, Motion estimation.

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33 Experimental Study on Slicing of Sapphire with Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw

Authors: Mengjun Zhang, Yuli Sun, Dunwen Zuo, Chunxiang Xie, Chunming Zhang

Abstract:

Experimental study on slicing of sapphire with fixed abrasive diamond wire saw was conducted in this paper. The process parameters were optimized through orthogonal experiment of three factors and four levels. The effects of wire speed, feed speed and tension pressure on the surface roughness were analyzed. Surface roughness in cutting direction and feed direction were both detected. The results show that feed speed plays the most significant role on the surface roughness of sliced sapphire followed by wire speed and tension pressure. The optimized process parameters are as follows: wire speed 1.9 m/s, feed speed 0.187 mm/min and tension pressure 0.18 MPa. In the end, the results were verified by analysis of variance.

Keywords: Fixed abrasive, diamond wire saw, slicing, sapphire, orthogonal experiment.

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32 Characterization of a Pure Diamond-Like Carbon Film Deposited by Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Camilla G. Goncalves, Benedito Christ, Walter Miyakawa, Antonio J. Abdalla

Abstract:

This work aims to investigate the properties and microstructure of diamond-like carbon film deposited by pulsed laser deposition by ablation of a graphite target in a vacuum chamber on a steel substrate. The equipment was mounted to provide one laser beam. The target of high purity graphite and the steel substrate were polished. The mechanical and tribological properties of the film were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation test, scratch test, roughness profile, tribometer, optical microscopy and SEM images. It was concluded that the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique associated with the low-pressure chamber and a graphite target provides a good fraction of sp3 bonding, that the process variable as surface polishing and laser parameter have great influence in tribological properties and in adherence tests performance. The optical microscopy images are efficient to identify the metallurgical bond.

Keywords: Characterization, diamond-like carbon, DLC, mechanical properties, pulsed laser deposition.

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31 Pioneer Synthesis and Characterization of Boron Containing Hard Materials

Authors: G. Çelik Gül, F. Kurtuluş

Abstract:

The first laboratory synthesis of hard materials such as diamond proceeded to attack of developing materials with high hardness to compete diamond. Boron rich solids are good candidates owing to their short interatomic bond lengths and strong covalent character. Boron containing hard material was synthesized by modifiedmicrowave method under nitrogen atmosphere by using a fuel (glycine or urea), amorphous boron and/or boric acid in appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: Boron containing materials, hard materials, microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction.

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30 On the Factors Influencing the Competitiveness of Chinese Service Trade after Entering WTO

Authors: Ying Wang

Abstract:

Service trade is an important force of influencing economic development. A review on the related literatures is done firstly. Then through the construction of a Diamond Model, the main factors which influence the competitiveness of Chinese service trade are determined. With three competitiveness indexes served as the reference series respectively, the influencing factors served as the comparable series, three grey incidence models are then built up to conduct an empirical analysis on the main factors influencing the competitiveness of service trade after China entering WTO. The result indicates that urbanization level, open degree of service industry and foreign direct investment have larger impacts on Chinese service trade competitiveness, followed in turn by GDP in service industry and human capital, while commodity trade has the minimum impact. Further discussion provides train of thought for the upgrade of Chinese service trade competitiveness.

Keywords: Service Trade, Competitiveness, Diamond Model, Grey Incidence Model.

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29 Trends and Prospects for the Development of Georgian Wine Market

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, M. Natsvaladze

Abstract:

The article presents the trends in Georgian wine market development and evaluates the competitive advantages of Georgia to enter the wine market based on its customs, traditions and historical practices combined with modern technologies. In order to analyze the supply of wine, dynamics of vineyard land area and grape varieties are discussed, trends in wine production are presented, trends in export and import are evaluated, local wine market, its micro and macro environments are studied and analyzed based on the interviews with experts and analysis of initial recording materials. For strengthening its position on the international market, the level of competitiveness of Georgian wine is defined, which is evaluated by “ex-ante” and “ex-post” methods, as well as by four basic and two additional factors of the Porter’s diamond method; potential advantages and disadvantages of Georgian wine are revealed. Conclusions are made by identifying the factors that hinder the development of Georgian wine market. Based on the conclusions, relevant recommendations are developed.

Keywords: Georgian wine market, competitive advantage, bio wine, export-import, Porter's diamond model.

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28 Vickers Indentation Simulation of Buffer Layer Thickness Effect for DLC Coated Materials

Authors: Abdul Wasy, Balakrishnan G., Yi Qi Wang, Atta Ur Rehman, Jung Il Song

Abstract:

Vickers indentation is used to measure the hardness of materials. In this study, numerical simulation of Vickers indentation experiment was performed for Diamond like Carbon (DLC) coated materials. DLC coatings were deposited on stainless steel 304 substrates with Chromium buffer layer using RF Magnetron and T-shape Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Dual system The objective of this research is to understand the elastic plastic properties, stress strain distribution, ring and lateral crack growth and propagation, penetration depth of indenter and delamination of coating from substrate with effect of buffer layer thickness. The effect of Poisson-s ratio of DLC coating was also analyzed. Indenter penetration is more in coated materials with thin buffer layer as compared to thicker one, under same conditions. Similarly, the specimens with thinner buffer layer failed quickly due to high residual stress as compared to the coated materials with reasonable thickness of 200nm buffer layer. The simulation results suggested the optimized thickness of 200 nm among the prepared specimens for durable and long service.

Keywords: Thin film, buffer layer. Diamond like Carbon, Vickers indentation, Poisson's ratio, Finite element.

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27 Competitive Advantage Challenges Affecting the Apparel Manufacturing Industry of South Africa (AMISA): Application of Porter’s Factor Conditions

Authors: S. Mbatha, A. Mastamet-Mason

Abstract:

This paper applied factor conditions from Porter’s Diamond Model (1990) to understand the various challenges facing the AMISA. Factor conditions highlighted in Porter’s model are grouped into two groups namely, basic and advance factors. Two AMISA associations representing over 10 000 employees were interviewed. The largest Clothing, Textiles and Leather (CTL) apparel retail group was also interviewed with a government department implementing the industrialization policy were interviewed. The paper points out that AMISA have basic factor conditions necessary for competitive advantage in the apparel industries. However advance factor creation has proven to be a challenge for AMISA, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and government. Poor infrastructural maintenance has contributed to high manufacturing costs and poor quick response technologies. The use of Porter’s Factor Conditions as a tool to analyze the sector’s competitive advantage challenges and opportunities has increased knowledge regarding factors that limit the AMISA’s competitiveness. It is therefore argued that other studies on Porter’s Diamond model factors like Demand conditions, Firm strategy, structure and rivalry and Related and supporting industries can be used to analyze the situation of the AMISA for the purposes of improving competitive advantage.

Keywords: Compliance rule, apparel manufacturing industry, factor conditions, advance skills.

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26 An Automated Approach to the Nozzle Configuration of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Drill Bits for Effective Cuttings Removal

Authors: R. Suresh, Pavan Kumar Nimmagadda, Ming Zo Tan, Shane Hart, Sharp Ugwuocha

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits are extensively used in the oil and gas industry as well as the mining industry. Industry engineers continually improve upon PDC drill bit designs and hydraulic conditions. Optimized injection nozzles play a key role in improving the drilling performance and efficiency of these ever changing PDC drill bits. In the first part of this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is performed to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of drilling fluid flow around the PDC drill bit. An Open-source CFD software – OpenFOAM simulates the flow around the drill bit, based on the field input data. A specifically developed console application integrates the entire CFD process including, domain extraction, meshing, and solving governing equations and post-processing. The results from the OpenFOAM solver are then compared with that of the ANSYS Fluent software. The data from both software programs agree. The second part of the paper describes the parametric study of the PDC drill bit nozzle to determine the effect of parameters such as number of nozzles, nozzle velocity, nozzle radial position and orientations on the flow field characteristics and bit washing patterns. After analyzing a series of nozzle configurations, the best configuration is identified and recommendations are made for modifying the PDC bit design.

Keywords: ANSYS Fluent, computational fluid dynamics, nozzle configuration, OpenFOAM, PDC dill bit.

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25 Carbon-Based Electrochemical Detection of Pharmaceuticals from Water

Authors: M. Ardelean, F. Manea, A. Pop, J. Schoonman

Abstract:

The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment and especially in water has gained increasing attention. They are included in emerging class of pollutants, and for most of them, legal limits have not been set-up due to their impact on human health and ecosystem was not determined and/or there is not the advanced analytical method for their quantification. In this context, the development of various advanced analytical methods for the quantification of pharmaceuticals in water is required. The electrochemical methods are known to exhibit the great potential for high-performance analytical methods but their performance is in direct relation to the electrode material and the operating techniques. In this study, two types of carbon-based electrodes materials, i.e., boron-doped diamond (BDD) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-epoxy composite electrodes have been investigated through voltammetric techniques for the detection of naproxen in water. The comparative electrochemical behavior of naproxen (NPX) on both BDD and CNF electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the well-defined peak corresponding to NPX oxidation was found for each electrode. NPX oxidation occurred on BDD electrode at the potential value of about +1.4 V/SCE (saturated calomel electrode) and at about +1.2 V/SCE for CNF electrode. The sensitivities for NPX detection were similar for both carbon-based electrode and thus, CNF electrode exhibited superiority in relation to the detection potential. Differential-pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were exploited to improve the electroanalytical performance for the NPX detection, and the best results related to the sensitivity of 9.959 µA·µM-1 were achieved using DPV. In addition, the simultaneous detection of NPX and fluoxetine -a very common antidepressive drug, also present in water, was studied using CNF electrode and very good results were obtained. The detection potential values that allowed a good separation of the detection signals together with the good sensitivities were appropriate for the simultaneous detection of both tested pharmaceuticals. These results reclaim CNF electrode as a valuable tool for the individual/simultaneous detection of pharmaceuticals in water.

Keywords: Boron-doped diamond electrode, carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, emerging pollutants, pharmaceuticals.

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24 Numerical Modelling of Shear Zone and Its Implications on Slope Instability at Letšeng Diamond Open Pit Mine, Lesotho

Authors: M. Ntšolo, D. Kalumba, N. Lefu, G. Letlatsa

Abstract:

Rock mass damage due to shear tectonic activity has been investigated largely in geoscience where fluid transport is of major interest. However, little has been studied on the effect of shear zones on rock mass behavior and its impact on stability of rock slopes. At Letšeng Diamonds open pit mine in Lesotho, the shear zone composed of sheared kimberlite material, calcite and altered basalt is forming part of the haul ramp into the main pit cut 3. The alarming rate at which the shear zone is deteriorating has triggered concerns about both local and global stability of pit the walls. This study presents the numerical modelling of the open pit slope affected by shear zone at Letšeng Diamond Mine (LDM). Analysis of the slope involved development of the slope model by using a two-dimensional finite element code RS2. Interfaces between shear zone and host rock were represented by special joint elements incorporated in the finite element code. The analysis of structural geological mapping data provided a good platform to understand the joint network. Major joints including shear zone were incorporated into the model for simulation. This approach proved successful by demonstrating that continuum modelling can be used to evaluate evolution of stresses, strain, plastic yielding and failure mechanisms that are consistent with field observations. Structural control due to geological shear zone structure proved to be important in its location, size and orientation. Furthermore, the model analyzed slope deformation and sliding possibility along shear zone interfaces. This type of approach can predict shear zone deformation and failure mechanism, hence mitigation strategies can be deployed for safety of human lives and property within mine pits.

Keywords: Numerical modeling, open pit mine, shear zone, slope stability.

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23 Partial Derivatives and Optimization Problem on Time Scales

Authors: Francisco Miranda

Abstract:

The optimization problem using time scales is studied. Time scale is a model of time. The language of time scales seems to be an ideal tool to unify the continuous-time and the discrete-time theories. In this work we present necessary conditions for a solution of an optimization problem on time scales. To obtain that result we use properties and results of the partial diamond-alpha derivatives for continuous-multivariable functions. These results are also presented here.

Keywords: Lagrange multipliers, mathematical programming, optimization problem, time scales.

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22 Competitiveness of Animation Industry: The Case of Thailand

Authors: T. Niracharapa

Abstract:

The research studied and examined the competitiveness of the animation industry in Thailand. Data were collected based on articles, related reports and websites, news, research, and interviews of key persons from both public and private sectors. The diamond model was used to analyze the study. The major factor driving the Thai animation industry forward includes a quality workforce, their creativity and strong associations. However, discontinuity in government support, infrastructure, marketing, IP creation and financial constraints were factors keeping the Thai animation industry less competitive in the global market.

Keywords: Animation, competitiveness, digital content, Thailand.

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21 CAGE Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Hazardous Drinking in an Acute Admissions Ward: Frequency of Application and Comparison with AUDIT-C Questionnaire

Authors: Ammar Ayad Issa Al-Rifaie, Zuhreya Muazu, Maysam Ali Abdulwahid, Dermot Gleeson

Abstract:

The aim of this audit was to examine the efficiency of alcohol history documentation and screening for hazardous drinkers at the Medical Admission Unit (MAU) of Northern General Hospital (NGH), Sheffield, to identify any potential for enhancing clinical practice. Data were collected from medical clerking sheets, ICE system and directly from 82 patients by three junior medical doctors using both CAGE questionnaire and AUDIT-C tool for newly admitted patients to MAU in NGH, in the period between January and March 2015. Alcohol consumption was documented in around two-third of the patient sample and this was documented fairly accurately by health care professionals. Some used subjective words such as 'social drinking' in the alcohol units’ section of the history. CAGE questionnaire was applied to only four patients and none of the patients had documented advice, education or referral to an alcohol liaison team. AUDIT-C tool had identified 30.4%, while CAGE 10.9%, of patients admitted to the NGH MAU as hazardous drinkers. The amount of alcohol the patient consumes positively correlated with the score of AUDIT-C (Pearson correlation 0.83). Re-audit is planned to be carried out after integrating AUDIT-C tool as labels in the notes and presenting a brief teaching session to junior doctors. Alcohol misuse screening is not adequately undertaken and no appropriate action is being offered to hazardous drinkers. CAGE questionnaire is poorly applied to patients and when satisfactory and adequately used has low sensitivity to detect hazardous drinkers in comparison with AUDIT-C tool. Re-audit of alcohol screening practice after introducing AUDIT-C tool in clerking sheets (as labels) is required to compare the findings and conclude the audit cycle.

Keywords: Alcohol screening, AUDIT-C, CAGE, Hazardous drinking.

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20 Using Fractional Factorial Designs for Variable Importance in Random Forest Models

Authors: Ewa. M. Sztendur, Neil T. Diamond

Abstract:

Random Forests are a powerful classification technique, consisting of a collection of decision trees. One useful feature of Random Forests is the ability to determine the importance of each variable in predicting the outcome. This is done by permuting each variable and computing the change in prediction accuracy before and after the permutation. This variable importance calculation is similar to a one-factor-at a time experiment and therefore is inefficient. In this paper, we use a regular fractional factorial design to determine which variables to permute. Based on the results of the trials in the experiment, we calculate the individual importance of the variables, with improved precision over the standard method. The method is illustrated with a study of student attrition at Monash University.

Keywords: Random Forests, Variable Importance, Fractional Factorial Designs, Student Attrition.

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19 The Influence of Substrate Bias on the Mechanical Properties of a W- and S-containing DLC-based Solid-lubricant Film

Authors: Guojia Ma, Guoqiang Lin, Shuili Gong, Gang Sun, Dawang Wang

Abstract:

A diamond-like carbon (DLC) based solid-lubricant film was designed and DLC films were successfully prepared using a microwave plasma enhanced magnetron sputtering deposition technology. Post-test characterizations including Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, nano-indentation test, adhesion test, friction coefficient test were performed to study the influence of substrate bias voltage on the mechanical properties of the W- and S-doped DLC films. The results indicated that the W- and S-doped DLC films also had the typical structure of DLC films and a better mechanical performance achieved by the application of a substrate bias of -200V.

Keywords: Adhesive Strength, Coefficient of Friction, Substrate Bias, W- and S-doped DLC film

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18 Optimization of Cutting Parameters during Machining of Fine Grained Cemented Carbides

Authors: Josef Brychta, Jiri Kratochvil, Marek Pagac

Abstract:

The group of progressive cutting materials can include non-traditional, emerging and less-used materials that can be an efficient use of cutting their lead to a quantum leap in the field of machining. This is essentially a “superhard” materials (STM) based on polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) cutting performance ceramics and development is constantly "perfecting" fine coated cemented carbides. The latter cutting materials are broken down by two parameters, toughness and hardness. A variation of alloying elements is always possible to improve only one of each parameter. Reducing the size of the core on the other hand doing achieves "contradictory" properties, namely to increase both hardness and toughness.

Keywords: Grained cutting materials difficult to machine materials, optimum utilization.

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17 ANFIS Modeling of the Surface Roughness in Grinding Process

Authors: H. Baseri, G. Alinejad

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to design an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimation of surface roughness in grinding process. The Used data have been generated from experimental observations when the wheel has been dressed using a rotary diamond disc dresser. The input parameters of model are dressing speed ratio, dressing depth and dresser cross-feed rate and output parameter is surface roughness. In the experimental procedure the grinding conditions are constant and only the dressing conditions are varied. The comparison of the predicted values and the experimental data indicates that the ANFIS model has a better performance with respect to back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model which has been presented by the authors in previous work for estimation of the surface roughness.

Keywords: Grinding, ANFIS, Neural network, Disc dressing.

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16 Heat Transfer and Frictional Characteristics in Rectangular Channel with Inclined Perforated Baffles

Authors: Se Kyung Oh, Ary Bachtiar Krishna Putra, Soo Whan Ahn

Abstract:

A numerical study on the turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics in the rectangular channel with different types of baffles is carried out. The inclined baffles have the width of 19.8 cm, the square diamond type hole having one side length of 2.55 cm, and the inclination angle of 5o. Reynolds number is varied between 23,000 and 57,000. The SST turbulence model is applied in the calculation. The validity of the numerical results is examined by the experimental data. The numerical results of the flow field depict that the flow patterns around the different baffle type are entirely different and these significantly affect the local heat transfer characteristics. The heat transfer and friction factor characteristics are significantly affected by the perforation density of the baffle plate. It is found that the heat transfer enhancement of baffle type II (3 hole baffle) has the best values.

Keywords: Turbulent flow, rectangular channel, inclined baffle, heat transfer, friction factor.

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